Statistics by subject – Income, pensions, spending and wealth

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All (34) (25 of 34 results)

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M2000160
    Description:

    In this paper, we use census tract data to analyse changes in neighbourhood income inequality and residential economic segregation in the eight largest Canadian cities during the 1980-95 period. Is the income gap between richer and poorer neighbourhoods rising? Are high and low-income families increasingly clustered in economically homogeneous neighbourhoods? The main results are an elaboration of the spatial implications of the well documented changes that have occurred in family income and earnings inequality since 1980. We find that between neighbourhood family income (post-transfer/pre-tax) inequality rose in all cities driven by a substantial rise in neighbourhood (employment) earnings inequality. Real average earnings fell, sometimes dramatically, in low-income neighbourhoods in virtually all cities while rising moderately in higher income neighbourhoods. Strikingly, social transfers, which were the main factor stabilizing national level income inequality in the face of rising earnings inequality, had only a modest impact on changes in neighbourhood inequality. Changes in the neighbourhood distribution of earnings signal significant change in the social and economic character of many neighbourhoods. Employment was increasingly concentrated in higher income communities and unemployment in lower income neighbourhoods. Finally, we ask whether neighbourhood inequality rose primarily as a result of rising family income inequality in the city as a whole or because families were increasingly sorting themselves into "like" neighbourhoods so that neighbourhoods were becoming more economically homogeneous (economic "segregation"). We find that economic spatial segregation increased in all cities and was the major factor behind rising neighbourhood inequality in four of the eight cities. A general rise in urban family income inequality was the main factor in the remaining four cities.

    Release date: 2000-12-13

  • Surveys and statistical programs – Documentation: 62F0026M2000005
    Description:

    This guide presents information of interest to users of data from the Survey of Household Spending. Data are collected via personal interview conducted in January, February and March after the reference year using a paper questionnaire. Information is gathered about the spending habits, dwelling characteristics and household equipment of Canadian households during the reference year. The survey covers private households in the ten provinces and three territories. (The three territories are surveyed every second year.)

    This guide includes definitions of survey terms and variables and descriptions of survey methodology and data quality. There is also a section describing the various statistics that can be created using expenditure data (e.g., budget share, market share, and aggregates).

    Release date: 2000-12-12

  • Articles and reports: 11-008-X20000035386
    Description:

    This article looks at Canadians' incomes and expeditures in the 20th century.

    Release date: 2000-12-12

  • Articles and reports: 75-001-X201010713254
    Description:

    The loss of manufacturing jobs can affect other sectors of the economy, particularly when local employment is heavily concentrated in manufacturing. This article covers income, low-income incidence and Employment Insurance use, in regions with varying concentrations of manufacturing employment. The article focuses on the period from 2000 the most recent peak in manufacturing employment to 2007 the last full year of economic growth.

    Release date: 2000-12-11

  • Technical products: 75F0002M2000005
    Description:

    This paper describes the collection method and content of the 1999 Survey of Labour and Income Dynamics (SLID) income interview.

    Release date: 2000-10-05

  • Technical products: 75F0002M2000009
    Description:

    This paper provides data from several household surveys to document how pension coverage of young and prime-aged workers has evolved in Canada between the mid-1980s and the mid-1990s.

    Release date: 2000-10-05

  • Technical products: 75F0002M2000011
    Description:

    This report summarizes the comments received in response to a discussion paper on low income cut-offs released in January 2000.

    Release date: 2000-09-26

  • Articles and reports: 75-001-X20000035372
    Description:

    Some taxes may be higher, some lower than in other developed nations, but overall Canada's effective tax rate is middle-of-the-road. Using OECD data, this study compares several tax-t0-GDP ratios of the G-7 and the 29 OECD countires.

    Release date: 2000-09-06

  • Articles and reports: 75-001-X20000035373
    Description:

    Payroll taxes vary widely in level and growth across the provinces. Of the nine taxes, only three are nationwide. This article looks at trends across the country. It also briefly compares total Canadian payroll taxes with those of other G-7 and OECD nations.

    Release date: 2000-09-06

  • Technical products: 75F0002M2000004
    Description:

    This paper describes the methodology for the longitudinal and cross-sectional weights produced by the Survey of Labour and Income Dynamics (SLID). It also presents problems the survey has encountered and proposed solutions.

