Statistics by subject – Pension plans and funds and other retirement income programs

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All (31) (25 of 31 results)

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M2017391
    Description:

    This paper assesses the extent to which education affects how Canadians save and accumulate wealth for retirement. The paper makes three contributions. First, a descriptive analysis is presented of differences in savings and home values across individuals based on their levels of educational attainment. To this end, new datasets that link survey respondents from the 1991 and 2006 censuses of Canada to their administrative tax records are used. These data provide a unique opportunity to jointly observe education, savings, home values, and a plethora of other factors of relevance. Second, the causal effect of high school completion on savings rates in tax-preferred accounts is estimated, exploiting compulsory schooling reforms in the identification. Third, building on a recent study by Messacar (2015), education is also found to affect how individuals re-optimize their savings rates in response to an automatic change in pension wealth accumulation. The implications of this study’s findings for the “nudge paradigm” in behavioural economics are discussed.

    Release date: 2017-03-27

  • Articles and reports: 11-626-X2016064
    Description:

    This article in the Economic Insights series presents an overview of recent trends in registered retirement savings plan (RRSP) use among Canadian taxfilers aged 25 to 54, from 2000 to 2013. The analysis centres on differences in RRSP contribution and withdrawal behaviour across income groups, and around the time that the tax free savings account (TFSA) was introduced.

    Release date: 2017-02-13

  • Articles and reports: 75-006-X201600114360
    Description:

    Using data from the 2014 Canadian Financial Capability Survey (CFCS), this article examines the extent to which individuals in the labour force are preparing for retirement and provides another perspective on the relationship between financial literacy and retirement planning.

    Release date: 2016-03-23

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M2015371
    Description:

    This paper investigates whether registered pension plans (RPPs) help households prepare financially for retirement or simply substitute for other forms of private saving. This issue is addressed using a panel of 1.8 million Canadian households, from 1991 to 2010, which appear in the Longitudinal Administrative Databank. The analysis controls for correlations in savings across accounts due to unobserved tastes for saving by exploiting the fact that employer contribution rates increase discontinuously on earnings above the average industrial wage, a unique feature of occupational pensions in Canada, the effect being estimated in a Regression Kink Design.

    Release date: 2015-12-21

  • Articles and reports: 11-630-X2015003
    Description:

    This edition of Canadian Megatrends examines the changes in pension coverage for men and women in the 20th century.

    Release date: 2015-03-24

  • Articles and reports: 75-006-X201500114134
    Description:

    This study compares the wealth holdings of family units covered by workplace pension plans with those of other family units. It focuses on families and unattached individuals who had no significant business equity and whose major income recipient was aged 30 to 54 and employed as a paid worker. The paper also examines whether wealth differences observed between families with registered pension plan (RPP) assets and other families persist when key sociodemographic differences between the two populations are taken into account.

    Release date: 2015-01-15

  • Articles and reports: 75-006-X201400114120
    Description:

    This study examines the characteristics of Canadian workers aged 25 to 54 who are covered by defined benefit (DB) registered pension plans (RPPs) as well as those covered by defined contribution RPPs or hybrid plans. It does so by taking advantage of new data from the new Longitudinal and International Survey of Adults (LISA), first conducted in 2012.

    Release date: 2014-12-18

  • Articles and reports: 11-626-X2012014
    Description:

    This article in the Economic Insights series reports on the most recent statistical developments relating to the financial well-being of retirees. This summary is based on selected research done at Statistics Canada on the contribution of income, consumption, and financial wealth to the well-being of older Canadians.

    Release date: 2012-08-29

  • Articles and reports: 11-624-M2010026
    Description:

    The Canadian Financial Capability Survey (CFCS), released by Statistics Canada in December 2009, was designed to collect information about Canadians' knowledge, abilities, and behaviours concerning financial decision-making. In addition to information on approaches to money management and financial planning, the CFCS collected information on issues relevant to current discussions about Canada's retirement income system. For example, retired respondents were asked about their financial standard of living in retirement and whether their retirement income is sufficient to comfortably cover their bills and financial commitments. Working-age Canadians were asked about their financial preparations for retirement. This research note provides highlights on retirement issues using the CFCS.

