Statistics by subject – Income, pensions, spending and wealth

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All (339)

All (339) (25 of 339 results)

  • Articles and reports: 11-627-M2018006
    Description:

    The infographic looks at income in Canada, including the percentage of persons in low income, government transfers and the median after-tax income by family type.

    Release date: 2018-03-13

  • Articles and reports: 11-633-X2018012
    Description:

    This study investigates the extent to which income tax reassessments and delayed tax filing affect the reliability of Canadian administrative tax datasets used for economic analysis. The study is based on individual income tax records from the T1 Personal Master File and Historical Personal Master File for selected years from 1990 to 2010. These datasets contain tax records for approximately 100% of initial and all income tax filers, who submitted returns to the Canada Revenue Agency (CRA) before specific processing cut-off dates.

    Release date: 2018-01-11

  • Articles and reports: 11-626-X2017078
    Description:

    This article in the Economic Insights series highlights new data on the ownership of residential properties in Toronto and Vancouver by non-residents of Canada. It reports on the prevalence of non-resident ownership for different types of housing, including single-detached houses, semi-detached houses, row houses and condominium-apartments, and compares the property values of non-resident and resident-owned assets. Information on the location, age and size of condominium-apartments is used to assess differences in the value of non-resident owned properties.

    Release date: 2017-12-19

  • Articles and reports: 11-627-M2017040
    Description:

    This infographic highlights some of the information provided by the 2016 Survey of Household Spending. For example, it presents the annual average spending on public transportation across Canada, shelter costs for owners and renters, as well as the proportion of Canadian households’ food budget spent on restaurant meals. It also shows how Canadian households allocated their budgets to various goods and services.

    Release date: 2017-12-13

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M2017400
    Description:

    Despite a large literature estimating the effects of income taxation on the labour decisions of young and middle-aged workers, little is known about the extent to which older workers respond to changes in their income taxes. This paper explores this unresolved empirical issue, using longitudinal administrative data on more than one million individuals from Canada and exploiting a recent tax reform in the empirical identification strategy that explicitly targeted older couples. The findings offer new insight into the “black box” of intra-household labour supply and inform the optimal designs of income tax and retirement income systems.

    Release date: 2017-11-23

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M2017397
    Description:

    Rates of low income among immigrants continue to be high relative to the Canadian-born population. This paper examines the rate of chronic low income among immigrants aged 25 or older in Canada during the 2000s. Chronic low income is defined as having a family income under a low income cut-off for five consecutive years or more. A regionally adjusted low-income measure is used for the analysis.

    Release date: 2017-09-29

  • Articles and reports: 11-627-M2017026
    Description:

    Based on the data from the 2016 Census, the following infographic looks at income in Canada, including median household income, people living in low-income households, incomes of couples and use of tax assisted savings accounts.

    Release date: 2017-09-13

  • Articles and reports: 75-006-X201700154854
    Description:

    This study uses data from the 2014 Longitudinal and International Study of Adults (LISA) in order to examine the relationship between low income and characteristics of people aged 25 to 64 with a disability, including disability type, severity class, age of onset of disability, family composition, and other risk factors associated with low income. It also examines the composition of the low-income population in relation to disability, and provides information on the relationship between employment and low income for this population.

    Release date: 2017-08-11

  • Articles and reports: 11-626-X2017073
    Description:

    This article in the Economic Insights series provides Canadian evidence of recent changes in intergenerational income mobility in Canada. The study uses a unique Canadian database that directly links children and parents. The analysis focuses on absolute income mobility—often seen as an indicator of economic opportunity in a society.

    Release date: 2017-05-23

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M2017392
    Description:

    The registered education savings plan (RESP) savings vehicle is designed to encourage parents of school-age children to save for their children’s postsecondary education through tax sheltered earnings on contributions, as well as through additional contributions from the federal government. No recent evidence exists on the characteristics of RESP holders, and little exists on the association between having an RESP and enrolling in postsecondary education.

    This study makes three contributions to the literature. First, it documents differences in RESP holdings by family income and how these have evolved over time. Second, it decomposes these differences (particularly between the top and bottom quintiles of family income) into portions that are related to differences in key determinants of RESP participation (e.g., family wealth and parental education). And, third, it examines the relationship between having an RESP account and attending a postsecondary institution.

    Release date: 2017-04-12

  • Articles and reports: 11-626-X2017071
    Description:

    This Economic Insights article documents the characteristics of families with children under the age of 18 who hold registered education savings plan (RESP) investments. The article also examines the relationship between holding an RESP account at age 15 and postsecondary enrolment between the ages of 19 and 27. The data are drawn from the 1999 and 2012 Survey of Financial Security and from the Youth in Transition Survey, Cohort A, linked to the T1 Family File. Postsecondary enrolment is derived from education deductions and tuition credits in the tax data.