    Release date: 2000-08-31

  • Technical products: 75F0002M2000010
    Description:

    This report explains the concept of income and provides definitions of the various sources of income and derived income variables. It also documents the various aspects of the census that can have an impact on census income estimates.

    Release date: 2000-07-26

  • Surveys and statistical programs – Documentation: 62F0026M2000003
    Description:

    Starting with the 1997 survey year, the Household Facilities and Equipment Survey was replaced by the Survey of Household Spending (SHS). This note provides information to users and prospective users of data from the SHS about the differences between the SHS and the former Household Facilities and Equipment Survey. Topics covered include sample size, weighting, collection method, reference period, and concepts.

    Release date: 2000-07-19

  • Surveys and statistical programs – Documentation: 62F0026M2000001
    Description:

    This guide presents information of interest to users of data from the Survey of Household Spending. Data are collected via personal interviews conducted in January, February and March after the reference year using a paper questionnaire. Information is gathered about the spending habits, dwelling characteristics and household equipment of Canadian households during the reference year. The survey covers private households in the ten provinces and three territories. (The three territories are surveyed every second year.)

    This guide includes definitions of survey terms and variables and descriptions of survey methodology and data quality. There is also a section describing the various statistics that can be created using expenditure data (e.g., budget share, market share, and aggregates).

    Release date: 2000-07-19

  • Surveys and statistical programs – Documentation: 62F0026M2000002
    Description:

    Starting with the 1997 survey year, the Family Expenditure Survey was replaced by the Survey of Household Spending (SHS). This note provides information to users and prospective users of data from the SHS about the differences between the SHS and the former Family Expenditure Survey. Topics covered include sample size, number of questions, coverage, and concepts.

    Release date: 2000-07-19

  • Articles and reports: 87-003-X20000035102
    Description:

    Overall, the number of foreign travellers to Canada rose 2.1% in 1999, compared to a 6.6% increase in 1998. This was the seventh consecutive annual increase.

    Release date: 2000-07-13

  • Articles and reports: 75-001-X20000025071
    Description:

    Much discussion of comparative tax rates is based on federal statutory income tax rates. But taxes actually paid are often quite different, owing to various tax deductions, credits, surtaxes and payroll taxes. This study uses effective rather than statutory tax rates to compare income taxes paid by individuals and families in Canada and the United States.

    Release date: 2000-06-07

  • Articles and reports: 75-001-X20000025070
    Description:

    Payroll taxes have grown substantially since the early 1980s, and have become an increasingly important source of government revenues. This article, part one of a two-part analysis, details the various payroll taxes collected by the federal and provincial governments. A subsequent article will report on national and provincial trends in the level, growth and role of each component and compare Canadian payroll taxes to those of the other G-7 countries.

    Release date: 2000-06-07

  • Articles and reports: 89-552-M2000007
    Description:

    This paper addresses the problem of statistical inference with ordinal variates and examines the robustness to alternative literacy measurement and scaling choices of rankings of average literacy and of estimates of the impact of literacy on individual earnings.

    Release date: 2000-06-02

  • Articles and reports: 13-605-X20000018519
    Description:

    With the release of the first quarter 2000 of the National Income and Expenditure Accounts the sectoring of federal and provincial government, non-autonomous pension plans has changed. These pension plans are now part of the personal sector. Previously these plans were included in either the federal or provincial government sector accounts.

    Release date: 2000-05-31

  • Index and guides: 98-187-X
    Description:

    Censuses of Canada, 1665 to 1871, Statistics of Canada, Volume IV was printed in Ottawa, in 1876, from the Censuses of Canada, 1870-71. This volume contains about 343 statistical tables on the social and economic conditions in Canada from the earliest settlements to Confederation and onto 1871. The results from 98 censuses are arranged in chronological order, with some explanatory notes. In most cases, there are sufficient descriptions of the individual series to enable the reader to use them without consulting the numerous basic sources referenced in the publication.

    An electronic version of this historical publication is accessible on the Internet site of Statistics Canada. The Introduction is a free downloadable document in text as HTML pages for on-line viewing and Adobe Acrobat (PDF) files for printing. The statistical tables are available through E-STAT* (which allows both on-line viewing and downloading).

