Statistics by subject – Income, pensions, spending and wealth

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All (45)

All (45) (25 of 45 results)

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M1999138
    Description:

    In this paper, we assemble data from several household surveys to document how pension coverage of young and older workers has evolved in Canada between the mid-1980s and the mid-1990s. Our main findings are the following. First, both administrative data from the Pension Plans in Canada (PPIC) database and data from household surveys show an increase in RPP coverage for women. In contrast, while PPIC data show a decrease in coverage for men, household surveys indicate no downward trend for males. Second, sample aggregates hide interesting differences within the population. We find that the pension coverage of young workers (aged 25-34) has declined relative to older workers (aged 35-54). Young males have experienced a decline in coverage while RPP coverage has remained fairly stable for older men. In contrast, pension coverage has remained fairly constant for young women but has risen substantially for older women. Third, the decline in unionism and shifts towards industries with low-coverage explain most of the decrease in coverage observed among young men. Fourth, the growth in older women's coverage appears to be the result of their greater propensity to be employed in highly paid/highly covered occupations.

    Release date: 1999-12-22

  • Articles and reports: 91-209-X19990004852
    Description:

    Fifteen years ago in this series, A. Romaniuc published a comprehensive study of how fertility in Canada had evolved over the century. It described the phenomenal increase of fertility in the postwar period, resulting in the baby boom. With the largest cohorts ever known in Canada, the baby boomers, by their numbers alone, will have left their mark on Canada's social, economic and political structure throughout their life cycle.

    Release date: 1999-12-22

  • Technical products: 75F0002M1999007
    Description:

    This report presents an update to the results from the Survey of Labour and Income Dynamics (SLID) and the Survey of Consumer Finances (SCF) for a variety of important time series and it compares the estimates from the two sources.

    Release date: 1999-12-20

  • Technical products: 75F0002M1999008
    Description:

    This article investigates the extent to which factors not previously explored in the Canadian context account for wage differences between men and women. It uses data from the Survey of Labour and Income Dynamics (SLID).

    Release date: 1999-12-20

  • Articles and reports: 11-008-X19990034790
    Description:

    This article compares some selected indicators of psychological and social well-being for married seniors in poor health with those for seniors in good health. It also examines whether the well-being of partners is affected by their spouse's health.

    Release date: 1999-12-09

  • Articles and reports: 11-008-X19990034789
    Description:

    This article draws a brief profile of Canadians who move to improve their quality of life.

    Release date: 1999-12-09

  • Articles and reports: 89-569-X19990014846
    Description:

    The chapter commences with a brief review of the history of social protection of the elderly in France and the characteristics of the current pension system in order that the reader can have a better understanding of the changes that have taken place in the living conditions of the elderly. Then, the authors introduce a comparison of the elderly's current standard of living with that of the working population. Income differences as well as the standard of living in households of persons over 60 years of age are examined. Lastly, the chapter concludes with a short description of the reality of ageing for persons of advanced age; dependency and isolation remain a major risk often associated with insufficient income in order to be able to cope better with their handicaps.

    Release date: 1999-12-07

  • Articles and reports: 89-569-X19990014849
    Description:

    This chapter is designed to provide the reader with insight into how economic circumstances change over time as people move from working age into, and through, the 'old age' phase of the life cycle. Patterns of change in incomes, levels of consumption, saving or dissaving, as well as other variables are presented in the paper. The level of peak lifetime after-tax income, which was previously attained when the average age of a birth cohort was in the early sixties or late fifties, is now reached when the cohort's average age is in the early fifties. Although the peak has shifted, real incomes have tended to rise from earlier to later cohorts. However, real incomes within a cohort tend to fall sharply as the cohort ages and moves into its sixties and seventies. There is a minor tendency for consumption to decline by less than income as cohorts age. On average, older Canadian households continue to save, and thus increase rather than use up their accumulated wealth, at least into their seventies. A large proportion continue to own their own homes, and most do so free of mortgages. However, lower-income households do not continue to save, and in fact tend to use up their accumulated wealth at older ages, if they have any to use up. The authors emphasize that inflation is a major concern for older cohorts and estimate that a pension without inflation protection commencing at age 65 would almost certainly suffer a loss of purchasing power in excess of 35% by the time the recipient was 80. And with longer life expectancy, cohorts will be subjected to longer periods of exposure to high inflation risks.

    Release date: 1999-12-07

  • Articles and reports: 89-569-X19990014843
    Description:

    Despite the existence of numerous books and articles concerning the actual or potential effects of population ageing, one finds little systematic theory designed to explain the processes or mechanisms by which population ageing exerts the causal forces that are often attributed to it. The chapter's thesis is that the implications of population ageing for a society are not readily discernible until one takes time to study the potentially contrasting patterns by which different cohorts have gone or are going through certain major life course transitions. The chapter illustrates this idea by reviewing cohort-specific age patterns with regard to the following variables: (1) the income position of senior husband-wife families relative to that of all husband-wife families, (2) the institutionalization of young men in the USA, (3) the institutionalization of older men and women in the USA, and (4) patterns of marital status transitions in Canada. The discussion of marital status transitions makes use of the results of applying a new technique, called "Neighborhood Estimation of Transiton Matrices" (NETM), for estimating families of transiton rates. NETM is briefly introduced in the chapter.