    Release date: 2010-06-08

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M2009321
    Description:

    Data from the Longitudinal Administrative Data (LAD) base are used to compare the retirement status and earnings replacement rates achieved by individuals who were, and individuals who were not, Registered Pension Plan members in 1991 and/or 1992, when they were in their mid-fifties. Among men in this cohort, the likelihood of being retired at age 70 to 72 was about 4 to 14 percentage points higher among pension plan members than non-members. Data used for the study do not provide information on why RPP non-members tend to retire later than do members. Among retired individuals, earnings replacement rates did not differ significantly between RPP members and non-members.

    Release date: 2009-12-23

  • Articles and reports: 75-001-X200910513230
    Description:

    In 2006, 37% of the employed Canadian population was covered by a registered pension plan. Defined benefit plans have historically covered the majority of plan participants. Defined contribution plans have recently become more prominent. This article examines the increased prevalence of such plans in Canada between 1991 and 2006 and the factors influencing this trend.

    Release date: 2009-06-19

  • Articles and reports: 13-605-X200800210641
    Description:

    There has been growing interest in the state of the pension system in Canada, particularly as the baby-boom generation enters retirement age. Pension assets comprise a large portion of personal net worth. In response to the demand for more detailed information on this issue, Statistics Canada has developed a Pension Satellite Account (PSA). The Pension Satellite Account covers the entire universe of the retirement regime in Canada which includes government-sponsored social security, employer-sponsored pension plans and voluntary individual retirement savings plans. In this preliminary release, a time series of pension assets by type from 1990 to 2007 is published as a supplement to the National Balance Sheet.

    Release date: 2008-06-24

  • Articles and reports: 75-001-X200810213203
    Description:

    A wide variety of assets can be held in registered retirement savings plans ranging from investments with predictable values, like guaranteed investment certificates, to those whose values vary, like stocks of individual companies. Returns to these investments, and therefore income levels in retirement, can vary dramatically, depending on the economic climate and the mix of investments. This article examines the characteristics of families with RRSPs and the allocation of assets within their RRSPs according to the level of predictability of the return on investment.

    Release date: 2008-03-18

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M2008306
    Description:

    Past research has shown that the Canadian pension system is relatively effective in helping seniors to stay out of poverty. However, the extent to which the pension system enables individuals and families to maintain living standards achieved during their working years after retirement (income security) is less well understood. To help fill this knowledge gap, we employ 20-year longitudinal data to track individuals as they move from age 55 through their retirement years. We use various measures of an individual's family income to study four main issues: change in income levels through retirement; the role that various income sources play in this change; variation in replacement rates through time and between poorer and richer individuals; and, finally, the degree of long-term stability in individual incomes. For workers with average incomes, family income falls after age 60, declines until age 68, and then stabilizes at approximately 80% of the income level they had at age 55. In contrast, low income individuals (those in the bottom income quintile) experience little change in income as they move from age 55 through the retirement years, largely because of the income maintenance effects of the public pension system. They experience high levels of individual income instability in their late 50s and early 60s, but income instability falls dramatically after retirement. Individuals in the top quintile experience substantially larger income declines in retirement so that income inequality within a cohort declines as the cohort ages. More recent groups of retirees are experiencing higher income levels than earlier cohorts, largely because of higher private pensions. Replacement rates have changed little among cohorts, however. Whether recent gains in income levels will persist in future cohorts is unknown since pension coverage has been falling among younger workers.

    Release date: 2008-03-10

  • Articles and reports: 75-001-X200711113197
    Description:

    Prime-aged couples experienced a moderate decline in RPP coverage over the last two decades, as the substantial growth in wives labour market participation and the slight increase in their RPP coverage only partially offset a substantial decline in husbands coverage. On average, retirement savings of families rose over the last two decades, but the distribution became more unequal. To a large extent, the uneven growth in retirement savings mirrors the sharp increase in family earnings inequality since the early 1980s.