    Release date: 2000-05-26

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M2000146
    Description:

    In this paper, we investigate the extent to which Canadians were exposed to low income during the 1993-1996 period. Our main findings are the following. First, while 1 in 10 Canadians live in families with low income in a given year, as many as 1 in 5 are exposed to at least one year of low income during a 4-year interval. Second, 1 in 20 Canadians are exposed to low income for 4 consecutive years. Third, 40% to 60% of individuals who fall into low income in a given year will no longer have low income the following year. Fourth, some spells of low income last a long time: of all spells started in 1994, 30% lasted 3 years or more. Fifth, Canadians who are the most susceptible to low income tend to be young; to have little education; to be students and to live as unattached individuals or in lone-parent families. As well, Canadians facing disabilities that entail work limitations, those who are members of visible minorities (when considering the exposure to 4 years of low income) or who have immigrated in or after 1977 tend to experience low income. Sixth, high probabilities of being exposed to low income do not necessarily imply high income gaps, that is, the average income of those in low income may be quite close to the low income cut-off. As a result, a complete understanding of the extent to which Canadians are exposed to low income requires an analysis of both the probabilities of being exposed and the income gaps while being exposed.

    Release date: 2000-05-19

  • Technical products: 75F0002M2000003
    Description:

    This article analyzes the longitudinal aspect of involuntary part-time work from 1993 to 1996 using data from the Survey of Labour and Income Dynamics (SLID).

    Release date: 2000-04-11

  • Articles and reports: 82-003-X19990034936
    Description:

    Canadian provinces and metropolitan areas had generally lower income inequality and lower mortality than their US counterparts.

    Within Canada there was no association between income inequality and mortality at either the provincial or metropolitan area levels. However, this relationship is strong in the United States.

    This Canada-United States comparison suggests that the Canadian urban environment may be more beneficial to health than its US counterpart.

    Release date: 2000-03-31

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M2000144
    Description:

    In this paper, we revisit trends in low-income among Canadian children by taking advantage of recent developments in the measurement of low-income intensity. We focus in particular on the Sen-Shorrocks-Thon (SST) index and its elaboration by Osberg and Xu. Low-income intensity declined in the 1980s but rose in the 1990s. Declining earnings put upward pressure on low-income levels over much of the period. Higher transfers more than offset this pressure in the 1980s and continued to absorb a substantial share of the increase through 1993. In contrast, the rise in low-income intensity after 1993 reflected reductions in UI and social assistance benefits that were not offset by increased employment earnings, at least to 1996 the latest year used in this paper.

    A major aim of the paper is methodological. We contrast results using the SST index with results produced by the more familiar low-income rate, the usual measure for indexing low-income trends. The low-income rate is embedded in the SST index, but unlike the index, the rate incorporates only partial information on the distribution of low-income. Consequently, the low-income rate is generally unable to detect the changes we describe and this is true irrespective of the choice of low-income cut-off. Compared to the low-income intensity measure, the rate is also relatively insensitive to changes in transfer payments and employment earnings.

    Release date: 2000-03-30

  • Articles and reports: 75-001-X20000014885
    Description:

    This overview examines the use of RRSPs in the 1990s. It looks at participation, contributions, unused room and withdrawals from RSSps savings.

    Release date: 2000-03-08

Data (1)

Data (1) (1 result)

Analysis (17)

Analysis (17) (17 of 17 results)

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M2000160
    Description:

