Statistics by subject – Income, pensions, spending and wealth

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  • Articles and reports: 75-001-X200611013172
    Description:

    Using tax data, this paper examines earnings instability among lone parents, unattached individuals, and two-parent families over the past two decades. When income tax effects and main sources of income were considered, no strong evidence of a widespread increase in instability was found. Government transfers play a particularly important role in reducing the earnings instability of lone mothers and unattached individuals

    Release date: 2006-12-20

  • Surveys and statistical programs – Documentation: 62F0026M2006001
    Description:

    This guide presents information of interest to users of data from the Survey of Household Spending, which gathers information on the spending habits, dwelling characteristics and household equipment of Canadian households. The survey covers private households in the 10 provinces. (The territories are surveyed every second year, starting in 1999.)

    This guide includes definitions of survey terms and variables, as well as descriptions of survey methodology and data quality. One section describes the various statistics that can be created using expenditure data (e.g., budget share, market share, aggregates and medians).

    Release date: 2006-12-12

  • Table: Summary table
    Release date: 2006-12-07

  • Surveys and statistical programs – Documentation: 13F0026M2006001
    Description:

    This report provides an overview of the results of the Survey of Financial Security (SFS). This survey collected information on the assets and debts of families and unattached individuals. Data collection took place from May to July 2005, in all provinces.

    The 2005 SFS provides a comprehensive picture of the wealth of Canadians. Information was collected on the value of all major financial and non-financial assets and on the money owing on mortgages, vehicles, credit cards, student loans and other debts. The value of these assets less the debts is referred to in this report as net worth.

    Release date: 2006-12-07

  • Articles and reports: 11-621-M2006051
    Description:

    This study examines the evolution of the offering of gift cards among large Canadian retailers from 2003 to 2005. It also gives a first glance at the results of a special survey about gift cards in the broader retail community.

    Release date: 2006-12-04

  • Articles and reports: 87-004-X20030049503
    Description:

    Using data from the Survey of Household Spending (SHS), this article explores household spending on culture goods and services over a five year period, from 1999 to 2004, and examines differences in average spending by household type.

    Release date: 2006-11-02

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M2006286
    Description:

    We analyze the degree to which Canadian families are covered by private pension plans and document how their savings for retirement (made through contributions to tax-assisted retirement savings programs) have evolved over the last two decades. We find that two-parent families, lone-parent families and other individuals located in the bottom quintile of the earnings distribution are not better prepared for retirement than their counterparts were in the mid-1980s or the early 1990s. On the other hand, those located in the top quintile are better prepared than their counterparts were in the mid-1980s or the early 1990s. As a result, Canadian families' preparedness for retirement, which was fairly unequal in the mid-1980s, has become even more unequal over the last two decades. This finding has important implications for the future. Recent research has shown that the maturation of the Canada and Quebec Pension Plans (C/QPPs) has led to a substantial reduction in income inequality among the elderly between the early 1980s and the mid-1990s. In the absence of offsetting trends, the growing inequality in Canadian families preparedness for retirement implies that that the distribution of family income among seniors should become more unequal in the years to come.

    Release date: 2006-09-26

  • Articles and reports: 75-001-X200610613166
    Description:

    The GST (goods and services tax) provided $30.6 billion to the federal government in 2003. Of this, $2.9 billion was paid back as a credit to taxfilers aged 16 and older based on their income. How many individuals receive the GST credit, and who are they? Does this credit help to redistribute income?

    Release date: 2006-09-19

  • Articles and reports: 81-595-M2006047
    Description:

    This study uses data from a data linkage of administrative Canada Student Loans Program data and the Longitudinal Administrative Database to analyze the Interest Relief Program. This study measures the size and characteristics of the population that is eligible but does not utilize Interest Relief, and determines how socio-economic and loan characteristics relate to the uptake and eligibility for Interest Relief. In 2000, for every 100 borrowers in repayment, about 35 borrowers were eligible for Interest Relief, but less than 16 borrowers took it.

    Release date: 2006-08-30

  • Articles and reports: 89-613-M2006010
    Description:

    This report paints a statistical portrait of socio-economic conditions in the Census Metropolitan Areas (CMAs) of Toronto, Montréal and Vancouver. It highlights trends in population growth, suburban growth, commuting, employment, unemployment, immigration, income and low-income and socio-economic conditions among immigrants, Aboriginal People, and others. It uses data from the 1981 to 2001 Censuses of Canada, the 2005 Labour Force Historical Review, and Income in Canada, 2004.

    Release date: 2006-07-20

  • Articles and reports: 11-621-M2006046
    Description:

    This study analyzes the impact of widowhood on income, as well as changes in the low-income rate and the sources of income among women and men 65 years of age and over, who became widowed at any point between 1993 and 2003. The source of data is Statistics Canada's Longitudinal Administrative Databank (LAD).