    Release date: 1999-12-07

  • Articles and reports: 89-569-X19990014848
    Description:

    This article examines the change, over the last fifteen years, in the standard of living of Canada's elderly. The text attempts to measure the scope and depth of poverty among the elderly, to draw up a historical profile of seniors' economic status based upon average pre-tax and after-tax income. It examines the inequality in the income distribution within the senior group and compares it with the other age groups. In the assessment of the elderly's standard of living, the author tries to expand the concept of resources by including the largest sources of non-money income. There is also discussion on the problems of insecurity specific to the elderly and the most vulnerable groups. The discussion includes consideration of the effects that changes in the terms of transition to retirement, in evidence over the past fifteen years, have had and are likely to have on the economic well being of the elderly. The last section provides an analysis of the change in seniors' income level according to their specific cohort. The conclusion emphasizes the selective and inherently fragile nature of the progress achieved.

    Release date: 1999-12-07

  • Articles and reports: 89-569-X19990014844
    Description:

    The chapter revisits the ageing process from the perspective of the golden years, the tarnished years and the uncertain years. The focus is on two key policy areas: income support, and health and social services, During the 1960s, the true golden years of social policy, the Canada Pension Plan and the twin Quebec Pension Plan, as well as the Guaranteed Income Supplement for low-income seniors were introduced (in conjunction with Old Age Security) creating a de facto guaranteed income for the elderly. In 1966, the Canada Assistance Plan, which allowed the federal government to share the cost of welfare and social services with the provinces, was also introduced. However, by the late 1970s, Canada was facing major social and economic problems. The government experienced financial difficulties, resulting in an unprecendented attack on social programs. By the 1980s, spending restraint became the dominant force shapping social policy reform. Governments began to act on long-standing criticisms of social programs and policy makers turned their attention to reining in the costs of income security, health care and social services. CPP reform became a government priority and amendments were made to the Plan in order to restore the confidence of the Canadian public and made the plan more affordable for future generations. Similar changes were made to the QPP resulting in identical contribution rates. There have been significant changes to health and social services as a result of the Canada Health and Social Transfer (CHST) which replaced the Canada Assistance Plan (CAP) that allowed Ottawa to share the provincial cost of welfare and social services and the Established Programs Financing (EPF) under which Ottawa contributed to health care and postsecondary education.

    Release date: 1999-12-07

  • Articles and reports: 75-001-X19990044756
    Description:

    Earnings of physicians continue to exceed the overall average. This article presents a demographic and earnings profile of the medical profession and highlights changes between 1980 and 1995.

    Release date: 1999-12-01

  • Table: 13-001-X19990034873
    Description:

    This article includes updated annual bilateral volume indexes of real Gross Domestic Product (GDP) per capita and its components for the United States compared to Canada, and the associated purchasing price parities (PPPs).

    Release date: 1999-11-30

  • Articles and reports: 12-001-X19990014716
    Description:

    Two design-based estimators of gross flows and transition rates are considered. One makes use of the cross-sectional samples for the estimation of the income class boundaries at each time period and the longitudinal sample for the estimation of counts of units in the longitudinal population (longitudinal counts); this is the mixed estimator. The other one is entirely based on the longitudinal sample, both for the estimation of the class boundaries and the longitudinal counts; this is the longitudinal estimator. We compare the two estimators in the presence of large attrition rates, by means of a simulation. We find that under a less than perfect model of compensation for attrition, the mixed estimator is usually more sensitive to model bias than the longitudinal estimator. Furthermore, we find that for the mixed estimator, the magnitude of this bias overshadows the small gain in precision when compared to the longitudinal estimator. The results are illustrated with data from the Survey of Labour and Income Dynamics and the Longitudinal Administrative Database of Statistics Canada.

    Release date: 1999-10-08

  • Surveys and statistical programs – Documentation: 13F0026M1999006
    Description:

    Although income and expenditure data provide an indication of current consumption and ability to purchase goods and services, they provide little information on the long-term ability of families to sustain themselves. The results of this survey will provide information on the net worth (wealth) of Canadian families, that is, the value of their assets less their debts.

    This paper examines the objectives of the survey, how the survey has changed since 1984, the types of questions being asked and information that will be provided, as well as other survey background. An accompanying table outlines the content of the questionnaire. The intent of this paper is to describe the work done to date and the next steps for this important subject.

    Release date: 1999-09-27

  • Technical products: 75F0002M1999005
    Description:

    This paper outlines the structure of the January 1999 Survey of Labour and Income Dynamics (SLID) labour interview questionnaire, including question wording, possible responses, and flows of questions.

