Statistics by subject – Income, pensions, spending and wealth

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  • Articles and reports: 11-633-X2018012
    Description:

    This study investigates the extent to which income tax reassessments and delayed tax filing affect the reliability of Canadian administrative tax datasets used for economic analysis. The study is based on individual income tax records from the T1 Personal Master File and Historical Personal Master File for selected years from 1990 to 2010. These datasets contain tax records for approximately 100% of initial and all income tax filers, who submitted returns to the Canada Revenue Agency (CRA) before specific processing cut-off dates.

    Release date: 2018-01-11

  • Articles and reports: 11-626-X2017078
    Description:

    This article in the Economic Insights series highlights new data on the ownership of residential properties in Toronto and Vancouver by non-residents of Canada. It reports on the prevalence of non-resident ownership for different types of housing, including single-detached houses, semi-detached houses, row houses and condominium-apartments, and compares the property values of non-resident and resident-owned assets. Information on the location, age and size of condominium-apartments is used to assess differences in the value of non-resident owned properties.

    Release date: 2017-12-19

  • Articles and reports: 11-627-M2017040
    Description:

    This infographic highlights some of the information provided by the 2016 Survey of Household Spending. For example, it presents the annual average spending on public transportation across Canada, shelter costs for owners and renters, as well as the proportion of Canadian households’ food budget spent on restaurant meals. It also shows how Canadian households allocated their budgets to various goods and services.

    Release date: 2017-12-13

  • Journals and periodicals: 75-006-X
    Description:

    This publication brings together and analyzes a wide range of data sources in order to provide information on various aspects of Canadian society, including labour, income, education, social, and demographic issues, that affect the lives of Canadians.

    Release date: 2017-12-06

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M2017400
    Description:

    Despite a large literature estimating the effects of income taxation on the labour decisions of young and middle-aged workers, little is known about the extent to which older workers respond to changes in their income taxes. This paper explores this unresolved empirical issue, using longitudinal administrative data on more than one million individuals from Canada and exploiting a recent tax reform in the empirical identification strategy that explicitly targeted older couples. The findings offer new insight into the “black box” of intra-household labour supply and inform the optimal designs of income tax and retirement income systems.

    Release date: 2017-11-23

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M2017397
    Description:

    Rates of low income among immigrants continue to be high relative to the Canadian-born population. This paper examines the rate of chronic low income among immigrants aged 25 or older in Canada during the 2000s. Chronic low income is defined as having a family income under a low income cut-off for five consecutive years or more. A regionally adjusted low-income measure is used for the analysis.

    Release date: 2017-09-29

  • Articles and reports: 11-627-M2017026
    Description:

    Based on the data from the 2016 Census, the following infographic looks at income in Canada, including median household income, people living in low-income households, incomes of couples and use of tax assisted savings accounts.

    Release date: 2017-09-13

  • Articles and reports: 75-006-X201700154854
    Description:

    This study uses data from the 2014 Longitudinal and International Study of Adults (LISA) in order to examine the relationship between low income and characteristics of people aged 25 to 64 with a disability, including disability type, severity class, age of onset of disability, family composition, and other risk factors associated with low income. It also examines the composition of the low-income population in relation to disability, and provides information on the relationship between employment and low income for this population.

    Release date: 2017-08-11

  • Articles and reports: 11-626-X2017073
    Description:

    This article in the Economic Insights series provides Canadian evidence of recent changes in intergenerational income mobility in Canada. The study uses a unique Canadian database that directly links children and parents. The analysis focuses on absolute income mobility—often seen as an indicator of economic opportunity in a society.

    Release date: 2017-05-23

  • Articles and reports: 11-626-X2017071
    Description:

    This Economic Insights article documents the characteristics of families with children under the age of 18 who hold registered education savings plan (RESP) investments. The article also examines the relationship between holding an RESP account at age 15 and postsecondary enrolment between the ages of 19 and 27. The data are drawn from the 1999 and 2012 Survey of Financial Security and from the Youth in Transition Survey, Cohort A, linked to the T1 Family File. Postsecondary enrolment is derived from education deductions and tuition credits in the tax data.