    Release date: 2007-12-19

  • Articles and reports: 75-001-X200710813193
    Description:

    'Do I have enough money to retire?' is a question that older workers have been trained to ask themselves as they consider the transition out of the workplace. The financial tally includes employer pension plans, registered savings plans and other investments, as well as entitlement to public benefits' the Canada and Quebec Pension Plan (C/QPP) and Old Age Security/Guaranteed Income Supplement. These resources are balanced against projected spending and other considerations, such as health, family demands and leisure activities. Take-up rates of C/QPP benefits, co-receipt of C/QPP and other benefits, and employment following benefit take-up are examined for taxfilers in their 60s.

    Release date: 2007-09-18

  • Articles and reports: 75-001-X200710213181
    Description:

    Since they entered the scene, baby boomers have been shaping social and economic structures. Now on the cusp of retirement, they may once again force change on the labour market. Many aspire and can afford to retire relatively young, raising concerns about labour supply and public pension programs. But increasing longevity in good health may persuade some to extend their working life. Trends in pension uptake between ages 50 and 60 and post-pension employment during the 1990s and the first part of this decade offer some clues as to the direction baby boomers may take.

    Release date: 2007-03-20

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M2006286
    Description:

    We analyze the degree to which Canadian families are covered by private pension plans and document how their savings for retirement (made through contributions to tax-assisted retirement savings programs) have evolved over the last two decades. We find that two-parent families, lone-parent families and other individuals located in the bottom quintile of the earnings distribution are not better prepared for retirement than their counterparts were in the mid-1980s or the early 1990s. On the other hand, those located in the top quintile are better prepared than their counterparts were in the mid-1980s or the early 1990s. As a result, Canadian families' preparedness for retirement, which was fairly unequal in the mid-1980s, has become even more unequal over the last two decades. This finding has important implications for the future. Recent research has shown that the maturation of the Canada and Quebec Pension Plans (C/QPPs) has led to a substantial reduction in income inequality among the elderly between the early 1980s and the mid-1990s. In the absence of offsetting trends, the growing inequality in Canadian families preparedness for retirement implies that that the distribution of family income among seniors should become more unequal in the years to come.

    Release date: 2006-09-26

  • Articles and reports: 75-001-X200610413161
    Description:

    A registered retirement savings plan (RRSP) constitutes a key component of retirement income planning in Canada. RRSPs allow individuals to save pre-tax dollars in a variety of investment instruments where interest, dividends and capital gains accrue tax free until the funds are withdrawn. However, the taxman will eventually receive his due. RRSPs must be converted into an annuity or a registered retirement income fund (RRIF) in the year the taxpayer turns 69, with prescribed minimum withdrawals starting the following year. RRSP withdrawals already generate significant tax revenues, estimated at over $4 billion in 2002. Although mandatory conversion affects mainly middle- and high-income earners, some low-income savers could have their means-tested social benefits reduced by the boost in income.

    Release date: 2006-06-20

  • Articles and reports: 75-001-X200511013151
    Description:

    The Guaranteed Income Supplement is one of the pillars of Canada's safety net for seniors. Available to those with little or no income other than Old Age Security, it plays an integral part in reducing low income among those 65 and over. However, a misunderstanding of the rules and requirements has meant that some eligible seniors are missing out.

    Release date: 2005-12-22

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M2005239
    Description:

    Using hourly wage data from the Labour Force Survey as well as previous household surveys covering the 1981-2004 period, we assess whether the relative importance of low-paid jobs and well-paid jobs has changed over the last two decades. Since it is unclear whether trends in wage levels obtained from all the aforementioned surveys are unbiased, we refrain from making definitive statements regarding the evolution of low-paid and well-paid jobs over the 1981-2004 period. When assessing whether well-paid jobs are disappearing in Canada, we focus our attention on recent trends, i.e. on changes in the fraction of jobs falling in certain (real) wage categories during the 1997-2004 period.

