Statistics by subject – Household assets, debts and wealth

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  • Articles and reports: 11-626-X2017078
    Description:

    This article in the Economic Insights series highlights new data on the ownership of residential properties in Toronto and Vancouver by non-residents of Canada. It reports on the prevalence of non-resident ownership for different types of housing, including single-detached houses, semi-detached houses, row houses and condominium-apartments, and compares the property values of non-resident and resident-owned assets. Information on the location, age and size of condominium-apartments is used to assess differences in the value of non-resident owned properties.

    Release date: 2017-12-19

  • The Daily
    Description: Release published in The Daily – Statistics Canada’s official release bulletin
    Release date: 2017-12-14

  • The Daily
    Description: Release published in The Daily – Statistics Canada’s official release bulletin
    Release date: 2017-12-07

  • The Daily
    Description: Release published in The Daily – Statistics Canada’s official release bulletin
    Release date: 2015-06-03

  • Articles and reports: 75-006-X201500114194
    Description:

    This article examines changes in the wealth of Canadian families over the period 1999 to 2012, with a particular focus on changes across income quintiles. The paper also examines changes in the concentration of wealth across income quintiles, as well as the characteristics of families with low income and no wealth.

    Release date: 2015-06-03

  • The Daily
    Description: Release published in The Daily – Statistics Canada’s official release bulletin
    Release date: 2015-04-29

  • Articles and reports: 75-006-X201500114167
    Description:

    This paper examines changes in debt, assets and net worth among Canadian families with debt over the period 1999 to 2012, by selected family characteristics. It also examines the extent to which two key ratios of indebtedness, the debt-to-income ratio and the debt-to-asset ratio, varied over the period.

    Release date: 2015-04-29

  • The Daily
    Description: Release published in The Daily – Statistics Canada’s official release bulletin
    Release date: 2015-04-14

  • The Daily
    Description: Release published in The Daily – Statistics Canada’s official release bulletin
    Release date: 2015-01-15

  • Articles and reports: 75-006-X201500114134
    Description:

    This study compares the wealth holdings of family units covered by workplace pension plans with those of other family units. It focuses on families and unattached individuals who had no significant business equity and whose major income recipient was aged 30 to 54 and employed as a paid worker. The paper also examines whether wealth differences observed between families with registered pension plan (RPP) assets and other families persist when key sociodemographic differences between the two populations are taken into account.

    Release date: 2015-01-15

  • Articles and reports: 11-622-M2013029
    Description:

    Population aging and the recent global financial crisis underscore the importance of the discussions of the adequacy of retirement preparation in Canada and the soundness of the Canadian retirement income system. The focus of this study is to examine whether the accumulated private savings of Canadian households is adequate for their retirement, given their expected entitlement to public and private pension when they retire.

    Release date: 2013-06-14

  • The Daily
    Description: Release published in The Daily – Statistics Canada’s official release bulletin
    Release date: 2013-01-29

  • Articles and reports: 11F0027M2013083
    Description:

    This paper examines why rates of homeownership have been increasing amongst young higher-income households, but declining among young lower-income households. For the period from 1981 to 2006, household data from the Census of Population, supplemented with information from the Survey of Financial Security, are employed to model the decision to own across the income distribution. The model assesses whether housing market conditions (e.g., the cost of renting versus owning), the financial condition of households (e.g., whether the household has sufficient wealth to make a standard down payment), and demographic factors (e.g., changing family composition) account for these diverging trends in housing demand.

    Release date: 2013-01-29

  • Articles and reports: 11-626-X2012014
    Description:

    This article in the Economic Insights series reports on the most recent statistical developments relating to the financial well-being of retirees. This summary is based on selected research done at Statistics Canada on the contribution of income, consumption, and financial wealth to the well-being of older Canadians.

    Release date: 2012-08-29

  • The Daily
    Description: Release published in The Daily – Statistics Canada’s official release bulletin
    Release date: 2012-06-22

  • Articles and reports: 75-001-X201200311690
    Description:

    Canadians accumulate wealth to deal with unforeseen circumstances, fund their children's education, invest in business opportunities and fund their retirement, among other reasons. Wealth is therefore a key indicator of household financial well-being. However, the financial and housing markets in which households invest have changed substantially. This study develops a synthetic cohort approach to examine the effect of these changes on the wealth accumulation of successive generations of Canadians' with a particular focus on younger households.