    In this paper, we use census tract data to analyse changes in neighbourhood income inequality and residential economic segregation in the eight largest Canadian cities during the 1980-95 period. Is the income gap between richer and poorer neighbourhoods rising? Are high and low-income families increasingly clustered in economically homogeneous neighbourhoods? The main results are an elaboration of the spatial implications of the well documented changes that have occurred in family income and earnings inequality since 1980. We find that between neighbourhood family income (post-transfer/pre-tax) inequality rose in all cities driven by a substantial rise in neighbourhood (employment) earnings inequality. Real average earnings fell, sometimes dramatically, in low-income neighbourhoods in virtually all cities while rising moderately in higher income neighbourhoods. Strikingly, social transfers, which were the main factor stabilizing national level income inequality in the face of rising earnings inequality, had only a modest impact on changes in neighbourhood inequality. Changes in the neighbourhood distribution of earnings signal significant change in the social and economic character of many neighbourhoods. Employment was increasingly concentrated in higher income communities and unemployment in lower income neighbourhoods. Finally, we ask whether neighbourhood inequality rose primarily as a result of rising family income inequality in the city as a whole or because families were increasingly sorting themselves into "like" neighbourhoods so that neighbourhoods were becoming more economically homogeneous (economic "segregation"). We find that economic spatial segregation increased in all cities and was the major factor behind rising neighbourhood inequality in four of the eight cities. A general rise in urban family income inequality was the main factor in the remaining four cities.

    Release date: 2000-12-13

  • Articles and reports: 11-008-X20000035386
    Description:

    This article looks at Canadians' incomes and expeditures in the 20th century.

    Release date: 2000-12-12

  • Articles and reports: 75-001-X201010713254
    Description:

    The loss of manufacturing jobs can affect other sectors of the economy, particularly when local employment is heavily concentrated in manufacturing. This article covers income, low-income incidence and Employment Insurance use, in regions with varying concentrations of manufacturing employment. The article focuses on the period from 2000 the most recent peak in manufacturing employment to 2007 the last full year of economic growth.

    Release date: 2000-12-11

  • Articles and reports: 75-001-X20000035372
    Description:

    Some taxes may be higher, some lower than in other developed nations, but overall Canada's effective tax rate is middle-of-the-road. Using OECD data, this study compares several tax-t0-GDP ratios of the G-7 and the 29 OECD countires.

    Release date: 2000-09-06

  • Articles and reports: 75-001-X20000035373
    Description:

    Payroll taxes vary widely in level and growth across the provinces. Of the nine taxes, only three are nationwide. This article looks at trends across the country. It also briefly compares total Canadian payroll taxes with those of other G-7 and OECD nations.

    Release date: 2000-09-06

  • Articles and reports: 87-003-X20000035102
    Description:

    Overall, the number of foreign travellers to Canada rose 2.1% in 1999, compared to a 6.6% increase in 1998. This was the seventh consecutive annual increase.

    Release date: 2000-07-13

  • Articles and reports: 75-001-X20000025071
    Description:

    Much discussion of comparative tax rates is based on federal statutory income tax rates. But taxes actually paid are often quite different, owing to various tax deductions, credits, surtaxes and payroll taxes. This study uses effective rather than statutory tax rates to compare income taxes paid by individuals and families in Canada and the United States.

    Release date: 2000-06-07

  • Articles and reports: 75-001-X20000025070
    Description:

    Payroll taxes have grown substantially since the early 1980s, and have become an increasingly important source of government revenues. This article, part one of a two-part analysis, details the various payroll taxes collected by the federal and provincial governments. A subsequent article will report on national and provincial trends in the level, growth and role of each component and compare Canadian payroll taxes to those of the other G-7 countries.

    Release date: 2000-06-07

  • Articles and reports: 89-552-M2000007
    Description:

    This paper addresses the problem of statistical inference with ordinal variates and examines the robustness to alternative literacy measurement and scaling choices of rankings of average literacy and of estimates of the impact of literacy on individual earnings.

    Release date: 2000-06-02

  • Articles and reports: 13-605-X20000018519
    Description:

    With the release of the first quarter 2000 of the National Income and Expenditure Accounts the sectoring of federal and provincial government, non-autonomous pension plans has changed. These pension plans are now part of the personal sector. Previously these plans were included in either the federal or provincial government sector accounts.