    Release date: 2017-04-12

  • Articles and reports: 11-626-X2017070
    Description:

    This Economic Insights article documents postsecondary enrolment rates among 19-year-olds over the 2001-to-2014 period by province of parental residence, parental income and sex. The data are drawn from the T1 Family File. Postsecondary enrolment is determined by the tuition, education and textbook credits on the personal income tax files. Parental income refers to the adult-equivalent, after-tax income of parents, expressed in 2014 constant dollars. Youth are grouped by parental income quintiles.

    Release date: 2017-04-10

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M2017391
    Description:

    This paper assesses the extent to which education affects how Canadians save and accumulate wealth for retirement. The paper makes three contributions. First, a descriptive analysis is presented of differences in savings and home values across individuals based on their levels of educational attainment. To this end, new datasets that link survey respondents from the 1991 and 2006 censuses of Canada to their administrative tax records are used. These data provide a unique opportunity to jointly observe education, savings, home values, and a plethora of other factors of relevance. Second, the causal effect of high school completion on savings rates in tax-preferred accounts is estimated, exploiting compulsory schooling reforms in the identification. Third, building on a recent study by Messacar (2015), education is also found to affect how individuals re-optimize their savings rates in response to an automatic change in pension wealth accumulation. The implications of this study’s findings for the “nudge paradigm” in behavioural economics are discussed.

    Release date: 2017-03-27

  • Articles and reports: 11-626-X2016064
    Description:

    This article in the Economic Insights series presents an overview of recent trends in registered retirement savings plan (RRSP) use among Canadian taxfilers aged 25 to 54, from 2000 to 2013. The analysis centres on differences in RRSP contribution and withdrawal behaviour across income groups, and around the time that the tax free savings account (TFSA) was introduced.

    Release date: 2017-02-13

  • Articles and reports: 11-627-M2017002
    Description:

    The following infographic highlights some of the information provided by the 2015 Survey of Household Spending (SHS). For example, it presents annual average spending on pets, clothing and accessories, as well as water, fuel and electricity. As well as, an overview of how Canadian households allocated their budgets to various goods and services.

    Release date: 2017-01-27

  • Articles and reports: 11-630-X2016009
    Description:

    This issue of Canadian Megatrends describes the share of market income earned by the highest earners in society and how that portion has changed from 1920 to 2014.

    Release date: 2016-12-16

  • Articles and reports: 89-648-X2016001
    Description:

    Linkages between survey and administrative data are an increasingly common practice, due in part to the reduced burden to respondents, and to the data that can be obtained at a relatively low cost. Historical linkage, or the linkage of administrative data from previous years to the year of the survey, compounds these benefits by providing additional years of data. This paper examines the Longitudinal and International Study of Adults (LISA), which was linked to historical tax data on personal income tax returns (T1) and those collected from employers’ files (T4), among others not mentioned in this paper. It presents trends in historical linkage rates, compares the coherence of administrative data between the T1 and T4, presents the ability to use the data to create balanced panels, and uses the T1 data to produce age-earnings profiles by sex. The results show that the historical linkage rate is high (over 90% in most cases) and stable over time for respondents who are likely to file a tax return, and that the T1 and T4 administrative sources show similar earnings. Moreover, long balanced panels of up to 30 years in length (at the time of writing) can be created using LISA administrative linkage data.

    Release date: 2016-08-18

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M2016379
    Description:

    Comparative studies of intergenerational earnings and income mobility largely rank Canada as one of the most mobile countries among advanced economies, such as Denmark, Finland and Norway. The assertion that Canada is a highly mobile society is drawn from intergenerational income elasticity estimates reported in Corak and Heisz (1999). Corak and Heisz used data from the earlier version of the Intergenerational Income Database (IID), which tracked income of Canadian youth only into their early thirties. Recent theoretical literature, however, suggests that the relationship between childrens’ and parents’ lifetime income may not be accurately estimated when children’s income are not observed from their mid-careers— known as lifecycle bias. The present study addresses this concern by re-examining the extent of intergenerational earnings and income mobility in Canada using the updated version of the IID, which tracks children well into their mid-forties, when mid-career income are observed.

    Release date: 2016-06-17

  • Articles and reports: 11-626-X2016059
    Description:

    This Economic Insights article examines the extent to which the lifetime income of children is correlated with the lifetime income of their fathers—a topic known as intergenerational income mobility. The analysis uses data from Statistics Canada’s Intergenerational Income Database, which links together children and their parents using tax files. The data provides information that permits the comparison of the income of children to those of parents at a similar stage of the lifecycle. A longer, more detailed study is also available.