    Release date: 2012-06-22

  • Articles and reports: 75-001-X201200211636
    Description:

    This article uses data from the 2009 Canadian Financial Capability Survey to study various aspects of household debt. It examines the characteristics of borrowers and the types of households that are more likely to carry debt. The paper also looks at the association between financial knowledge and the amount of debt held, using multivariate techniques.

    Release date: 2012-03-23

  • Articles and reports: 11F0027M2011074
    Description:

    Discussions of pension adequacy for elderly Canadians have used the rate at which income falls with age; the income replacement rate or the ratio of post-retirement income to pre-retirement income. Use of income streams to assess post-retirement welfare requires a standard against which adequacy of the replacement rates can be judged. Because some expenditures (for example, work-related expenses) can be expected to fall after retirement, a declining income stream does not necessarily signal financial problems for seniors. More importantly, income as normally measured captures only part of what is available to seniors if households possess assets, which in retirement are not being used to generate measured income.

    This paper uses a different metric, referred to as "potential" income. Potential income is the sum of realized income and the income that could be realized from owned assets such as mutual funds and housing. Households prepare for retirement by saving and borrowing and investing the proceeds. The assets accumulated over a lifetime may or may not be drawn down in later years. If they are not, income streams underestimate the "potential" income available to support retirement. This paper takes this potential into account when comparing the pre- and post-retirement financial status of Canadian households.

    Release date: 2011-11-21

  • Articles and reports: 75-001-X201100411535
    Description:

    About 1 in 6 Canadian workers is self-employed. Does taking on the responsibility of a business result in greater earning potential? More wealth? Affect spending patterns? This paper uses a variety of data sources to examine how the self-employed differ from paid employees in income level and dispersion, wealth, retirement preparation and spending.

    Release date: 2011-09-23

  • Articles and reports: 75-001-X201100211429
    Description:

    Mortgages consistently account for two-thirds of Canadians' household debt. This study uses the Survey of Household Spending to examine the characteristics of mortgagees and the size of their payments. It focuses on mortgage payments expressed as a percentage of disposable income-the mortgage-liability ratio. This analysis highlights differences in personal characteristics, and spending and saving patterns among households with higher and lower mortgage-liability ratios.

    Release date: 2011-04-27

  • Articles and reports: 75-001-X201100211428
    Description:

    It is often assumed that over the life course most older workers will pay off their debts and save for retirement. However, research from the United States suggests that an increasing number of seniors who are in pre-retirement or are retired are now struggling with debt. This article uses the 2009 Canadian Financial Capability Survey to look at the proportion, type and level of debt among Canadian retirees age 55 and over. It examines the socio-economic and demographic factors influencing the likelihood of carrying any debt in retirement. The financial circumstances of indebted retirees are also examined, including three indicators of financial security.

    Release date: 2011-04-27

  • Articles and reports: 11-008-X201100111430
    Description:

    Although Canada fared better in the 2008 economic downturn than many other countries, increasing levels of household debt remain a concern. This article explores rising levels of household debt over the past 40 years using National Accounts data. It also uses data from the 2009 Canadian Financial Capability Survey to examine which types of families are most likely to experience high levels of debt - that is, to make debt payments greater than 40% of their pre-tax household income, to have a debt-to-asset ratio of over 80%, and to have a high debt-to-income ratio relative to other family types.

    Release date: 2011-04-21

  • Articles and reports: 11F0027M2011067
    Description:

    Studies of pre- and post-retirement annual income have focused on the extent to which income falls at this crucial stage in life. Although these studies vary in scope and intent, the overall consensus is that the Canadian retirement income system provides income replacement rates that are in the excess of 60% to 70% for a plurality of Canadians, especially for those who had low incomes during their prime working years. However, little has been published on the extent to which retirees maintain their same levels of consumption. Using data from the Survey of Family Expenditures (FAMEX) and from the Survey of Household Spending (SHS), this study develops a synthetic cohort approach to determine how the consumption patterns of households headed by individuals in their late 40s (in the early 1980s) differ from those of a group of households headed by individuals in their early 70s (in the late 2000s). It finds that, even though the nature of consumption changes over time, the overall levels of consumption "per adult" do not decline by substantial amounts among Canadians as they age.