    Release date: 2000-05-31

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M2000146
    Description:

    In this paper, we investigate the extent to which Canadians were exposed to low income during the 1993-1996 period. Our main findings are the following. First, while 1 in 10 Canadians live in families with low income in a given year, as many as 1 in 5 are exposed to at least one year of low income during a 4-year interval. Second, 1 in 20 Canadians are exposed to low income for 4 consecutive years. Third, 40% to 60% of individuals who fall into low income in a given year will no longer have low income the following year. Fourth, some spells of low income last a long time: of all spells started in 1994, 30% lasted 3 years or more. Fifth, Canadians who are the most susceptible to low income tend to be young; to have little education; to be students and to live as unattached individuals or in lone-parent families. As well, Canadians facing disabilities that entail work limitations, those who are members of visible minorities (when considering the exposure to 4 years of low income) or who have immigrated in or after 1977 tend to experience low income. Sixth, high probabilities of being exposed to low income do not necessarily imply high income gaps, that is, the average income of those in low income may be quite close to the low income cut-off. As a result, a complete understanding of the extent to which Canadians are exposed to low income requires an analysis of both the probabilities of being exposed and the income gaps while being exposed.

    Release date: 2000-05-19

  • Articles and reports: 82-003-X19990034936
    Description:

    Canadian provinces and metropolitan areas had generally lower income inequality and lower mortality than their US counterparts.

    Within Canada there was no association between income inequality and mortality at either the provincial or metropolitan area levels. However, this relationship is strong in the United States.

    This Canada-United States comparison suggests that the Canadian urban environment may be more beneficial to health than its US counterpart.

    Release date: 2000-03-31

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M2000144
    Description:

    In this paper, we revisit trends in low-income among Canadian children by taking advantage of recent developments in the measurement of low-income intensity. We focus in particular on the Sen-Shorrocks-Thon (SST) index and its elaboration by Osberg and Xu. Low-income intensity declined in the 1980s but rose in the 1990s. Declining earnings put upward pressure on low-income levels over much of the period. Higher transfers more than offset this pressure in the 1980s and continued to absorb a substantial share of the increase through 1993. In contrast, the rise in low-income intensity after 1993 reflected reductions in UI and social assistance benefits that were not offset by increased employment earnings, at least to 1996 the latest year used in this paper.

    A major aim of the paper is methodological. We contrast results using the SST index with results produced by the more familiar low-income rate, the usual measure for indexing low-income trends. The low-income rate is embedded in the SST index, but unlike the index, the rate incorporates only partial information on the distribution of low-income. Consequently, the low-income rate is generally unable to detect the changes we describe and this is true irrespective of the choice of low-income cut-off. Compared to the low-income intensity measure, the rate is also relatively insensitive to changes in transfer payments and employment earnings.

    Release date: 2000-03-30

  • Articles and reports: 75-001-X20000014885
    Description:

    This overview examines the use of RRSPs in the 1990s. It looks at participation, contributions, unused room and withdrawals from RSSps savings.

    Release date: 2000-03-08

  • Articles and reports: 75-001-X20000014887
    Description:

    This note updates national and provincial data for most charts and tables published in two previous Perspectives articles on gambling.

    Release date: 2000-03-08

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M2000147
    Description:

    This paper revisits trends in the level and distribution of income among Canadian seniors in the context of what is arguably the major source of change in these trends since the end of the seventies, the maturation of Canada's public and private earnings-related pension systems. The expanded role of earnings-related pensions in the 1980s and 1990s is largely the result of changes that occurred in the 1950s and 1960s. The Canada and Quebec Pension Plans (C/QPP) were implemented in 1966 and the first cohort to receive full C/QPP benefits turned 65 in 1976. Cohorts retiring after this period were also the beneficiaries of the expansion of private occupational pensions that took place between the 1950s and the 1970s. The author relies on a detailed decomposition of income by source to show that not only did the maturation of these earnings-related programs produce a substantial increase in average real incomes but also to a substantial reduction in income inequality among the elderly, due mainly to C/QPP benefits. Rising real incomes went disproportionately to lower income seniors contributing to the well-known decline in low-income rates among the elderly.

    Release date: 2000-03-06

  • Articles and reports: 87-003-X20000014858
    Description:

    In the first part of this study, we will explore the development of the ski industry in Canada, after taking a short historical detour. In part two we will examine the characteristics of American travellers who visited Canadian ski areas (to ski or snowboard) during an overnight stay in Canada in the winter of 1998-99. Lastly, we will take a quick look at some characteristics of the overseas skier/snowboarder and at their contribution to the Canadian economy.

    Release date: 2000-01-14

Reference (16)

Reference (16) (16 of 16 results)

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