Statistics by subject – Income, pensions, spending and wealth

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  • Surveys and statistical programs – Documentation: 13F0026M2007001
    Description:

    This guide will be of assistance when using the public use microdata file (PUMF) of the Survey of Financial Security (SFS) conducted by the Pensions and Wealth Surveys Section of the Income Statistics Division.

    Release date: 2007-09-04

  • Technical products: 75F0002M2007005
    Description:

    This research examines the characteristics of non-elderly unattached Canadians who experience persistent low income and their transition patterns into and out of low income. It also examines the factors associated with increased risk of persistent low income.

    The study found that unattached individuals aged 45 to 64, the activity limited, the not employed, visible minorities, and high school leavers all faced a higher rate of the most persistent low income (6 years out 6). Family formation reduced the incidence and persistence of low income.

    Statistical analyses showed that among working-aged unattached individuals, those who faced the greatest risks of the most persistent low income included the unemployed and those who had reported limitations to work. Individuals also at great risk were those who had not completed high school, those who were aged 45 to 64, or those whose unattached status remained unchanged over the six-year study period.

    Release date: 2007-06-15

  • Technical products: 75F0002M2007001
    Description:

    The Survey of Labour and Income Dynamics (SLID) is a longitudinal survey which collects information related to the standard of living of individuals and their families. By interviewing the same people over a period of six years, changes and the causes of these changes can be monitored.

    A preliminary interview of background information is collected for all respondents aged 16 and over, who enter the SLID sample. Preliminary interviews are conducted for new household members during their first labour and income interview after they join the household. A labour and income interview is collected each year for all respondents 16 years of age and over.

    The purpose of this document is to present the questions, possible responses and question flows for the 2006 preliminary, labour and income questionnaire (for the 2005 reference year).

    Release date: 2007-05-10

  • Technical products: 75F0002M2007004
    Description:

    Low income cut-offs (LICOs) are income thresholds, determined by analysing family expenditure data, below which families will devote a larger share of income to the necessities of food, shelter and clothing than the average family would. To reflect differences in the costs of necessities among different community and family sizes, LICOs are defined for five categories of community size and seven of family size.

    Low income Measures (LIMs), on the other hand, are strictly relative measures of low income, set at 50% of adjusted median family income. These measures are categorized according to the number of adults and children present in families, reflecting the economies of scale inherent in family size and composition. This publication incorporates a detailed description of the methods used to arrive at both measurements. It also explains how base years are defined and how LICOs are updated using the Consumer Price Index.

    Release date: 2007-05-10

  • Surveys and statistical programs – Documentation: 62F0026M2006001
    Description:

    This guide presents information of interest to users of data from the Survey of Household Spending, which gathers information on the spending habits, dwelling characteristics and household equipment of Canadian households. The survey covers private households in the 10 provinces. (The territories are surveyed every second year, starting in 1999.)

    This guide includes definitions of survey terms and variables, as well as descriptions of survey methodology and data quality. One section describes the various statistics that can be created using expenditure data (e.g., budget share, market share, aggregates and medians).

    Release date: 2006-12-12

  • Surveys and statistical programs – Documentation: 13F0026M2006001
    Description:

    This report provides an overview of the results of the Survey of Financial Security (SFS). This survey collected information on the assets and debts of families and unattached individuals. Data collection took place from May to July 2005, in all provinces.

    The 2005 SFS provides a comprehensive picture of the wealth of Canadians. Information was collected on the value of all major financial and non-financial assets and on the money owing on mortgages, vehicles, credit cards, student loans and other debts. The value of these assets less the debts is referred to in this report as net worth.

    Release date: 2006-12-07

  • Index and guides: 17-507-X
    Description:

    "Neighbourhood insights" is your guide to the statistical information packages available from the Small Area and Administrative Data Division. The guide provides descriptions of the various databanks, the geographic availability and the pricing structure. The guide also contains sample statistical tables showing data for Canada.

    Release date: 2006-05-04

  • Technical products: 75F0002M2006004
    Description:

    Low income cut-offs (LICOs) are income thresholds, determined by analysing family expenditure data, below which families will devote a larger share of income to the necessities of food, shelter and clothing than the average family would. To reflect differences in the costs of necessities among different community and family sizes, LICOs are defined for five categories of community size and seven of family size.

    Low income Measures (LIMs), on the other hand, are strictly relative measures of low income, set at 50% of adjusted median family income. These measures are categorized according to the number of adults and children present in families, reflecting the economies of scale inherent in family size and composition. This publication incorporates a detailed description of the methods used to arrive at both measurements. It also explains how base years are defined and how LICOs are updated using the Consumer Price Index.