    We find little evidence that the relative importance of well-paid jobs - however defined - has fallen over the last two decades or since the second half of the 1990s. We also find little evidence that the relative importance of low-paid jobs, those paying less than $10.00 per hour, has risen during these two periods. We show, along with numerous previous studies, that the wage gap between young workers and their older counterparts has risen substantially over the last two decades but that the wage gap between university graduates and other workers has shown little change. More important, we show that, within age groups, wages of newly hired male and female employees - those with two years of seniority or less - have fallen substantially relative to those of others. Second, in the private sector, the fraction of new employees employed in temporary jobs has risen substantially, increasing from 11% in 1989 to 21% in 2004. Among employees with one year of seniority or less, the incidence of temporary work rose from 14% in 1989 to 25% in 2004. Third, pension coverage has fallen among men of all ages and among females under 45. Taken together, these findings suggest that Canadian firms (existing or newly-born) have responded to growing competition within industries and from abroad by reducing their wage offers for new employees, by offering temporary jobs to a growing proportion of them and by offering less often pension plans that guarantee defined benefits at the time of retirement.

    Release date: 2005-01-26

  • Articles and reports: 75-001-X200410113111
    Description:

    Many employers offer registered pension plans to their employees, but group registered retired saving plans (RRSPs) are becoming more common. This product looks at how well full-time permanent employees in the private sector in 2001 understood their retirement pension plan coverage.

    Release date: 2004-03-19

  • Articles and reports: 75-001-X200410113110
    Description:

    This article takes a question-and-answer approach to provide some basic information about the Canada and Quebec Pension Plans (C/QPP), highlighting recent changes that may not be well understood. Also discussed is the increasing importance of C/QPP benefits for seniors in recent decades and the interaction of the plans with other income support programs.

    Release date: 2004-03-19

  • Articles and reports: 75-001-X200311113103
    Description:

    This paper looks at income and wealth as important indicators of financial well-being for seniors. It also examines their debts and preparedness for unexpected expenses.

    Release date: 2003-12-08

  • Articles and reports: 13-605-X20000018519
    Description:

    With the release of the first quarter 2000 of the National Income and Expenditure Accounts the sectoring of federal and provincial government, non-autonomous pension plans has changed. These pension plans are now part of the personal sector. Previously these plans were included in either the federal or provincial government sector accounts.

    Release date: 2000-05-31

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Analysis (31)

Analysis (31) (25 of 31 results)

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M2017391
    Description:

    This paper assesses the extent to which education affects how Canadians save and accumulate wealth for retirement. The paper makes three contributions. First, a descriptive analysis is presented of differences in savings and home values across individuals based on their levels of educational attainment. To this end, new datasets that link survey respondents from the 1991 and 2006 censuses of Canada to their administrative tax records are used. These data provide a unique opportunity to jointly observe education, savings, home values, and a plethora of other factors of relevance. Second, the causal effect of high school completion on savings rates in tax-preferred accounts is estimated, exploiting compulsory schooling reforms in the identification. Third, building on a recent study by Messacar (2015), education is also found to affect how individuals re-optimize their savings rates in response to an automatic change in pension wealth accumulation. The implications of this study’s findings for the “nudge paradigm” in behavioural economics are discussed.

    Release date: 2017-03-27

  • Articles and reports: 11-626-X2016064
    Description:

    This article in the Economic Insights series presents an overview of recent trends in registered retirement savings plan (RRSP) use among Canadian taxfilers aged 25 to 54, from 2000 to 2013. The analysis centres on differences in RRSP contribution and withdrawal behaviour across income groups, and around the time that the tax free savings account (TFSA) was introduced.

    Release date: 2017-02-13

  • Articles and reports: 75-006-X201600114360
    Description:

    Using data from the 2014 Canadian Financial Capability Survey (CFCS), this article examines the extent to which individuals in the labour force are preparing for retirement and provides another perspective on the relationship between financial literacy and retirement planning.

    Release date: 2016-03-23

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M2015371
    Description:

    This paper investigates whether registered pension plans (RPPs) help households prepare financially for retirement or simply substitute for other forms of private saving. This issue is addressed using a panel of 1.8 million Canadian households, from 1991 to 2010, which appear in the Longitudinal Administrative Databank. The analysis controls for correlations in savings across accounts due to unobserved tastes for saving by exploiting the fact that employer contribution rates increase discontinuously on earnings above the average industrial wage, a unique feature of occupational pensions in Canada, the effect being estimated in a Regression Kink Design.