    Release date: 2011-03-25

  • Articles and reports: 11F0027M2010066
    Description:

    Using data from the Survey of Household Spending and from its predecessor, the Survey of Family Expenditures, this paper investigates the relative incomes of retirement-age and working-age Canadians from 1969 to 2006, taking into account both explicit household income and the implicit income generated by owner-occupied housing. Over this 37-year period, the explicit incomes of retirement-age households increased at a more rapid pace than those of working-age households. Implicit income from owner-occupied housing also increased rapidly during this time, matching the rate at which the explicit income of retirement-age households increased. On average, this implicit source of earnings raised the incomes of retirement-age households (aged 70 and over) by 16%. Taking both forms of income into account, the incomes of retirement-age households (aged 70 and over), relative to the incomes of working-age households (aged 40 to 49), increased from 45% in 1969 to 59% in 2006. During this period, Canadians invested in housing assets that provided additional income upon retirement.

    Release date: 2010-12-09

  • Articles and reports: 75-001-X200810613212
    Description:

    Buoyed by rising incomes coupled with stable inflation and low interest rates, Canadians went on a spending spree between 1999 and 2005. However, much of the increased spending was financed through credit, as the personal savings rate slumped and per capita debt jumped. This paper divides families into seven cohorts, based on the year of birth of the major income recipient, and compares family assets and debts in 2005 with the situation in 1999 to provide a rough life-cycle portrait of Canadian families.

    Release date: 2008-09-24

Reference (23)

Reference (23) (23 of 23 results)

  • Surveys and statistical programs – Documentation: 2620
    Release date: 2017-12-07

  • Surveys and statistical programs – Documentation: 5159
    Release date: 2014-11-06

  • Technical products: 75F0002M2011001
    Description:

    Households provide money, goods and services directly to help other households: these inter-household transfers add up to a sizable flow of economic resources between households. While measured by Statistics Canada surveys, inter-household transfers are not included in the recipient household's total income-except court-ordered alimony and child support payments. Because inter-household transfers affect a household's ability to consume goods (Smeeding and Weinburg, 2001), they are important in measuring a household's economic well-being. This paper examines the conceptual and measurement issues related to voluntary inter-household transfers, and provides a portrait of voluntary inter-household transfer in Canada. This paper uses the recent data on inter-household transfers from Statistics Canada's income, expenditure, and wealth surveys.

    Release date: 2011-05-25

  • Surveys and statistical programs – Documentation: 13F0026M
    Description:

    The papers in this series are based on the Survey of Financial Security which is a study of what families own (assets) and what they owe (debts). Various topics are covered by this survey, such as the value of family assets (home; other property; vehicles; bank accounts; term deposits; life insurance; and investments in registered savings plans, bonds, mutual funds, stocks, etc.), the amount of family debts (amount owed on mortgages, car loans, credit cards, other charge accounts, student loans, etc.), major on-going expenses for housing and child care, and any employer pensions plans that members of the family belong to. Information is also available on the demographic, employment, income and educational characteristics of family members. This research paper series covers various topics relating to survey content, concepts and operations.

    Release date: 2010-03-26

  • Technical products: 75F0002M2008001
    Description:

    Shelter is the biggest expenditure most households make and its affordability can have an impact on the wellbeing of household members. For this reason, housing affordability is closely watched by a wide range of stakeholders - from housing advocates to policy analysts - interested in the welfare of Canadians. Measuring affordability involves comparing housing costs to a household's ability to meet them. One common measure is the shelter-cost-to-income-ratio (STIR). The 30% level is commonly accepted as the upper limit for affordable housing. Housing affordability is also a critical input to Canada Mortgage and Housing Corporation's core housing need indicator which is used by governments to help design, deliver, fund and evaluate social housing programs. This report, jointly authored by Statistics Canada and CMHC, focuses purely on the dynamics of housing affordability, not on core housing need. It examines the likelihood of spending 30% or more of household income on shelter, how often this occurs, whether it is occasional or persistent, and contrasts those spending 30% or more to those spending less. Cross-sectional estimates indicate that around 19% of Canadians lived in households spending more than the affordability benchmark in 2002. Longitudinally however, less than 9% lived in households that spent above the benchmark in each year between 2002 and 2004, while another 19% lived in households spending above the benchmark for either one or two years. The attributes associated with the highest probabilities of living in a household spending above the affordability benchmark were: living alone, being a female lone parent, renting, being an immigrant, or living in Vancouver or Toronto. In addition, those living in households experiencing some kind of transition between 2002 and 2004 period had a higher probability of exceeding the benchmark at least once during the period. Such transitions included renters with a change in rent-subsidy status, those who changed from owner to renter or vice versa, those who changed family type (for example, marrying or divorcing), and those who moved between cities. Notably, those experiencing these transitions did not exceed the benchmark persistently.

    Release date: 2008-01-25

  • Technical products: 75F0002M2007006
    Description:

    This study uses administrative tax data and the Survey of Financial Security to explore trends in the number and characteristics of high-income Canadians, as well as their wealth and effective income tax rates, from 1982 to 2004. The paper uses a range of thresholds to delineate high income and emphasizes statistics on the top 5%, 1%, 0.1% and 0.01% of tax filers.

    The study found that an individual income of $89,000 was needed to be counted among the top 5% if income recipients in 2004. A family income of $154,000 would place one in the top 5% of families. The growth in incomes at the high end has been quite rapid while incomes of the majority of the population remained stable. Compared with the U.S., Canada had significantly fewer high-income recipients in 2004, and their incomes were considerably less. Higher-income individuals tend to be middle aged married males that live in the larger urban centres. While women have made up a larger portion on the top 5% of tax filers since 1982, they have not made gains in the very highest income groups. High income Canadians have roughly the same share of total wealth as they do of total income.

    High income Canadians, in line with an increasing share of total income, have been paying an increasing share of total personal income taxes. Their share of total income increased from 21% to 25% between 1992 and 2004 while their share of income taxes paid increased from 30% to 36%. At the same time their effective tax rate dropped from 29% to 27%. Thus despite lower tax rates the increase in incomes was large enough, when combined with the progressive tax system, to result in an increased share of total taxes paid by high income Canadians. There is considerable heterogeneity in effective tax rates at the individual level with some high income individuals facing an effective tax rate of over 45%, while some pay as little as 10%. The proportion of tax filers, across the income distribution, who pay zero taxes decreased between 1992 and 2004.

    Release date: 2007-09-24

  • Surveys and statistical programs – Documentation: 13F0026M2007001
    Description:

    This guide will be of assistance when using the public use microdata file (PUMF) of the Survey of Financial Security (SFS) conducted by the Pensions and Wealth Surveys Section of the Income Statistics Division.

    Release date: 2007-09-04

  • Surveys and statistical programs – Documentation: 13F0026M2006001
    Description:

    This report provides an overview of the results of the Survey of Financial Security (SFS). This survey collected information on the assets and debts of families and unattached individuals. Data collection took place from May to July 2005, in all provinces.

    The 2005 SFS provides a comprehensive picture of the wealth of Canadians. Information was collected on the value of all major financial and non-financial assets and on the money owing on mortgages, vehicles, credit cards, student loans and other debts. The value of these assets less the debts is referred to in this report as net worth.

    Release date: 2006-12-07

  • Surveys and statistical programs – Documentation: 13F0026M2003002
    Description:

    This guide will be of assistance when using the public use microdata file (PUMF) of the 1999 Survey of Financial Security (SFS) conducted by the Pensions and Wealth Surveys Section of the Income Statistics Division.