    Release date: 1999-09-27

  • Technical products: 75F0002M1999003
    Description:

    This document presents the questions, responses and interview flow for the Contact and Demographic portions of the Survey of Labour and Income Dynamics (SLID) interviews.

    Release date: 1999-09-27

  • Technical products: 75F0002M1999004
    Description:

    This paper presents the questions, possible responses and question flows for the 1999 Survey of Labour and Income Dynamics (SLID) preliminary questionnaire.

    Release date: 1999-09-27

  • Public use microdata: 13M0002X
    Description:

    This public use microdata file is one of five produced annually from data collected by the Survey of Consumer Finances (SCF), a supplement to the April Labour Force Survey (LFS). Data gathered by SCF are used to produce cross-sectional income and work experience profiles of individuals, families and households.

    Release date: 1999-08-19

  • Public use microdata: 13M0003X
    Description:

    Information is provided for eleven component sources of family assets, nine component sources of family income, and three component sources of family debt. Family characteristics, personal and labour-related characteristics of family head and spouse, and data on total net worth are also included.

    Release date: 1999-08-19

  • Public use microdata: 13M0005X
    Description:

    This file consists of one record for each child and adult in the surveys' samples. Each key file record has the identification numbers for the corresponding household, economic family, census family, and individual.

    Release date: 1999-08-19

  • Public use microdata: 13M0001X
    Description:

    With this file, users may identify specific family types, such as two-parent and lone-parent families. Information is also provided on earnings, transfers, and total income for the head and the spouse of the census family unit, as well as personal and labour-related characteristics

    Release date: 1999-08-19

  • Articles and reports: 81-003-X19980044653
    Description:

    This paper is a joint project of Human Resources Development Canada and Statistics Canada which uses data from the Canada Sudent Loans Program administrative data system to examine general patterns of Canada Student Loan debt in the 1990-91 to 1995-96 time frame for all full-time students, as well as specific trends in student debt by type of educational institution attended. It does not examine loans received through provincial programs. First, we look at the number of students with Canada Student Loans who entered into repayment and the average values of their loans in 1995 constant dollars. We then go on to analyse trends in loan activity and replayment patterns, including repayment difficulties, loan defaults and bankruptcies, and early repayment in full.

    Release date: 1999-07-30

  • Public use microdata: 95M0012X
    Description:

    This file contains details of family composition in Canada. It features 145 variables, such as information on labour force activity and income for census family and non-family persons.

    The Microdata Files contain samples of anonymous responses to the 1996 Census questionnaire. The files have been carefully scrutinized to ensure the complete confidentiality of the individual responses. PUMFs enable the development of statistical information about Canadians, the families and households to which they belong, and the dwellings in which they live.

    Microdata files are unique among census products in that they give users access to non-aggregated data. This makes PUMFs a powerful research tools. The user can group and manipulate these variables to suit his/her own data and research requirements. These provide quick access to a comprehensive social and economic database about Canada and its people.

    All subject matter covered by the census is included in these files.

    The 1996 PUMFs will only be released on CD-ROM using microcomputer applications.

    Release date: 1999-07-23

  • Public use microdata: 95M0010X
    Description:

    This file provides data on the characteristics of the population such as ethnic origin, labour force activity and income levels. It contains 122 variables.

    The Microdata Files contain samples of anonymous responses to the 1996 Census questionnaire. The files have been carefully scrutinized to ensure the complete confidentiality of the individual responses. PUMFs enable the development of statistical information about Canadians, the families and households to which they belong, and the dwellings in which they live.

    Microdata files are unique among census products in that they give users access to non-aggregated data. This makes PUMFs a powerful research tools. The user can group and manipulate these variables to suit his/her own data and research requirements. These provide quick access to a comprehensive social and economic database about Canada and its people.

    All subject matter covered by the census is included in these files.

    The 1996 PUMFs will only be released on CD-ROM using microcomputer applications.

    Release date: 1999-07-13

Data (7)

Data (7) (7 of 7 results)

  • Table: 13-001-X19990034873
    Description:

    This article includes updated annual bilateral volume indexes of real Gross Domestic Product (GDP) per capita and its components for the United States compared to Canada, and the associated purchasing price parities (PPPs).

    Release date: 1999-11-30

  • Public use microdata: 13M0002X
    Description:

    This public use microdata file is one of five produced annually from data collected by the Survey of Consumer Finances (SCF), a supplement to the April Labour Force Survey (LFS). Data gathered by SCF are used to produce cross-sectional income and work experience profiles of individuals, families and households.

    Release date: 1999-08-19

  • Public use microdata: 13M0003X
    Description:

    Information is provided for eleven component sources of family assets, nine component sources of family income, and three component sources of family debt. Family characteristics, personal and labour-related characteristics of family head and spouse, and data on total net worth are also included.

    Release date: 1999-08-19

  • Public use microdata: 13M0005X
    Description:

    This file consists of one record for each child and adult in the surveys' samples. Each key file record has the identification numbers for the corresponding household, economic family, census family, and individual.