    Release date: 2015-12-21

  • Articles and reports: 11-630-X2015003
    Description:

    This edition of Canadian Megatrends examines the changes in pension coverage for men and women in the 20th century.

    Release date: 2015-03-24

  • Articles and reports: 75-006-X201500114134
    Description:

    This study compares the wealth holdings of family units covered by workplace pension plans with those of other family units. It focuses on families and unattached individuals who had no significant business equity and whose major income recipient was aged 30 to 54 and employed as a paid worker. The paper also examines whether wealth differences observed between families with registered pension plan (RPP) assets and other families persist when key sociodemographic differences between the two populations are taken into account.

    Release date: 2015-01-15

  • Articles and reports: 75-006-X201400114120
    Description:

    This study examines the characteristics of Canadian workers aged 25 to 54 who are covered by defined benefit (DB) registered pension plans (RPPs) as well as those covered by defined contribution RPPs or hybrid plans. It does so by taking advantage of new data from the new Longitudinal and International Survey of Adults (LISA), first conducted in 2012.

    Release date: 2014-12-18

  • Articles and reports: 11-626-X2012014
    Description:

    This article in the Economic Insights series reports on the most recent statistical developments relating to the financial well-being of retirees. This summary is based on selected research done at Statistics Canada on the contribution of income, consumption, and financial wealth to the well-being of older Canadians.

    Release date: 2012-08-29

  • Articles and reports: 11-624-M2010026
    Description:

    The Canadian Financial Capability Survey (CFCS), released by Statistics Canada in December 2009, was designed to collect information about Canadians' knowledge, abilities, and behaviours concerning financial decision-making. In addition to information on approaches to money management and financial planning, the CFCS collected information on issues relevant to current discussions about Canada's retirement income system. For example, retired respondents were asked about their financial standard of living in retirement and whether their retirement income is sufficient to comfortably cover their bills and financial commitments. Working-age Canadians were asked about their financial preparations for retirement. This research note provides highlights on retirement issues using the CFCS.

    Release date: 2010-06-08

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M2009321
    Description:

    Data from the Longitudinal Administrative Data (LAD) base are used to compare the retirement status and earnings replacement rates achieved by individuals who were, and individuals who were not, Registered Pension Plan members in 1991 and/or 1992, when they were in their mid-fifties. Among men in this cohort, the likelihood of being retired at age 70 to 72 was about 4 to 14 percentage points higher among pension plan members than non-members. Data used for the study do not provide information on why RPP non-members tend to retire later than do members. Among retired individuals, earnings replacement rates did not differ significantly between RPP members and non-members.

    Release date: 2009-12-23

  • Articles and reports: 75-001-X200910513230
    Description:

    In 2006, 37% of the employed Canadian population was covered by a registered pension plan. Defined benefit plans have historically covered the majority of plan participants. Defined contribution plans have recently become more prominent. This article examines the increased prevalence of such plans in Canada between 1991 and 2006 and the factors influencing this trend.

    Release date: 2009-06-19

  • Articles and reports: 13-605-X200800210641
    Description:

    There has been growing interest in the state of the pension system in Canada, particularly as the baby-boom generation enters retirement age. Pension assets comprise a large portion of personal net worth. In response to the demand for more detailed information on this issue, Statistics Canada has developed a Pension Satellite Account (PSA). The Pension Satellite Account covers the entire universe of the retirement regime in Canada which includes government-sponsored social security, employer-sponsored pension plans and voluntary individual retirement savings plans. In this preliminary release, a time series of pension assets by type from 1990 to 2007 is published as a supplement to the National Balance Sheet.

    Release date: 2008-06-24

  • Articles and reports: 75-001-X200810213203
    Description:

    A wide variety of assets can be held in registered retirement savings plans ranging from investments with predictable values, like guaranteed investment certificates, to those whose values vary, like stocks of individual companies. Returns to these investments, and therefore income levels in retirement, can vary dramatically, depending on the economic climate and the mix of investments. This article examines the characteristics of families with RRSPs and the allocation of assets within their RRSPs according to the level of predictability of the return on investment.