    Release date: 2017-04-12

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M2017392
    Description:

    The registered education savings plan (RESP) savings vehicle is designed to encourage parents of school-age children to save for their children’s postsecondary education through tax sheltered earnings on contributions, as well as through additional contributions from the federal government. No recent evidence exists on the characteristics of RESP holders, and little exists on the association between having an RESP and enrolling in postsecondary education.

    This study makes three contributions to the literature. First, it documents differences in RESP holdings by family income and how these have evolved over time. Second, it decomposes these differences (particularly between the top and bottom quintiles of family income) into portions that are related to differences in key determinants of RESP participation (e.g., family wealth and parental education). And, third, it examines the relationship between having an RESP account and attending a postsecondary institution.

    Release date: 2017-04-12

  • Articles and reports: 11-626-X2017070
    Description:

    This Economic Insights article documents postsecondary enrolment rates among 19-year-olds over the 2001-to-2014 period by province of parental residence, parental income and sex. The data are drawn from the T1 Family File. Postsecondary enrolment is determined by the tuition, education and textbook credits on the personal income tax files. Parental income refers to the adult-equivalent, after-tax income of parents, expressed in 2014 constant dollars. Youth are grouped by parental income quintiles.

    Release date: 2017-04-10

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M2017391
    Description:

    This paper assesses the extent to which education affects how Canadians save and accumulate wealth for retirement. The paper makes three contributions. First, a descriptive analysis is presented of differences in savings and home values across individuals based on their levels of educational attainment. To this end, new datasets that link survey respondents from the 1991 and 2006 censuses of Canada to their administrative tax records are used. These data provide a unique opportunity to jointly observe education, savings, home values, and a plethora of other factors of relevance. Second, the causal effect of high school completion on savings rates in tax-preferred accounts is estimated, exploiting compulsory schooling reforms in the identification. Third, building on a recent study by Messacar (2015), education is also found to affect how individuals re-optimize their savings rates in response to an automatic change in pension wealth accumulation. The implications of this study’s findings for the “nudge paradigm” in behavioural economics are discussed.

    Release date: 2017-03-27

  • Articles and reports: 11-626-X2016064
    Description:

    This article in the Economic Insights series presents an overview of recent trends in registered retirement savings plan (RRSP) use among Canadian taxfilers aged 25 to 54, from 2000 to 2013. The analysis centres on differences in RRSP contribution and withdrawal behaviour across income groups, and around the time that the tax free savings account (TFSA) was introduced.

    Release date: 2017-02-13

  • Articles and reports: 11-627-M2017002
    Description:

    The following infographic highlights some of the information provided by the 2015 Survey of Household Spending (SHS). For example, it presents annual average spending on pets, clothing and accessories, as well as water, fuel and electricity. As well as, an overview of how Canadian households allocated their budgets to various goods and services.

    Release date: 2017-01-27

  • Articles and reports: 11-630-X2016009
    Description:

    This issue of Canadian Megatrends describes the share of market income earned by the highest earners in society and how that portion has changed from 1920 to 2014.

    Release date: 2016-12-16

  • Journals and periodicals: 89-648-X
    Description:

    The documents in this collection are based on data from the Longitudinal and International Study of Adults, a survey that examines a variety of topics on the well-being of Canadians and measures the effect of changes in certain areas on people's lives. The survey covers several topics, such as jobs, health, adult education and training, income and earnings, as well as the family dynamic. Reports on the survey content, concepts, methodology and data quality are also available.

    Release date: 2016-08-18

  • Articles and reports: 89-648-X2016001
    Description:

    Linkages between survey and administrative data are an increasingly common practice, due in part to the reduced burden to respondents, and to the data that can be obtained at a relatively low cost. Historical linkage, or the linkage of administrative data from previous years to the year of the survey, compounds these benefits by providing additional years of data. This paper examines the Longitudinal and International Study of Adults (LISA), which was linked to historical tax data on personal income tax returns (T1) and those collected from employers’ files (T4), among others not mentioned in this paper. It presents trends in historical linkage rates, compares the coherence of administrative data between the T1 and T4, presents the ability to use the data to create balanced panels, and uses the T1 data to produce age-earnings profiles by sex. The results show that the historical linkage rate is high (over 90% in most cases) and stable over time for respondents who are likely to file a tax return, and that the T1 and T4 administrative sources show similar earnings. Moreover, long balanced panels of up to 30 years in length (at the time of writing) can be created using LISA administrative linkage data.