    Release date: 1999-08-19

  • Public use microdata: 13M0001X
    Description:

    With this file, users may identify specific family types, such as two-parent and lone-parent families. Information is also provided on earnings, transfers, and total income for the head and the spouse of the census family unit, as well as personal and labour-related characteristics

    Release date: 1999-08-19

  • Public use microdata: 95M0012X
    Description:

    This file contains details of family composition in Canada. It features 145 variables, such as information on labour force activity and income for census family and non-family persons.

    The Microdata Files contain samples of anonymous responses to the 1996 Census questionnaire. The files have been carefully scrutinized to ensure the complete confidentiality of the individual responses. PUMFs enable the development of statistical information about Canadians, the families and households to which they belong, and the dwellings in which they live.

    Microdata files are unique among census products in that they give users access to non-aggregated data. This makes PUMFs a powerful research tools. The user can group and manipulate these variables to suit his/her own data and research requirements. These provide quick access to a comprehensive social and economic database about Canada and its people.

    All subject matter covered by the census is included in these files.

    The 1996 PUMFs will only be released on CD-ROM using microcomputer applications.

    Release date: 1999-07-23

  • Public use microdata: 95M0010X
    Description:

    This file provides data on the characteristics of the population such as ethnic origin, labour force activity and income levels. It contains 122 variables.

    The Microdata Files contain samples of anonymous responses to the 1996 Census questionnaire. The files have been carefully scrutinized to ensure the complete confidentiality of the individual responses. PUMFs enable the development of statistical information about Canadians, the families and households to which they belong, and the dwellings in which they live.

    Microdata files are unique among census products in that they give users access to non-aggregated data. This makes PUMFs a powerful research tools. The user can group and manipulate these variables to suit his/her own data and research requirements. These provide quick access to a comprehensive social and economic database about Canada and its people.

    All subject matter covered by the census is included in these files.

    The 1996 PUMFs will only be released on CD-ROM using microcomputer applications.

    Release date: 1999-07-13

Analysis (24)

Analysis (24) (24 of 24 results)

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M1999138
    Description:

    In this paper, we assemble data from several household surveys to document how pension coverage of young and older workers has evolved in Canada between the mid-1980s and the mid-1990s. Our main findings are the following. First, both administrative data from the Pension Plans in Canada (PPIC) database and data from household surveys show an increase in RPP coverage for women. In contrast, while PPIC data show a decrease in coverage for men, household surveys indicate no downward trend for males. Second, sample aggregates hide interesting differences within the population. We find that the pension coverage of young workers (aged 25-34) has declined relative to older workers (aged 35-54). Young males have experienced a decline in coverage while RPP coverage has remained fairly stable for older men. In contrast, pension coverage has remained fairly constant for young women but has risen substantially for older women. Third, the decline in unionism and shifts towards industries with low-coverage explain most of the decrease in coverage observed among young men. Fourth, the growth in older women's coverage appears to be the result of their greater propensity to be employed in highly paid/highly covered occupations.

    Release date: 1999-12-22

  • Articles and reports: 91-209-X19990004852
    Description:

    Fifteen years ago in this series, A. Romaniuc published a comprehensive study of how fertility in Canada had evolved over the century. It described the phenomenal increase of fertility in the postwar period, resulting in the baby boom. With the largest cohorts ever known in Canada, the baby boomers, by their numbers alone, will have left their mark on Canada's social, economic and political structure throughout their life cycle.

    Release date: 1999-12-22

  • Articles and reports: 11-008-X19990034790
    Description:

    This article compares some selected indicators of psychological and social well-being for married seniors in poor health with those for seniors in good health. It also examines whether the well-being of partners is affected by their spouse's health.

    Release date: 1999-12-09

  • Articles and reports: 11-008-X19990034789
    Description:

    This article draws a brief profile of Canadians who move to improve their quality of life.

    Release date: 1999-12-09

  • Articles and reports: 89-569-X19990014846
    Description:

    The chapter commences with a brief review of the history of social protection of the elderly in France and the characteristics of the current pension system in order that the reader can have a better understanding of the changes that have taken place in the living conditions of the elderly. Then, the authors introduce a comparison of the elderly's current standard of living with that of the working population. Income differences as well as the standard of living in households of persons over 60 years of age are examined. Lastly, the chapter concludes with a short description of the reality of ageing for persons of advanced age; dependency and isolation remain a major risk often associated with insufficient income in order to be able to cope better with their handicaps.