    Release date: 2008-03-18

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M2008306
    Description:

    Past research has shown that the Canadian pension system is relatively effective in helping seniors to stay out of poverty. However, the extent to which the pension system enables individuals and families to maintain living standards achieved during their working years after retirement (income security) is less well understood. To help fill this knowledge gap, we employ 20-year longitudinal data to track individuals as they move from age 55 through their retirement years. We use various measures of an individual's family income to study four main issues: change in income levels through retirement; the role that various income sources play in this change; variation in replacement rates through time and between poorer and richer individuals; and, finally, the degree of long-term stability in individual incomes. For workers with average incomes, family income falls after age 60, declines until age 68, and then stabilizes at approximately 80% of the income level they had at age 55. In contrast, low income individuals (those in the bottom income quintile) experience little change in income as they move from age 55 through the retirement years, largely because of the income maintenance effects of the public pension system. They experience high levels of individual income instability in their late 50s and early 60s, but income instability falls dramatically after retirement. Individuals in the top quintile experience substantially larger income declines in retirement so that income inequality within a cohort declines as the cohort ages. More recent groups of retirees are experiencing higher income levels than earlier cohorts, largely because of higher private pensions. Replacement rates have changed little among cohorts, however. Whether recent gains in income levels will persist in future cohorts is unknown since pension coverage has been falling among younger workers.

    Release date: 2008-03-10

  • Articles and reports: 75-001-X200711113197
    Description:

    Prime-aged couples experienced a moderate decline in RPP coverage over the last two decades, as the substantial growth in wives labour market participation and the slight increase in their RPP coverage only partially offset a substantial decline in husbands coverage. On average, retirement savings of families rose over the last two decades, but the distribution became more unequal. To a large extent, the uneven growth in retirement savings mirrors the sharp increase in family earnings inequality since the early 1980s.

    Release date: 2007-12-19

  • Articles and reports: 75-001-X200710813193
    Description:

    'Do I have enough money to retire?' is a question that older workers have been trained to ask themselves as they consider the transition out of the workplace. The financial tally includes employer pension plans, registered savings plans and other investments, as well as entitlement to public benefits' the Canada and Quebec Pension Plan (C/QPP) and Old Age Security/Guaranteed Income Supplement. These resources are balanced against projected spending and other considerations, such as health, family demands and leisure activities. Take-up rates of C/QPP benefits, co-receipt of C/QPP and other benefits, and employment following benefit take-up are examined for taxfilers in their 60s.

    Release date: 2007-09-18

  • Articles and reports: 75-001-X200710213181
    Description:

    Since they entered the scene, baby boomers have been shaping social and economic structures. Now on the cusp of retirement, they may once again force change on the labour market. Many aspire and can afford to retire relatively young, raising concerns about labour supply and public pension programs. But increasing longevity in good health may persuade some to extend their working life. Trends in pension uptake between ages 50 and 60 and post-pension employment during the 1990s and the first part of this decade offer some clues as to the direction baby boomers may take.

    Release date: 2007-03-20

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M2006286
    Description:

    We analyze the degree to which Canadian families are covered by private pension plans and document how their savings for retirement (made through contributions to tax-assisted retirement savings programs) have evolved over the last two decades. We find that two-parent families, lone-parent families and other individuals located in the bottom quintile of the earnings distribution are not better prepared for retirement than their counterparts were in the mid-1980s or the early 1990s. On the other hand, those located in the top quintile are better prepared than their counterparts were in the mid-1980s or the early 1990s. As a result, Canadian families' preparedness for retirement, which was fairly unequal in the mid-1980s, has become even more unequal over the last two decades. This finding has important implications for the future. Recent research has shown that the maturation of the Canada and Quebec Pension Plans (C/QPPs) has led to a substantial reduction in income inequality among the elderly between the early 1980s and the mid-1990s. In the absence of offsetting trends, the growing inequality in Canadian families preparedness for retirement implies that that the distribution of family income among seniors should become more unequal in the years to come.