    Release date: 2006-04-06

  • Technical products: 75F0002M2006003
    Description:

    The Survey of Income and Labour Dynamics (SLID) interview is conducted using computer-assisted interviewing (CAI). CAI is paperless interviewing. This document is therefore a written approximation of the CAI interview, or the questionnaire.

    In previous years, SLID conducted a Labour interview each January and a separate Income interview in May. In 2005 (reference year 2004) the two interviews were combined and collected in one interview in January.

    A labour and income interview is collected for all respondents 16 years of age and over. Respondents have the option of answering income questions during the interview, or of giving Statistics Canada permission to use their income tax records.

    In January 2005, data was collected for reference year 2004 from panels 3 and 4. Panel 3, in its sixth and final year, consisted of approximately 17,000 households and panel 4, in its third year, also consisted of approximately 17,000 households.

    This document outlines the structure of the January 2005 Labour and Income interview (for the 2004 reference year) including question wording, possible responses, and flows of questions.

    Release date: 2006-04-06

  • Technical products: 75F0002M2006006
    Description:

    This report examines the transitions into and out of low income and the persistence of low income among Canadians. It also examines the incidence of low wage among full-time workers and the extent to which low wage workers live in low income families.

    Release date: 2006-04-06

  • Surveys and statistical programs – Documentation: 62F0026M2005007
    Description:

    This guide presents information of interest to users of data from the Survey of Household Spending, which gathers information on the spending habits, dwelling characteristics and household equipment of Canadian households. The survey covers private households in the 10 provinces. (The territories are surveyed every second year, starting in 1999.)

    This guide includes definitions of survey terms and variables, as well as descriptions of survey methodology and data quality. One section describes the various statistics that can be created using expenditure data (e.g., budget share, market share, aggregates and medians).

    Release date: 2005-12-12

  • Surveys and statistical programs – Documentation: 62F0026M2005006
    Description:

    This report describes the quality indicators produced for the 2003 Survey of Household Spending. These quality indicators, such as coefficients of variation, nonresponse rates, slippage rates and imputation rates, help users interpret the survey data.

    Release date: 2005-10-06

  • Technical products: 75F0002M2005009
    Description:

    The release of the 2003 data from the Survey of Labour and Income Dynamics (SLID) was accompanied by a historical revision which accomplished three things. First, the survey weights were updated to take into account new population projections based on the 2001 Census of Population, instead of the 1996 Census. Second, a new procedure in the weight adjustments was introduced to take into account an external source of information on the overall distribution of income in the population, namely the T4 file of employer remittances to Canada Revenue Agency. Third, the low income estimates were revised due to new low income cut-offs (LICOs). This paper describes the second of these improvements' the new weighting procedure to reflect the distribution of income in the population with greater accuracy. Part 1 explains in non-technical terms how this new procedure came about and how it works. Part 2 provides some examples of the impacts on the results for previous years.

    Release date: 2005-07-22

  • Surveys and statistical programs – Documentation: 62F0026M2005005
    Description:

    This discussion paper reviews the previous research into the subject of presenting historical time series and comparisons in constant dollars for the Survey of Household Spending (SHS), and its predecessor the Family Expenditure Survey (FAMEX). It examines two principal methods of converting spending data into constant dollars. The purpose of this discussion paper is to show interested parties how the two methods differ in complexity of implementation and interpretation.

    Release date: 2005-07-15

  • Surveys and statistical programs – Documentation: 62F0026M2005003
    Description:

    The Food Expenditure Survey (FES) is a periodic survey collecting data from households on food spending habits. Data are collected mainly using weekly diaries of purchases that the respondents must fill in daily during two consecutive weeks.

    The FES, like all surveys, is subject to error despite all the precautions taken at the various stages of the survey to control them. Although there is no exhaustive measure of a survey's data quality, certain quality measures taken at various stages of the survey can provide the user with relevant information to ensure sound data interpretation.

    This paper presents, for the 2001 FES, the following quality indicators the coefficients of variation, the non-response rates, the vacancy rates, the slippage rates, the imputation rates as well the impacts of imputation on the estimates.

    Release date: 2005-07-08

  • Surveys and statistical programs – Documentation: 62F0026M2005004
    Description:

    The Food Expenditure Survey (FES) is a periodic survey collecting data from households on food spending habits. Data are collected mainly using weekly diaries of purchases that the respondents must fill in daily during two consecutive weeks.

    This paper presents a detailed description of the methodology of this survey. First, we briefly described the sample design which is mainly based on the plan of the Labour Force Survey. Then we present the methods of collection, data processing, weighting, and variance estimation, as well as the suppression of unreliable data in the tables of estimates.