    Release date: 2016-08-18

  • Articles and reports: 11-626-X2016059
    Description:

    This Economic Insights article examines the extent to which the lifetime income of children is correlated with the lifetime income of their fathers—a topic known as intergenerational income mobility. The analysis uses data from Statistics Canada’s Intergenerational Income Database, which links together children and their parents using tax files. The data provides information that permits the comparison of the income of children to those of parents at a similar stage of the lifecycle. A longer, more detailed study is also available.

    Release date: 2016-06-17

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M2016379
    Description:

    Comparative studies of intergenerational earnings and income mobility largely rank Canada as one of the most mobile countries among advanced economies, such as Denmark, Finland and Norway. The assertion that Canada is a highly mobile society is drawn from intergenerational income elasticity estimates reported in Corak and Heisz (1999). Corak and Heisz used data from the earlier version of the Intergenerational Income Database (IID), which tracked income of Canadian youth only into their early thirties. Recent theoretical literature, however, suggests that the relationship between childrens’ and parents’ lifetime income may not be accurately estimated when children’s income are not observed from their mid-careers— known as lifecycle bias. The present study addresses this concern by re-examining the extent of intergenerational earnings and income mobility in Canada using the updated version of the IID, which tracks children well into their mid-forties, when mid-career income are observed.

    Release date: 2016-06-17

  • Articles and reports: 11-630-X2016005
    Description:

    This edition of Canadian Megatrends looks at the rise of dual-earner family with children from 1976 to 2015.

    Release date: 2016-05-30

  • Articles and reports: 75-006-X201600114360
    Description:

    Using data from the 2014 Canadian Financial Capability Survey (CFCS), this article examines the extent to which individuals in the labour force are preparing for retirement and provides another perspective on the relationship between financial literacy and retirement planning.

    Release date: 2016-03-23

  • Articles and reports: 75-006-X201600114322
    Description:

    This article explores how skill proficiencies are related to household income for Canadians aged 16 to 65 using data from the first wave of the Longitudinal and International Study of Adults (LISA), conducted in 2012. The article also demonstrates how the relationship between skill level and low income changes after controlling for other characteristics known to increase the risk of low income.

    Release date: 2016-02-24

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M2015371
    Description:

    This paper investigates whether registered pension plans (RPPs) help households prepare financially for retirement or simply substitute for other forms of private saving. This issue is addressed using a panel of 1.8 million Canadian households, from 1991 to 2010, which appear in the Longitudinal Administrative Databank. The analysis controls for correlations in savings across accounts due to unobserved tastes for saving by exploiting the fact that employer contribution rates increase discontinuously on earnings above the average industrial wage, a unique feature of occupational pensions in Canada, the effect being estimated in a Regression Kink Design.

    Release date: 2015-12-21

  • Articles and reports: 11-626-X2015054
    Description:

    This article in the Economic Insights series uses data from the latest cycles of the Survey of Household Spending and the Survey of Financial Security to examine trends in the implicit income derived from owner-occupied housing. Covering the 1969-to-2011 period, the article updates previous estimates of the returns to housing in order to assess the implications of the shifting economic environment of the late 2000s.

    Release date: 2015-12-10

Reference (53)

Reference (53) (25 of 53 results)

  • Surveys and statistical programs – Documentation: 62F0026M
    Description:

    This series provides detailed documentation on the issues, concepts, methodology, data quality and other relevant research related to household expenditures from the Survey of Household Spending, the Homeowner Repair and Renovation Survey and the Food Expenditure Survey.

    Release date: 2017-12-13

  • Surveys and statistical programs – Documentation: 62F0026M2017002
    Description:

    This guide presents information of interest to users of data from the Survey of Household Spending (SHS). It includes descriptions of the survey terms and variables definitions as well as of the survey methodology and data quality. The guide also includes a section describing various examples of estimates that can be drawn from the survey data.