    Release date: 2006-07-10

  • Articles and reports: 63F0002X2006050
    Description:

    In recent years, while Canadians have spent more on entertainment at home, there has concurrently been an increase in demand for entertainment outside the home. The entertainment services outside the home discussed in this article include attendance at movie theatres, performing arts and spectator sports events and admissions to heritage institutions. This shift in preferences along with growth in incomes, population and prices caused the consumer market for entertainment services to expand from $2.3 billion in 1998 to $3.2 billion in 2003, an increase of 41%.

    Based primarily on Survey of Household Spending data from 1998 and 2003, this article examines changes over the five year period in household spending on entertainment services. In particular, it investigates how spending changed in each province and for some household types and each household income quintile. It also looks at how the performance of entertainment services providers may have been affected by such changes. As the entertainment services market grows, the providers of these services face the challenge of retaining existing customers and attracting new ones. Knowing how consumer characteristics such as income, type of household and geographical location affect entertainment spending can enable suppliers to better provide and market their services.

    Release date: 2006-06-27

  • Articles and reports: 63-018-X20060029223
    Description:

    In recent years, while Canadians have spent more on entertainment at home, there has concurrently been an increase in demand for entertainment outside the home. The entertainment services outside the home discussed in this article include attendance at movie theatres, performing arts and spectator sports events and admissions to heritage institutions. This shift in preferences along with growth in incomes, population and prices caused the consumer market for entertainment services to expand from $2.3 billion in 1998 to $3.2 billion in 2003, an increase of 41%.

    Based primarily on Survey of Household Spending data from 1998 and 2003, this article examines changes over the five year period in household spending on entertainment services. In particular, it investigates how spending changed in each province and for some household types and each household income quintile. It also looks at how the performance of entertainment services providers may have been affected by such changes. As the entertainment services market grows, the providers of these services face the challenge of retaining existing customers and attracting new ones. Knowing how consumer characteristics such as income, type of household and geographical location affect entertainment spending can enable suppliers to better provide and market their services.

    Release date: 2006-06-27

  • Articles and reports: 75-001-X200610413161
    Description:

    A registered retirement savings plan (RRSP) constitutes a key component of retirement income planning in Canada. RRSPs allow individuals to save pre-tax dollars in a variety of investment instruments where interest, dividends and capital gains accrue tax free until the funds are withdrawn. However, the taxman will eventually receive his due. RRSPs must be converted into an annuity or a registered retirement income fund (RRIF) in the year the taxpayer turns 69, with prescribed minimum withdrawals starting the following year. RRSP withdrawals already generate significant tax revenues, estimated at over $4 billion in 2002. Although mandatory conversion affects mainly middle- and high-income earners, some low-income savers could have their means-tested social benefits reduced by the boost in income.

    Release date: 2006-06-20

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M2006280
    Description:

    Before 1989, childless social assistance recipients in Quebec under age 30 received much lower benefits than recipients over age 30. We use this sharp discontinuity in policy to estimate the effects of social assistance on various labour market outcomes using a regression discontinuity approach. We find strong evidence that more generous social assistance benefits reduce employment. The estimates exhibit little sensitivity to the degree of flexibility in the specification, and perform very well when we control for unobserved heterogeneity using a first difference specification. Finally, we show that commonly used difference-in-differences estimators may perform poorly with inappropriately chosen control groups.

    Release date: 2006-06-14

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M2006282
    Description:

    Employment rates and earnings among single mothers improved significantly after 1980, and by 2000, low-income rates reached new historic lows. Unlike married mothers, most of the gains among lone mothers were the result of the dynamics of population change and cohort replacement as the large and better educated baby boom generation replaced earlier cohorts and began entering their forties. Most of these gains, moreover, went to older lone mothers. The demographically driven gains of lone mothers in the past quarter century were an historical event unlikely to be repeated in the future. Since the demographic drivers underlying these gains are now nearing maturity, future gains from this source are likely to be modest.

    Release date: 2006-06-07

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M2006281
    Description:

    This research paper examines whether various measures of family income are associated with the cognitive, social/emotional, physical and behavioural development of children. Data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Children and Youth were used to assess a range of measures of well-being among children aged 4-15 in 1998, whose family composition remained unchanged between 1994 and 1998. The study finds that regardless of age or how income is measured, higher family income is almost always associated with better child well-being. Among children in lower income families, incremental increases in household income are found to be associated with better child development outcomes. Increases in income continue to remain associated with better well-being, even once children are out of low income. In fact, the study does not find a point above which high income ceases to benefit children's development. In particular, children's cognitive and behavioural development measures appear to have the strongest associations with levels of family income.