    Release date: 2005-07-08

  • Surveys and statistical programs – Documentation: 62F0026M2005002
    Description:

    This document will provide an overview of the differences between the old and the new weighting methodologies and the effect of the new weighting system on estimations.

    Release date: 2005-06-30

  • Technical products: 75F0002M2005005
    Description:

    The Survey of Labour and Income Dynamics (SLID) conducts two annual interviews: the Labour interview in January and the Income interview in May. The data are collected using computer-assisted interviewing. Thus there are no paper questionnaires required for data collection. The questions, responses and interview flow for Labour and Income are documented in other SLID research papers. This document presents the information for the 2004 Entry Exit portion of the Labour and the Income interviews (for the 2003 reference year).

    The Entry Exit Component consists of five separate modules. The Entry module is the first set of data collected. It is information collected to update household composition and place of residence. For each person identified in Entry, the Demographics module collects (or updates) the person's name, date of birth, sex and marital status. Then the Relationships module identifies (or updates) the relationship between each respondent and every other household member. Relationship data is not collected in the May Income interview. The Exit module includes questions on who to contact for the next interview and the names, phone numbers and addresses of two contacts to be used only if future tracing of respondents is required. An overview of the Tracing module is also included in this document.

    Release date: 2005-06-16

  • Technical products: 75F0002M2005007
    Description:

    Every January, the Survey of Labour and Income Dynamics (SLID) Labour interview is conducted using computer-assisted interviewing (CAI). CAI is paperless interviewing. This document is therefore a written approximation of the CAI interview, or the questionnaire.

    A labour interview is collected for all respondents 16 years of age and over. In January, 2004 data was collected for reference year 2003 from panels 3 and 4. Panel 3, in its fifth year, consisted of approximately 17,000 households and panel 4, in its second year, also consisted of approximately 17,000 households.

    This document outlines the structure of the January 2004 Labour interview (for the 2003 reference year) including question wording, possible responses, and flows of questions.

    Release date: 2005-06-16

  • Surveys and statistical programs – Documentation: 62F0026M2005001
    Description:

    This paper provides some guidance to users on the use of medians and also gives some examples of situations when it can be a more appropriate measure than the average.

    Release date: 2005-05-17

  • Technical products: 75F0002M2005003
    Description:

    Statistics Canada has been publishing data on low-income Canadians for more than 30 years. In the past, these measures were published separately in Low income cut-offs (Catalogue no. 13-551-XPB) and Low income measures, low-income after-tax cut-offs and low-income after-tax measures (Catalogue no. 13F0019-XPB). Henceforth, all these measures will be incorporated in this publication.

    As well as the various cut-offs, this publication contains a detailed description of the methods used to arrive at the cut-off points. There is also an explanation of how base years are defined, and how the cut-offs are updated using the Consumer Price Index (CPI).

    Release date: 2005-04-21

  • Technical products: 75F0002M2005002
    Description:

    This paper describes the changes made to the structure of geography information on SLID from reference year 1999 onwards. It goes into reasons for changing to the 2001 Census-based geography, shows how the overlap between the 1991 and 2001 Census-based concepts are handled, provides detail on how the geographic concepts are implemented, discusses a new imputation procedure and finishes with an illustration of the impact of these changes on selected tables.

    Release date: 2005-03-31

  • Technical products: 75F0002M2005001
    Description:

    Comparative analysis of poverty dynamics incidence - transitions, and persistence - can yield important insights about the nature of poverty and the effectiveness of alternative policy responses. This manuscript compares poverty dynamics in four advanced industrial countries (Canada, unified Germany, Great Britain, and the United States) for overlapping six-year periods in the 1990s. The data indicate that poverty persistence is higher in North America than in Europe; for example, despite high incidence, poverty in Great Britain is relatively transitory. Most poverty transitions, and the prevalence of chronic poverty, are associated with employment instability and family dissolution in all four countries. The results also suggest that differences in social policy are crucial for the observed differences in poverty incidence and persistence between Europe and North America.

    Release date: 2005-01-31

  • Technical products: 75F0002M2004012
    Description:

    This study compares income estimates across several statistical programs at Statistics Canada. It examines how similar the estimates produced by different question sets are.

    Income data are collected by many household surveys. Some surveys have income as a major part of their content, and therefore collect income at a detailed level; others collect data from a much smaller set of income questions. No standard sets of income questions have been developed.

    Release date: 2004-12-23

  • Technical products: 75F0002M2004011
    Description:

    This paper consolidates existing information on the measurement of low income in Canada, and indicates the current status of the three measures of low income in Canada: the low income cut-offs (LICOs), the low income measures (LIMs) and the market basket measure (MBM). The methodology of each measure is presented, and future developments in the measurement of low income are discussed.

    Release date: 2004-12-14

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