    Release date: 2003-04-29

  • Surveys and statistical programs – Documentation: 13F0026M2003001
    Description:

    This guide will be of assistance in understanding the concepts, methodology and data quality of the surveys conducted as well as the data analysed by the Pensions and Wealth Surveys Section of the Income Statistics Division. It covers the following surveys/programs:- Pension Plans in Canada;- Trusteed Pension Funds (Census and Quarterly);- Survey of Financial Security; and- Pension adjustment/registered retirement savings plans data file provided by Canada Customs and Revenue Agency.

    Release date: 2003-02-14

  • Surveys and statistical programs – Documentation: 13F0026M2001003
    Description:

    Initial results from the Survey of Financial Security (SFS), which provides information on the net worth of Canadians, were released on March 15 2001, in The daily. The survey collected information on the value of the financial and non-financial assets owned by each family unit and on the amount of their debt.

    Statistics Canada is currently refining this initial estimate of net worth by adding to it an estimate of the value of benefits accrued in employer pension plans. This is an important addition to any asset and debt survey as, for many family units, it is likely to be one of the largest assets. With the aging of the population, information on pension accumulations is greatly needed to better understand the financial situation of those nearing retirement. These updated estimates of the Survey of Financial Security will be released in late fall 2001.

    The process for estimating the value of employer pension plan benefits is a complex one. This document describes the methodology for estimating that value, for the following groups: a) persons who belonged to an RPP at the time of the survey (referred to as current plan members); b) persons who had previously belonged to an RPP and either left the money in the plan or transferred it to a new plan; c) persons who are receiving RPP benefits.

    This methodology was proposed by Hubert Frenken and Michael Cohen. The former has many years of experience with Statistics Canada working with data on employer pension plans; the latter is a principal with the actuarial consulting firm William M. Mercer. Earlier this year, Statistics Canada carried out a public consultation on the proposed methodology. This report includes updates made as a result of feedback received from data users.

    Release date: 2001-09-05

  • Surveys and statistical programs – Documentation: 13F0026M2001001
    Description:

    This document briefly describes the Survey of Financial Security and presents the questionnaire used for the interview. The Survey of Financial Security (SFS) was conducted during May and June of 1999. The information was collected by personal interview, using a paper questionnaire. Introductory material was sent to the respondent prior to the first contact by the interviewer.

    Approximately 23,000 dwellings were selected for the sample, most using the Labour Force Survey frame. The high-income sample was drawn from geographic areas with a larger concentration of high-income households.

    The survey collected the following type of information: (1) general demographic information on all members of the family, (2) more detailed information on the education, employment, income, etc., on those family members 15 years of age and older, and, (3) asset and debt information on the family as a whole.

    Release date: 2001-01-24

  • Surveys and statistical programs – Documentation: 13F0026M2000001
    Description:

    The intent of this document is to provide an inventory of the surveys, databases, publications, articles and work in progress in Statistics Canada that relate to Canada's retirement income programs. The inventory provides information on publications, output and relevant data elements produced by the surveys and databases. It does not provide an exhaustive description of these data sources, but instead focuses on the information that can be used for purposes of researching/analysing retirement income programs. Some of the information contained does not specifically relate to these programs but might be used as a secondary source when doing research in this area.

    Release date: 2000-03-06

  • Surveys and statistical programs – Documentation: 13F0026M1999006
    Description:

    Although income and expenditure data provide an indication of current consumption and ability to purchase goods and services, they provide little information on the long-term ability of families to sustain themselves. The results of this survey will provide information on the net worth (wealth) of Canadian families, that is, the value of their assets less their debts.

    This paper examines the objectives of the survey, how the survey has changed since 1984, the types of questions being asked and information that will be provided, as well as other survey background. An accompanying table outlines the content of the questionnaire. The intent of this paper is to describe the work done to date and the next steps for this important subject.

    Release date: 1999-09-27

  • Surveys and statistical programs – Documentation: 13F0026M1999004
    Description:

    During September and October 1997, the Questionnaire Design Resource Centre (QDRC) completed 10 focus groups and 4 in-depth interviews with respondents and 6 debriefing sessions with interviewers in a test of the proposed questionnaires and data collection methodology for the 1998 Asset and Debt Survey (now called the Survey of Financial Security, to be done in 1999).