    Release date: 2017-12-13

  • Index and guides: 98-500-X2016004
    Description:

    This reference guide provides information that enables users to effectively use, apply and interpret data from the 2016 Census. This guide contains definitions and explanations of concepts, classifications, data quality and comparability to other sources. Additional information is included for specific variables to help general users better understand the concepts and questions used in the Census.

    Updated on November 29, 2017 to include information on long-form income estimates.

    Release date: 2017-11-29

  • Index and guides: 98-200-X2016023
    Description:

    This Census in Brief article compares the earnings of young bachelor’s degree holders from different fields of study, including STEM (science, technology, engineering and mathematics) fields, and BHASE (non-STEM) fields, such as business, humanities, health, arts, social science and education.

    Release date: 2017-11-29

  • Index and guides: 98-200-X2016024
    Description:

    This Census in Brief article compares the earnings of Canadians by their highest level of educational attainment, i.e., a high school diploma, an apprenticeship certificate, a college diploma or a bachelor’s degree. It also examines how these earnings vary across the provinces and territories and highlights how the earnings of Canadians with selected educational qualifications changed over the decade preceding the 2016 Census.

    Release date: 2017-11-29

  • Index and guides: 98-505-X2016003
    Description:

    This interactive chart shows percentiles of total income by various categories. A reference line can be added to the chart by entering a dollar amount. Data views are available for age, provinces or territories, census years (1985 to 2015) or metropolitan areas.

    Release date: 2017-09-13

  • Index and guides: 98-402-X2016006
    Description:

    These tables provide 2016 Census highlights on language. Percentage distribution and percentage change from the previous census are available for various tables and levels of geography for example Canada, provinces and territories, census metropolitan areas, census agglomerations and census subdivisions with a 5,000-plus population.

    Release date: 2017-09-13

  • Index and guides: 98-200-X2016012
    Description:

    This Census in Brief examines children younger than 18 living in low-income households in 2015. It sheds light on the incidence of low income for Canadian children of different ages, across different family circumstances and household living arrangements. It also provides information on child low income at different levels of geography, including provinces, census metropolitan areas and census agglomerations.

    Release date: 2017-09-13

  • Index and guides: 98-200-X2016013
    Description:

    This Census in Brief examines household contributions to registered retirement savings plans (RRSPs), registered pension plans (RPPs), and tax-free savings accounts (TFSAs) in 2015. Contribution patterns are analyzed by age, income, and region to provide some insight into the savings behaviour of Canadian households.

    Release date: 2017-09-13

  • Index and guides: 98-501-X2016006
    Description:

    The Income Release and concepts overview provides an overview of the concepts, definitions and key measures used in the 2016 Census of Population Income release, as well as the products which will be available on release day and later.

    Release date: 2017-07-26

  • Index and guides: 72-212-X
    Description:

    Data on income of census families, individuals and seniors are derived from income tax returns.The data for the products associated with this release are derived from the T1 file that Statistics Canada receives from Canada Revenue Agency (CRA) thirteen months after the end of the taxation year.

    Release date: 2017-07-12

  • Index and guides: 72-212-X2017001
    Release date: 2017-07-12

  • Index and guides: 72-211-X
    Description:

    Data on investment income, Registered Retirement Savings Plan (RRSP) contributions and charitable donations are derived from income tax returns.The data for the products associated with this release are derived from an early version of the T1 file that Statistics Canada receives from Canada Revenue Agency (CRA).

    Release date: 2017-02-22

  • Index and guides: 72-211-X2017001
    Release date: 2017-02-22

  • Surveys and statistical programs – Documentation: 62F0026M2017001
    Description:

    This report describes the quality indicators produced for the 2015 Survey of Household Spending. These quality indicators, such as coefficients of variation, nonresponse rates, slippage rates and imputation rates, help users interpret the survey data.

    Release date: 2017-01-27

  • Technical products: 75-005-M
    Description:

    The papers in this series cover a variety of technical topics related to the surveys of the Labour statistics division, such as LFS, SEPH, Employment insurance as well as data from administrative sources.