    Release date: 1999-12-07

  • Articles and reports: 89-569-X19990014849
    Description:

    This chapter is designed to provide the reader with insight into how economic circumstances change over time as people move from working age into, and through, the 'old age' phase of the life cycle. Patterns of change in incomes, levels of consumption, saving or dissaving, as well as other variables are presented in the paper. The level of peak lifetime after-tax income, which was previously attained when the average age of a birth cohort was in the early sixties or late fifties, is now reached when the cohort's average age is in the early fifties. Although the peak has shifted, real incomes have tended to rise from earlier to later cohorts. However, real incomes within a cohort tend to fall sharply as the cohort ages and moves into its sixties and seventies. There is a minor tendency for consumption to decline by less than income as cohorts age. On average, older Canadian households continue to save, and thus increase rather than use up their accumulated wealth, at least into their seventies. A large proportion continue to own their own homes, and most do so free of mortgages. However, lower-income households do not continue to save, and in fact tend to use up their accumulated wealth at older ages, if they have any to use up. The authors emphasize that inflation is a major concern for older cohorts and estimate that a pension without inflation protection commencing at age 65 would almost certainly suffer a loss of purchasing power in excess of 35% by the time the recipient was 80. And with longer life expectancy, cohorts will be subjected to longer periods of exposure to high inflation risks.

    Release date: 1999-12-07

  • Articles and reports: 89-569-X19990014843
    Description:

    Despite the existence of numerous books and articles concerning the actual or potential effects of population ageing, one finds little systematic theory designed to explain the processes or mechanisms by which population ageing exerts the causal forces that are often attributed to it. The chapter's thesis is that the implications of population ageing for a society are not readily discernible until one takes time to study the potentially contrasting patterns by which different cohorts have gone or are going through certain major life course transitions. The chapter illustrates this idea by reviewing cohort-specific age patterns with regard to the following variables: (1) the income position of senior husband-wife families relative to that of all husband-wife families, (2) the institutionalization of young men in the USA, (3) the institutionalization of older men and women in the USA, and (4) patterns of marital status transitions in Canada. The discussion of marital status transitions makes use of the results of applying a new technique, called "Neighborhood Estimation of Transiton Matrices" (NETM), for estimating families of transiton rates. NETM is briefly introduced in the chapter.

    Release date: 1999-12-07

  • Articles and reports: 89-569-X19990014848
    Description:

    This article examines the change, over the last fifteen years, in the standard of living of Canada's elderly. The text attempts to measure the scope and depth of poverty among the elderly, to draw up a historical profile of seniors' economic status based upon average pre-tax and after-tax income. It examines the inequality in the income distribution within the senior group and compares it with the other age groups. In the assessment of the elderly's standard of living, the author tries to expand the concept of resources by including the largest sources of non-money income. There is also discussion on the problems of insecurity specific to the elderly and the most vulnerable groups. The discussion includes consideration of the effects that changes in the terms of transition to retirement, in evidence over the past fifteen years, have had and are likely to have on the economic well being of the elderly. The last section provides an analysis of the change in seniors' income level according to their specific cohort. The conclusion emphasizes the selective and inherently fragile nature of the progress achieved.

    Release date: 1999-12-07

  • Articles and reports: 89-569-X19990014844
    Description:

    The chapter revisits the ageing process from the perspective of the golden years, the tarnished years and the uncertain years. The focus is on two key policy areas: income support, and health and social services, During the 1960s, the true golden years of social policy, the Canada Pension Plan and the twin Quebec Pension Plan, as well as the Guaranteed Income Supplement for low-income seniors were introduced (in conjunction with Old Age Security) creating a de facto guaranteed income for the elderly. In 1966, the Canada Assistance Plan, which allowed the federal government to share the cost of welfare and social services with the provinces, was also introduced. However, by the late 1970s, Canada was facing major social and economic problems. The government experienced financial difficulties, resulting in an unprecendented attack on social programs. By the 1980s, spending restraint became the dominant force shapping social policy reform. Governments began to act on long-standing criticisms of social programs and policy makers turned their attention to reining in the costs of income security, health care and social services. CPP reform became a government priority and amendments were made to the Plan in order to restore the confidence of the Canadian public and made the plan more affordable for future generations. Similar changes were made to the QPP resulting in identical contribution rates. There have been significant changes to health and social services as a result of the Canada Health and Social Transfer (CHST) which replaced the Canada Assistance Plan (CAP) that allowed Ottawa to share the provincial cost of welfare and social services and the Established Programs Financing (EPF) under which Ottawa contributed to health care and postsecondary education.

    Release date: 1999-12-07

  • Articles and reports: 75-001-X19990044756
    Description:

    Earnings of physicians continue to exceed the overall average. This article presents a demographic and earnings profile of the medical profession and highlights changes between 1980 and 1995.

    Release date: 1999-12-01

  • Articles and reports: 12-001-X19990014716
    Description:

    Two design-based estimators of gross flows and transition rates are considered. One makes use of the cross-sectional samples for the estimation of the income class boundaries at each time period and the longitudinal sample for the estimation of counts of units in the longitudinal population (longitudinal counts); this is the mixed estimator. The other one is entirely based on the longitudinal sample, both for the estimation of the class boundaries and the longitudinal counts; this is the longitudinal estimator. We compare the two estimators in the presence of large attrition rates, by means of a simulation. We find that under a less than perfect model of compensation for attrition, the mixed estimator is usually more sensitive to model bias than the longitudinal estimator. Furthermore, we find that for the mixed estimator, the magnitude of this bias overshadows the small gain in precision when compared to the longitudinal estimator. The results are illustrated with data from the Survey of Labour and Income Dynamics and the Longitudinal Administrative Database of Statistics Canada.