    Release date: 2016-06-17

  • Articles and reports: 11-630-X2016005
    Description:

    This edition of Canadian Megatrends looks at the rise of dual-earner family with children from 1976 to 2015.

    Release date: 2016-05-30

  • Articles and reports: 75-006-X201600114360
    Description:

    Using data from the 2014 Canadian Financial Capability Survey (CFCS), this article examines the extent to which individuals in the labour force are preparing for retirement and provides another perspective on the relationship between financial literacy and retirement planning.

    Release date: 2016-03-23

  • Articles and reports: 75-006-X201600114322
    Description:

    This article explores how skill proficiencies are related to household income for Canadians aged 16 to 65 using data from the first wave of the Longitudinal and International Study of Adults (LISA), conducted in 2012. The article also demonstrates how the relationship between skill level and low income changes after controlling for other characteristics known to increase the risk of low income.

    Release date: 2016-02-24

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M2015371
    Description:

    This paper investigates whether registered pension plans (RPPs) help households prepare financially for retirement or simply substitute for other forms of private saving. This issue is addressed using a panel of 1.8 million Canadian households, from 1991 to 2010, which appear in the Longitudinal Administrative Databank. The analysis controls for correlations in savings across accounts due to unobserved tastes for saving by exploiting the fact that employer contribution rates increase discontinuously on earnings above the average industrial wage, a unique feature of occupational pensions in Canada, the effect being estimated in a Regression Kink Design.

    Release date: 2015-12-21

  • Articles and reports: 11-626-X2015054
    Description:

    This article in the Economic Insights series uses data from the latest cycles of the Survey of Household Spending and the Survey of Financial Security to examine trends in the implicit income derived from owner-occupied housing. Covering the 1969-to-2011 period, the article updates previous estimates of the returns to housing in order to assess the implications of the shifting economic environment of the late 2000s.

    Release date: 2015-12-10

  • Articles and reports: 75-006-X201500114194
    Description:

    This article examines changes in the wealth of Canadian families over the period 1999 to 2012, with a particular focus on changes across income quintiles. The paper also examines changes in the concentration of wealth across income quintiles, as well as the characteristics of families with low income and no wealth.

    Release date: 2015-06-03

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Analysis (339)

Analysis (339) (25 of 339 results)

  • Articles and reports: 11-627-M2018006
    Description:

    The infographic looks at income in Canada, including the percentage of persons in low income, government transfers and the median after-tax income by family type.

    Release date: 2018-03-13

  • Articles and reports: 11-633-X2018012
    Description:

    This study investigates the extent to which income tax reassessments and delayed tax filing affect the reliability of Canadian administrative tax datasets used for economic analysis. The study is based on individual income tax records from the T1 Personal Master File and Historical Personal Master File for selected years from 1990 to 2010. These datasets contain tax records for approximately 100% of initial and all income tax filers, who submitted returns to the Canada Revenue Agency (CRA) before specific processing cut-off dates.

    Release date: 2018-01-11

  • Articles and reports: 11-626-X2017078
    Description:

    This article in the Economic Insights series highlights new data on the ownership of residential properties in Toronto and Vancouver by non-residents of Canada. It reports on the prevalence of non-resident ownership for different types of housing, including single-detached houses, semi-detached houses, row houses and condominium-apartments, and compares the property values of non-resident and resident-owned assets. Information on the location, age and size of condominium-apartments is used to assess differences in the value of non-resident owned properties.

    Release date: 2017-12-19

  • Articles and reports: 11-627-M2017040
    Description:

    This infographic highlights some of the information provided by the 2016 Survey of Household Spending. For example, it presents the annual average spending on public transportation across Canada, shelter costs for owners and renters, as well as the proportion of Canadian households’ food budget spent on restaurant meals. It also shows how Canadian households allocated their budgets to various goods and services.

    Release date: 2017-12-13

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M2017400
    Description:

    Despite a large literature estimating the effects of income taxation on the labour decisions of young and middle-aged workers, little is known about the extent to which older workers respond to changes in their income taxes. This paper explores this unresolved empirical issue, using longitudinal administrative data on more than one million individuals from Canada and exploiting a recent tax reform in the empirical identification strategy that explicitly targeted older couples. The findings offer new insight into the “black box” of intra-household labour supply and inform the optimal designs of income tax and retirement income systems.