    Release date: 2006-09-26

  • Articles and reports: 75-001-X200610413161
    Description:

    A registered retirement savings plan (RRSP) constitutes a key component of retirement income planning in Canada. RRSPs allow individuals to save pre-tax dollars in a variety of investment instruments where interest, dividends and capital gains accrue tax free until the funds are withdrawn. However, the taxman will eventually receive his due. RRSPs must be converted into an annuity or a registered retirement income fund (RRIF) in the year the taxpayer turns 69, with prescribed minimum withdrawals starting the following year. RRSP withdrawals already generate significant tax revenues, estimated at over $4 billion in 2002. Although mandatory conversion affects mainly middle- and high-income earners, some low-income savers could have their means-tested social benefits reduced by the boost in income.

    Release date: 2006-06-20

  • Articles and reports: 75-001-X200511013151
    Description:

    The Guaranteed Income Supplement is one of the pillars of Canada's safety net for seniors. Available to those with little or no income other than Old Age Security, it plays an integral part in reducing low income among those 65 and over. However, a misunderstanding of the rules and requirements has meant that some eligible seniors are missing out.

    Release date: 2005-12-22

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M2005239
    Description:

    Using hourly wage data from the Labour Force Survey as well as previous household surveys covering the 1981-2004 period, we assess whether the relative importance of low-paid jobs and well-paid jobs has changed over the last two decades. Since it is unclear whether trends in wage levels obtained from all the aforementioned surveys are unbiased, we refrain from making definitive statements regarding the evolution of low-paid and well-paid jobs over the 1981-2004 period. When assessing whether well-paid jobs are disappearing in Canada, we focus our attention on recent trends, i.e. on changes in the fraction of jobs falling in certain (real) wage categories during the 1997-2004 period.

    We find little evidence that the relative importance of well-paid jobs - however defined - has fallen over the last two decades or since the second half of the 1990s. We also find little evidence that the relative importance of low-paid jobs, those paying less than $10.00 per hour, has risen during these two periods. We show, along with numerous previous studies, that the wage gap between young workers and their older counterparts has risen substantially over the last two decades but that the wage gap between university graduates and other workers has shown little change. More important, we show that, within age groups, wages of newly hired male and female employees - those with two years of seniority or less - have fallen substantially relative to those of others. Second, in the private sector, the fraction of new employees employed in temporary jobs has risen substantially, increasing from 11% in 1989 to 21% in 2004. Among employees with one year of seniority or less, the incidence of temporary work rose from 14% in 1989 to 25% in 2004. Third, pension coverage has fallen among men of all ages and among females under 45. Taken together, these findings suggest that Canadian firms (existing or newly-born) have responded to growing competition within industries and from abroad by reducing their wage offers for new employees, by offering temporary jobs to a growing proportion of them and by offering less often pension plans that guarantee defined benefits at the time of retirement.

    Release date: 2005-01-26

  • Articles and reports: 75-001-X200410113111
    Description:

    Many employers offer registered pension plans to their employees, but group registered retired saving plans (RRSPs) are becoming more common. This product looks at how well full-time permanent employees in the private sector in 2001 understood their retirement pension plan coverage.

    Release date: 2004-03-19

  • Articles and reports: 75-001-X200410113110
    Description:

    This article takes a question-and-answer approach to provide some basic information about the Canada and Quebec Pension Plans (C/QPP), highlighting recent changes that may not be well understood. Also discussed is the increasing importance of C/QPP benefits for seniors in recent decades and the interaction of the plans with other income support programs.

    Release date: 2004-03-19

  • Articles and reports: 75-001-X200311113103
    Description:

    This paper looks at income and wealth as important indicators of financial well-being for seniors. It also examines their debts and preparedness for unexpected expenses.

    Release date: 2003-12-08

  • Articles and reports: 13-605-X20000018519
    Description:

    With the release of the first quarter 2000 of the National Income and Expenditure Accounts the sectoring of federal and provincial government, non-autonomous pension plans has changed. These pension plans are now part of the personal sector. Previously these plans were included in either the federal or provincial government sector accounts.

    Release date: 2000-05-31

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