    Release date: 1999-10-08

  • Articles and reports: 81-003-X19980044653
    Description:

    This paper is a joint project of Human Resources Development Canada and Statistics Canada which uses data from the Canada Sudent Loans Program administrative data system to examine general patterns of Canada Student Loan debt in the 1990-91 to 1995-96 time frame for all full-time students, as well as specific trends in student debt by type of educational institution attended. It does not examine loans received through provincial programs. First, we look at the number of students with Canada Student Loans who entered into repayment and the average values of their loans in 1995 constant dollars. We then go on to analyse trends in loan activity and replayment patterns, including repayment difficulties, loan defaults and bankruptcies, and early repayment in full.

    Release date: 1999-07-30

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M1999135
    Description:

    Two quasi-experiments are used to estimate the impact of parental divorce on the adult incomes and labour market behaviour of adolescents, as well as on their use of social programs, and their marital/fertility behaviour. These involve the use of individuals experiencing the death of a parent, and legislative changes to the Canadian divorce law in 1986. Parental loss by death is assumed to be exogenous; the experiences of children with a bereaved background offering a benchmark to assess the endogeneity of parental loss through divorce. Differences between individuals with divorced parents and those from intact and bereaved families significantly overstate the impact of divorce across a broad range of outcomes. When background characteristics are controlled for-most notably the income and labour market activity of parents in the years leading up to the divorce-parental divorce seems to influence the marital and fertility decisions of children, but not their labour market outcomes. Adolescents whose parents divorced tend to put off marriage, and once married suffer a greater likelihood of marital instability, but their earnings and incomes are not on average much different from others.

    Release date: 1999-06-09

  • Articles and reports: 75-001-X19990024602
    Description:

    The two principal tax-assisted vehicles for retirement income planning in Canada are registered retirement savings plans (RRSPs) and employer-sponsored registered pension plans (RPPs). Using 1996 tax data, this study compares various groups of workers and their retirement saving patterns.

    Release date: 1999-06-09

  • Articles and reports: 63F0002X1999023
    Description:

    Canada's consumer market for entertainment services grew almost 50% in real terms from 1986 to 1996. Canadians are spending more on renting cablevision, video games videotapes and satellite services, and they still attend live sports events, movies and theatre. As a result, spending on entertainment services comprises a growing proportion of the average household's budget. This article explores the shares of Canada's consumer market for entertainment services that are accounted for by various household types and income groups.

    Release date: 1999-05-12

  • Articles and reports: 21-006-X1998006
    Description:

    Many rural communities are searching for ways to stimulate local economic growth. Some factors are unique to a particular time and place. But are there other factors that will foster growth over time? The purpose of this bulletin is to review some of the factors associated with local economic growth.

    Release date: 1999-04-23

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M1999129
    Description:

    While there are many studies on differences in earnings between immigrants and the native-born or among immigrant groups, they ignore the distribution and concentration of income. These aspects are important for understanding the distribution of economic welfare and consumer behaviour among members and hence are policy relevant.

    Using the 1991 Census data, the distribution and concentration of income have been examined among 15 broad birthplace groups for population aged 55 years and over. About 19% of males and 15% of females receive less than half the median income and obtain 5% and 3% of the aggregate income respectively. About 30% of males and 29% of females receive more than one and half times the median income and obtain 61% and59% of aggregate income respectively. About 51% of males and 56% of females who receive incomes between half and one and half times the median income are termed middle-class and their shares of aggregate income amount to 34 and 38% respectively.

    Although, older immigrants aged 55 years and over, as a group, have roughly the same quartile distribution and concentration of income as their Canadian-born counterparts, the birthplace groups differ from each other. The groups coming from the developing regions, that is, the very groups that have lower average annual incomes, also have more inequitable distribution of income than the Canadian-born or their counterparts from the developed regions. Thus, the income distribution is more polarized in the populations from developing regions than in the populations from developed regions or in the Canadian-born population. On average, females receive 45% less income than males, and there is less polarization of income among them than among males regardless of the place of birth. A part of the explanation lies in the receipt of government transfers which tend to equalize rather than polarize incomes, and older women derive higher proportion of their income from government transfers than older men.

    Release date: 1999-04-21

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M1999132
    Description:

    Child poverty is high on the government's agenda. In order to reduce the rate of low-income among children, one has to either reduce the number of children flowing into low-income, or increase the number flowing out. But what is behind such movement? Most analysts would immediately think of job loss among the parents, but obviously divorce and remarriage can also play a role. In order to favourably alter the flows, one has to have some understanding of what is driving them. This paper asks to what extent this movement of children is determined by (1) changes in family status of the parents of children, or (2) changes in the parent's labour market conditions (i.e. job loss and gain, changes in hours of work or wages). We find that for an individual child, a divorce or marriage can have a tremendous influence on the likelihood of entering or exiting low-income. At the level of the individual, changes in family composition (when they occur) are more important than changes in jobs held by parents. However, changes in family status are relatively infrequent compared to labour market changes. Parents are much more likely to lose or find jobs, and experience changes in hours worked or wages, than they are to marry or divorce. When this is accounted for we find that, in the aggregate, flows of children into and out of low income are associated roughly equally with family compositional changes and changes in wages and hours worked.