    Release date: 2017-11-23

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M2017397
    Description:

    Rates of low income among immigrants continue to be high relative to the Canadian-born population. This paper examines the rate of chronic low income among immigrants aged 25 or older in Canada during the 2000s. Chronic low income is defined as having a family income under a low income cut-off for five consecutive years or more. A regionally adjusted low-income measure is used for the analysis.

    Release date: 2017-09-29

  • Articles and reports: 11-627-M2017026
    Description:

    Based on the data from the 2016 Census, the following infographic looks at income in Canada, including median household income, people living in low-income households, incomes of couples and use of tax assisted savings accounts.

    Release date: 2017-09-13

  • Articles and reports: 75-006-X201700154854
    Description:

    This study uses data from the 2014 Longitudinal and International Study of Adults (LISA) in order to examine the relationship between low income and characteristics of people aged 25 to 64 with a disability, including disability type, severity class, age of onset of disability, family composition, and other risk factors associated with low income. It also examines the composition of the low-income population in relation to disability, and provides information on the relationship between employment and low income for this population.

    Release date: 2017-08-11

  • Articles and reports: 11-626-X2017073
    Description:

    This article in the Economic Insights series provides Canadian evidence of recent changes in intergenerational income mobility in Canada. The study uses a unique Canadian database that directly links children and parents. The analysis focuses on absolute income mobility—often seen as an indicator of economic opportunity in a society.

    Release date: 2017-05-23

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M2017392
    Description:

    The registered education savings plan (RESP) savings vehicle is designed to encourage parents of school-age children to save for their children’s postsecondary education through tax sheltered earnings on contributions, as well as through additional contributions from the federal government. No recent evidence exists on the characteristics of RESP holders, and little exists on the association between having an RESP and enrolling in postsecondary education.

    This study makes three contributions to the literature. First, it documents differences in RESP holdings by family income and how these have evolved over time. Second, it decomposes these differences (particularly between the top and bottom quintiles of family income) into portions that are related to differences in key determinants of RESP participation (e.g., family wealth and parental education). And, third, it examines the relationship between having an RESP account and attending a postsecondary institution.

    Release date: 2017-04-12

  • Articles and reports: 11-626-X2017071
    Description:

    This Economic Insights article documents the characteristics of families with children under the age of 18 who hold registered education savings plan (RESP) investments. The article also examines the relationship between holding an RESP account at age 15 and postsecondary enrolment between the ages of 19 and 27. The data are drawn from the 1999 and 2012 Survey of Financial Security and from the Youth in Transition Survey, Cohort A, linked to the T1 Family File. Postsecondary enrolment is derived from education deductions and tuition credits in the tax data.

    Release date: 2017-04-12

  • Articles and reports: 11-626-X2017070
    Description:

    This Economic Insights article documents postsecondary enrolment rates among 19-year-olds over the 2001-to-2014 period by province of parental residence, parental income and sex. The data are drawn from the T1 Family File. Postsecondary enrolment is determined by the tuition, education and textbook credits on the personal income tax files. Parental income refers to the adult-equivalent, after-tax income of parents, expressed in 2014 constant dollars. Youth are grouped by parental income quintiles.

    Release date: 2017-04-10

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M2017391
    Description:

    This paper assesses the extent to which education affects how Canadians save and accumulate wealth for retirement. The paper makes three contributions. First, a descriptive analysis is presented of differences in savings and home values across individuals based on their levels of educational attainment. To this end, new datasets that link survey respondents from the 1991 and 2006 censuses of Canada to their administrative tax records are used. These data provide a unique opportunity to jointly observe education, savings, home values, and a plethora of other factors of relevance. Second, the causal effect of high school completion on savings rates in tax-preferred accounts is estimated, exploiting compulsory schooling reforms in the identification. Third, building on a recent study by Messacar (2015), education is also found to affect how individuals re-optimize their savings rates in response to an automatic change in pension wealth accumulation. The implications of this study’s findings for the “nudge paradigm” in behavioural economics are discussed.

    Release date: 2017-03-27

  • Articles and reports: 11-626-X2016064
    Description:

    This article in the Economic Insights series presents an overview of recent trends in registered retirement savings plan (RRSP) use among Canadian taxfilers aged 25 to 54, from 2000 to 2013. The analysis centres on differences in RRSP contribution and withdrawal behaviour across income groups, and around the time that the tax free savings account (TFSA) was introduced.

    Release date: 2017-02-13

  • Articles and reports: 11-627-M2017002
    Description:

    The following infographic highlights some of the information provided by the 2015 Survey of Household Spending (SHS). For example, it presents annual average spending on pets, clothing and accessories, as well as water, fuel and electricity. As well as, an overview of how Canadian households allocated their budgets to various goods and services.