    Release date: 2017-01-06

  • Technical products: 75F0002M
    Description:

    This series provides detailed documentation on income developments, including survey design issues, data quality evaluation and exploratory research.

    Release date: 2016-07-08

  • Technical products: 75F0002M2016002
    Description:

    Statistics Canada currently measures low-income using three low income lines: the Low Income Cut-offs (LICOs), the Low Income Measures (LIMs), and the Market Basket Measure (MBM). This publication provides a description of the methods used to arrive at each of these thresholds. It also explains how low-income status and various low-income statistics are determined. Tables presenting thresholds and low-income statistics are available on CANSIM.

    Release date: 2016-07-08

  • Technical products: 75F0002M2016003
    Description:

    Periodically, income statistics are updated to reflect the most recent population estimates from the Census. Accordingly, with the release of the 2014 data from the Canadian Income Survey, Statistics Canada has revised estimates for 2006 to 2013 using new population totals from the 2011 Census. This paper provides unrevised estimates alongside revised estimates for key income series, indicating where the revisions were significant.

    Release date: 2016-07-08

  • Technical products: 75F0002M2016001
    Description:

    The study examines the evolution of income mobility for Canadian taxfilers from both the absolute and the relative perspectives. Using data from the Longitudinal Administrative Databank for the years 1982 to 2012, we estimated several income mobility statistics for overlapping panels of Canadian taxfilers over those 30 years. We also assessed the impact of mobility on long-term income inequality.

    Release date: 2016-05-03

  • Surveys and statistical programs – Documentation: 62F0026M2016001
    Description:

    This report describes the quality indicators produced for the 2014 Survey of Household Spending. These quality indicators, such as coefficients of variation, nonresponse rates, slippage rates and imputation rates, help users interpret the survey data.

    Release date: 2016-02-12

  • Technical products: 75F0002M2015002
    Description:

    In order to provide a holographic or complete picture of low income, Statistics Canada uses three complementary low income lines: the Low Income Cut-offs (LICOs), the Low Income Measures (LIMs) and the Market Basket Measure (MBM). While the first two lines were developed by Statistics Canada, the MBM is based on concepts developed by Employment and Social Development Canada. Though these measures differ from one another, they give a generally consistent picture of low income status over time. None of these measures is the best. Each contributes its own perspective and its own strengths to the study of low income, so that cumulatively, the three provide a better understanding of the phenomenon of low income as a whole. These measures are not measures of poverty, but strictly measures of low income.

    This update presents revised LIMs for 2006 to 2011 resulting from the reweighting of SLID data. This reweighting makes it possible to compare results from CIS to earlier years.

    Release date: 2015-12-17

  • Technical products: 75F0002M2015003
    Description:

    This note discusses revised income estimates from the Survey of Labour and Income Dynamics (SLID). These revisions to the SLID estimates make it possible to compare results from the Canadian Income Survey (CIS) to earlier years. The revisions address the issue of methodology differences between SLID and CIS.

    Release date: 2015-12-17

  • Technical products: 75F0002M2015001
    Description:

    In order to provide a holographic or complete picture of low income, Statistics Canada uses three complementary low income lines: the Low Income Cut-offs (LICOs), the Low Income Measures (LIMs) and the Market Basket Measure (MBM). While the first two lines were developed by Statistics Canada, the MBM is based on concepts developed by Employment and Social Development Canada. Though these measures differ from one another, they give a generally consistent picture of low income status over time. None of these measures is the best. Each contributes its own perspective and its own strengths to the study of low income, so that cumulatively, the three provide a better understanding of the phenomenon of low income as a whole. These measures are not measures of poverty, but strictly measures of low income.

    Release date: 2015-07-08

  • Surveys and statistical programs – Documentation: 62F0026M2015001
    Description:

    This report describes the quality indicators produced for the 2013 Survey of Household Spending. These quality indicators, such as coefficients of variation, nonresponse rates, slippage rates and imputation rates, help users interpret the survey data.

    Release date: 2015-01-22

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