    Release date: 1999-04-21

  • Articles and reports: 63-016-X19980044488
    Description:

    This article presents an updated statistical portrait of the gambling industry in Canada. It examines economic output, jobs and government revenue, and provides provincial comparisons.

    Release date: 1999-04-15

  • Articles and reports: 21-006-X1998004
    Description:

    A defining feature of rural populations is that they are distant from major metropolitan centres. Thus, households in rural areas have different needs than those in urban areas and, therefore, different spending patterns. In 1996, the total expenditure of an average Canadian household was $49,054. Rural households spent an average of $42,620 while urban households had an average spending of $50,283. This article gives an overview of the differences and similarities in the spending patterns of rural and urban households.

    Release date: 1999-03-30

  • Articles and reports: 75-001-X19990014407
    Description:

    The distribution of income changes over time, as does the proportion of total income received by different family types. This aritcle examines the relative shares of total family income for different family groups between 1970 and 1995, along with changes in the composition of these groups. It complements the family income study published in the Winter 1998 issue of perspectives.

    Release date: 1999-03-03

  • Articles and reports: 75-001-X19990014410
    Description:

    As students are increasingly pressured to find new ways of funding their education, many turn to student loan programs for assistance, and, as a result, are faced with a post-graduation debt load. Using data from the National Graduates Survey, this study assesses the debt and repayment record for holders of college certificates and diplomas, and bachelor's degrees. It also examines the effect of high debt on these graduates. (Adapted from an article in Canadian Social Trends published in Winter 1998.)

    Release date: 1999-03-03

  • Articles and reports: 63F0002X1999021
    Description:

    Consumer expenditures by households are increasingly a driving force behind economic growth, and are affected by several factors. Consumer tastes can shift over time, as new commodities are introduced and others become outdated. Changes in the demographic, economic and social characteristics of consumers can also affect consumer preferences, as can shifts in the relative prices, utilities and quality levels of various goods and services.

    Based on Family Expenditure Survey data for both 1986 and 1996, this study examines how the household consumption of services has shifted over the past decade. Particular attention is paid to spending on: communications services; finance and real estate services; food and beverage services; traveler accommodation services; amusement and recreation services; and personal and household services. Insights are also provided on why household spending patterns for specific service commodities have changed from 1986 to 1996.

    Release date: 1999-01-28

  • Articles and reports: 63-016-X19980034327
    Description:

    Canada's consumer market for entertainment services grew almost 50% in real terms from 1986 to 1996. Canadians are spending more on renting cablevision, video games videotapes and satellite services, and they still attend live sports events, movies and theatre. As a result, spending on entertainment services comprises a growing proportion of the average household's budget. This article explores the shares of Canada's consumer market for entertainment services that are accounted for by various household types and income groups.

    Release date: 1999-01-15

Reference (14)

Reference (14) (14 of 14 results)

  • Technical products: 75F0002M1999007
    Description:

    This report presents an update to the results from the Survey of Labour and Income Dynamics (SLID) and the Survey of Consumer Finances (SCF) for a variety of important time series and it compares the estimates from the two sources.

    Release date: 1999-12-20

  • Technical products: 75F0002M1999008
    Description:

    This article investigates the extent to which factors not previously explored in the Canadian context account for wage differences between men and women. It uses data from the Survey of Labour and Income Dynamics (SLID).

    Release date: 1999-12-20

  • Surveys and statistical programs – Documentation: 13F0026M1999006
    Description:

    Although income and expenditure data provide an indication of current consumption and ability to purchase goods and services, they provide little information on the long-term ability of families to sustain themselves. The results of this survey will provide information on the net worth (wealth) of Canadian families, that is, the value of their assets less their debts.

    This paper examines the objectives of the survey, how the survey has changed since 1984, the types of questions being asked and information that will be provided, as well as other survey background. An accompanying table outlines the content of the questionnaire. The intent of this paper is to describe the work done to date and the next steps for this important subject.

    Release date: 1999-09-27

  • Technical products: 75F0002M1999005
    Description:

    This paper outlines the structure of the January 1999 Survey of Labour and Income Dynamics (SLID) labour interview questionnaire, including question wording, possible responses, and flows of questions.

    Release date: 1999-09-27

  • Technical products: 75F0002M1999003
    Description:

    This document presents the questions, responses and interview flow for the Contact and Demographic portions of the Survey of Labour and Income Dynamics (SLID) interviews.

    Release date: 1999-09-27

  • Technical products: 75F0002M1999004
    Description:

    This paper presents the questions, possible responses and question flows for the 1999 Survey of Labour and Income Dynamics (SLID) preliminary questionnaire.