    Release date: 2017-01-27

  • Articles and reports: 11-630-X2016009
    Description:

    This issue of Canadian Megatrends describes the share of market income earned by the highest earners in society and how that portion has changed from 1920 to 2014.

    Release date: 2016-12-16

  • Articles and reports: 89-648-X2016001
    Description:

    Linkages between survey and administrative data are an increasingly common practice, due in part to the reduced burden to respondents, and to the data that can be obtained at a relatively low cost. Historical linkage, or the linkage of administrative data from previous years to the year of the survey, compounds these benefits by providing additional years of data. This paper examines the Longitudinal and International Study of Adults (LISA), which was linked to historical tax data on personal income tax returns (T1) and those collected from employers’ files (T4), among others not mentioned in this paper. It presents trends in historical linkage rates, compares the coherence of administrative data between the T1 and T4, presents the ability to use the data to create balanced panels, and uses the T1 data to produce age-earnings profiles by sex. The results show that the historical linkage rate is high (over 90% in most cases) and stable over time for respondents who are likely to file a tax return, and that the T1 and T4 administrative sources show similar earnings. Moreover, long balanced panels of up to 30 years in length (at the time of writing) can be created using LISA administrative linkage data.

    Release date: 2016-08-18

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M2016379
    Description:

    Comparative studies of intergenerational earnings and income mobility largely rank Canada as one of the most mobile countries among advanced economies, such as Denmark, Finland and Norway. The assertion that Canada is a highly mobile society is drawn from intergenerational income elasticity estimates reported in Corak and Heisz (1999). Corak and Heisz used data from the earlier version of the Intergenerational Income Database (IID), which tracked income of Canadian youth only into their early thirties. Recent theoretical literature, however, suggests that the relationship between childrens’ and parents’ lifetime income may not be accurately estimated when children’s income are not observed from their mid-careers— known as lifecycle bias. The present study addresses this concern by re-examining the extent of intergenerational earnings and income mobility in Canada using the updated version of the IID, which tracks children well into their mid-forties, when mid-career income are observed.

    Release date: 2016-06-17

  • Articles and reports: 11-626-X2016059
    Description:

    This Economic Insights article examines the extent to which the lifetime income of children is correlated with the lifetime income of their fathers—a topic known as intergenerational income mobility. The analysis uses data from Statistics Canada’s Intergenerational Income Database, which links together children and their parents using tax files. The data provides information that permits the comparison of the income of children to those of parents at a similar stage of the lifecycle. A longer, more detailed study is also available.

    Release date: 2016-06-17

  • Articles and reports: 11-630-X2016005
    Description:

    This edition of Canadian Megatrends looks at the rise of dual-earner family with children from 1976 to 2015.

    Release date: 2016-05-30

  • Articles and reports: 75-006-X201600114360
    Description:

    Using data from the 2014 Canadian Financial Capability Survey (CFCS), this article examines the extent to which individuals in the labour force are preparing for retirement and provides another perspective on the relationship between financial literacy and retirement planning.

    Release date: 2016-03-23

  • Articles and reports: 75-006-X201600114322
    Description:

    This article explores how skill proficiencies are related to household income for Canadians aged 16 to 65 using data from the first wave of the Longitudinal and International Study of Adults (LISA), conducted in 2012. The article also demonstrates how the relationship between skill level and low income changes after controlling for other characteristics known to increase the risk of low income.

    Release date: 2016-02-24

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M2015371
    Description:

    This paper investigates whether registered pension plans (RPPs) help households prepare financially for retirement or simply substitute for other forms of private saving. This issue is addressed using a panel of 1.8 million Canadian households, from 1991 to 2010, which appear in the Longitudinal Administrative Databank. The analysis controls for correlations in savings across accounts due to unobserved tastes for saving by exploiting the fact that employer contribution rates increase discontinuously on earnings above the average industrial wage, a unique feature of occupational pensions in Canada, the effect being estimated in a Regression Kink Design.

    Release date: 2015-12-21

  • Articles and reports: 11-626-X2015054
    Description:

    This article in the Economic Insights series uses data from the latest cycles of the Survey of Household Spending and the Survey of Financial Security to examine trends in the implicit income derived from owner-occupied housing. Covering the 1969-to-2011 period, the article updates previous estimates of the returns to housing in order to assess the implications of the shifting economic environment of the late 2000s.

    Release date: 2015-12-10

  • Articles and reports: 75-006-X201500114194
    Description:

    This article examines changes in the wealth of Canadian families over the period 1999 to 2012, with a particular focus on changes across income quintiles. The paper also examines changes in the concentration of wealth across income quintiles, as well as the characteristics of families with low income and no wealth.

    Release date: 2015-06-03

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