    The main goals of the testing were: to evaluate the data collection methodology and survey instruments (including the introductory materials [guide] and questionnaires [Part 1: background information about family members, Part 2: questions on assets and debts]); to identify problem areas; to make recommendations to ensure that the final survey instruments are respondent-friendly and interview-friendly, that the questionnaires can be easily understood and accurately completed; and finally, to investigate how respondents recall information.

    This report summarizes the highlights of the study, including the recommendations based on the findings of the focus groups, in-depth interviews and debriefing sessions, as well as those from the experience of the QDRC in carrying out similar studies for other household surveys.

    Release date: 1999-03-23

  • Surveys and statistical programs – Documentation: 13F0026M1999005
    Description:

    The new 1999 Survey of Financial Security (SFS) will provide a picture of the value and nature of assets held by Canadian families. Such information will make it possible to analyse asset holdings over the life cycle, as well as to look at the financial vulnerability and future consumption capabilities of Canadians.

    This report identifies some problematic and complex issues related to the evaluation of owner-occupied dwellings (principal residence) and examines several possible approaches to valuing these dwellings. The following information about the dwelling is considered in suggesting possible valuation methods: insured value, assessed value, dwelling characteristics, and purchase price and year of purchase. An optimal method to produce an objective value for a dwelling is also suggested and methods for deriving the value of principal residences located on farms are discussed as well.

    Release date: 1999-03-23

  • Surveys and statistical programs – Documentation: 13F0026M1999001
    Description:

    The main objectives of a new Canadian survey measuring asset and debt holding of families and individuals will be to update wealth information that is over one decade old; to improve the reliability of the wealth estimates; and, to provide a primary tool for analysing many important policy issues related to the distribution of assets and debts, future consumption possibilities, and savings behaviour that is of interest to governments, business and communities.

    This paper is the document that launched the development of the new asset and debt survey, subsequently renamed the Survey of Financial Security. It looks at the conceptual framework for the survey, including the appropriate unit of measurement (family, household or person) and discusses measurement issues such as establishing an accounting framework for assets and debts. The variables proposed for inclusion are also identified. The paper poses several questions to readers and asks for comments and feedback.

    Release date: 1999-03-23

  • Surveys and statistical programs – Documentation: 13F0026M1999002
    Description:

    This document summarizes the comments and feedback received on an earlier document: Towards a new Canadian asset and debt survey - A content discussion paper. The new asset and debt survey (now called the Survey of Financial Security) is to update the wealth information on Canadian families and unattached individuals. Since the last data collection was conducted in 1984, it was essential to include a consultative process in the development of the survey in order to obtain feedback on issues of concern and to define the conceptual framework for the survey.

    Comments on the content discussion paper are summarized by major theme and sections indicate how the suggestions are being incorporated into the survey or why they could not be incorporated. This paper also mentions the main objectives of the survey and provides an overview of the survey content, revised according to the feedback from the discussion paper.

    Release date: 1999-03-23

  • Surveys and statistical programs – Documentation: 13F0026M1999003
    Description:

    This paper presents a proposal for conducting a Canadian asset and debt survey. The first step in preparing this proposal was the release, in February 1997, of a document entitled Towards a new Canadian asset and debt survey whose intent was to elicit feedback on the initial thinking regarding the content of the survey.

    This paper reviews the conceptual framework for a new asset and debt survey, data requirements, survey design, collection methodology and testing. It provides also an overview of the anticipated data processing system, describes the analysis and dissemination plan (analytical products and microdata files), and identifies the survey costs and major milestones. Finally, it presents the management/coordination approach used.

    Release date: 1999-03-23

  • Technical products: 75F0002M1993017
    Description:

    This report presents the results of the May 1993 Survey of Labour and Income Dynamics (SLID) test as they relate to the wealth items, at the individual level and at the family level.

    Release date: 1995-12-30

  • Technical products: 75F0002M1995010
    Description:

    This paper provides a graphical description of the Survey of Labour and Income Dynamics (SLID) information.

    Release date: 1995-12-30

  • Surveys and statistical programs – Documentation: 5105

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