    Release date: 1999-09-27

  • Technical products: 75F0002M1999002
    Description:

    This report presents results from the Survey of Labour and Income Dynamics (SLID) and the Survey of Consumer Finances (SCF) for a variety of important time series and compares the estimates from the two sources.

    Release date: 1999-04-14

  • Technical products: 13F0027X
    Description:

    Recently there has been extensive and recurring media coverage of Statistics Canada's low income cut-offs and their relationship to the measurement of poverty. At the heart of the debate is the use of the low income cut-offs as poverty lines even though Statistics Canada has clearly stated, since their publication began over 25 years ago, that they are not. The high profile recently given this issue has presented Statistics Canada with a welcome opportunity to restate its position on these issues, views which seem to have become lost in the debate.

    Release date: 1999-04-01

  • Technical products: 75F0002M1999001
    Description:

    This paper investigates the extent to which Canadians were exposed to low income during the 1993 to 1996 period.

    Release date: 1999-03-25

  • Surveys and statistical programs – Documentation: 13F0026M1999001
    Description:

    The main objectives of a new Canadian survey measuring asset and debt holding of families and individuals will be to update wealth information that is over one decade old; to improve the reliability of the wealth estimates; and, to provide a primary tool for analysing many important policy issues related to the distribution of assets and debts, future consumption possibilities, and savings behaviour that is of interest to governments, business and communities.

    This paper is the document that launched the development of the new asset and debt survey, subsequently renamed the Survey of Financial Security. It looks at the conceptual framework for the survey, including the appropriate unit of measurement (family, household or person) and discusses measurement issues such as establishing an accounting framework for assets and debts. The variables proposed for inclusion are also identified. The paper poses several questions to readers and asks for comments and feedback.

    Release date: 1999-03-23

  • Surveys and statistical programs – Documentation: 13F0026M1999002
    Description:

    This document summarizes the comments and feedback received on an earlier document: Towards a new Canadian asset and debt survey - A content discussion paper. The new asset and debt survey (now called the Survey of Financial Security) is to update the wealth information on Canadian families and unattached individuals. Since the last data collection was conducted in 1984, it was essential to include a consultative process in the development of the survey in order to obtain feedback on issues of concern and to define the conceptual framework for the survey.

    Comments on the content discussion paper are summarized by major theme and sections indicate how the suggestions are being incorporated into the survey or why they could not be incorporated. This paper also mentions the main objectives of the survey and provides an overview of the survey content, revised according to the feedback from the discussion paper.

    Release date: 1999-03-23

  • Surveys and statistical programs – Documentation: 13F0026M1999003
    Description:

    This paper presents a proposal for conducting a Canadian asset and debt survey. The first step in preparing this proposal was the release, in February 1997, of a document entitled Towards a new Canadian asset and debt survey whose intent was to elicit feedback on the initial thinking regarding the content of the survey.

    This paper reviews the conceptual framework for a new asset and debt survey, data requirements, survey design, collection methodology and testing. It provides also an overview of the anticipated data processing system, describes the analysis and dissemination plan (analytical products and microdata files), and identifies the survey costs and major milestones. Finally, it presents the management/coordination approach used.

    Release date: 1999-03-23

  • Surveys and statistical programs – Documentation: 13F0026M1999004
    Description:

    During September and October 1997, the Questionnaire Design Resource Centre (QDRC) completed 10 focus groups and 4 in-depth interviews with respondents and 6 debriefing sessions with interviewers in a test of the proposed questionnaires and data collection methodology for the 1998 Asset and Debt Survey (now called the Survey of Financial Security, to be done in 1999).

    The main goals of the testing were: to evaluate the data collection methodology and survey instruments (including the introductory materials [guide] and questionnaires [Part 1: background information about family members, Part 2: questions on assets and debts]); to identify problem areas; to make recommendations to ensure that the final survey instruments are respondent-friendly and interview-friendly, that the questionnaires can be easily understood and accurately completed; and finally, to investigate how respondents recall information.

    This report summarizes the highlights of the study, including the recommendations based on the findings of the focus groups, in-depth interviews and debriefing sessions, as well as those from the experience of the QDRC in carrying out similar studies for other household surveys.

    Release date: 1999-03-23

  • Surveys and statistical programs – Documentation: 13F0026M1999005
    Description:

    The new 1999 Survey of Financial Security (SFS) will provide a picture of the value and nature of assets held by Canadian families. Such information will make it possible to analyse asset holdings over the life cycle, as well as to look at the financial vulnerability and future consumption capabilities of Canadians.

    This report identifies some problematic and complex issues related to the evaluation of owner-occupied dwellings (principal residence) and examines several possible approaches to valuing these dwellings. The following information about the dwelling is considered in suggesting possible valuation methods: insured value, assessed value, dwelling characteristics, and purchase price and year of purchase. An optimal method to produce an objective value for a dwelling is also suggested and methods for deriving the value of principal residences located on farms are discussed as well.

    Release date: 1999-03-23

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