    The results show that changes in family income appear to be less important for child outcomes than levels of family income for 8-11- and 12-15-year-olds. However, for the 4-7-year-old group, changes in family income are more important ' particularly for emotional development scores. Analysis from the Youth in Transition Survey also finds similar relationships between the socio-economic status of the family and the developmental outcomes of children.

    Release date: 2006-05-11

Data (10)

Data (10) (10 of 10 results)

Analysis (21)

Analysis (21) (21 of 21 results)

  • Articles and reports: 75-001-X200611013172
    Description:

    Using tax data, this paper examines earnings instability among lone parents, unattached individuals, and two-parent families over the past two decades. When income tax effects and main sources of income were considered, no strong evidence of a widespread increase in instability was found. Government transfers play a particularly important role in reducing the earnings instability of lone mothers and unattached individuals

    Release date: 2006-12-20

  • Articles and reports: 11-621-M2006051
    Description:

    This study examines the evolution of the offering of gift cards among large Canadian retailers from 2003 to 2005. It also gives a first glance at the results of a special survey about gift cards in the broader retail community.

    Release date: 2006-12-04

  • Articles and reports: 87-004-X20030049503
    Description:

    Using data from the Survey of Household Spending (SHS), this article explores household spending on culture goods and services over a five year period, from 1999 to 2004, and examines differences in average spending by household type.

    Release date: 2006-11-02

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M2006286
    Description:

    We analyze the degree to which Canadian families are covered by private pension plans and document how their savings for retirement (made through contributions to tax-assisted retirement savings programs) have evolved over the last two decades. We find that two-parent families, lone-parent families and other individuals located in the bottom quintile of the earnings distribution are not better prepared for retirement than their counterparts were in the mid-1980s or the early 1990s. On the other hand, those located in the top quintile are better prepared than their counterparts were in the mid-1980s or the early 1990s. As a result, Canadian families' preparedness for retirement, which was fairly unequal in the mid-1980s, has become even more unequal over the last two decades. This finding has important implications for the future. Recent research has shown that the maturation of the Canada and Quebec Pension Plans (C/QPPs) has led to a substantial reduction in income inequality among the elderly between the early 1980s and the mid-1990s. In the absence of offsetting trends, the growing inequality in Canadian families preparedness for retirement implies that that the distribution of family income among seniors should become more unequal in the years to come.

    Release date: 2006-09-26

  • Articles and reports: 75-001-X200610613166
    Description:

    The GST (goods and services tax) provided $30.6 billion to the federal government in 2003. Of this, $2.9 billion was paid back as a credit to taxfilers aged 16 and older based on their income. How many individuals receive the GST credit, and who are they? Does this credit help to redistribute income?

    Release date: 2006-09-19

  • Articles and reports: 81-595-M2006047
    Description:

    This study uses data from a data linkage of administrative Canada Student Loans Program data and the Longitudinal Administrative Database to analyze the Interest Relief Program. This study measures the size and characteristics of the population that is eligible but does not utilize Interest Relief, and determines how socio-economic and loan characteristics relate to the uptake and eligibility for Interest Relief. In 2000, for every 100 borrowers in repayment, about 35 borrowers were eligible for Interest Relief, but less than 16 borrowers took it.

    Release date: 2006-08-30

  • Articles and reports: 89-613-M2006010
    Description:

    This report paints a statistical portrait of socio-economic conditions in the Census Metropolitan Areas (CMAs) of Toronto, Montréal and Vancouver. It highlights trends in population growth, suburban growth, commuting, employment, unemployment, immigration, income and low-income and socio-economic conditions among immigrants, Aboriginal People, and others. It uses data from the 1981 to 2001 Censuses of Canada, the 2005 Labour Force Historical Review, and Income in Canada, 2004.

    Release date: 2006-07-20

  • Articles and reports: 11-621-M2006046
    Description:

    This study analyzes the impact of widowhood on income, as well as changes in the low-income rate and the sources of income among women and men 65 years of age and over, who became widowed at any point between 1993 and 2003. The source of data is Statistics Canada's Longitudinal Administrative Databank (LAD).

    Release date: 2006-07-10

  • Articles and reports: 63F0002X2006050
    Description:

    In recent years, while Canadians have spent more on entertainment at home, there has concurrently been an increase in demand for entertainment outside the home. The entertainment services outside the home discussed in this article include attendance at movie theatres, performing arts and spectator sports events and admissions to heritage institutions. This shift in preferences along with growth in incomes, population and prices caused the consumer market for entertainment services to expand from $2.3 billion in 1998 to $3.2 billion in 2003, an increase of 41%.

    Based primarily on Survey of Household Spending data from 1998 and 2003, this article examines changes over the five year period in household spending on entertainment services. In particular, it investigates how spending changed in each province and for some household types and each household income quintile. It also looks at how the performance of entertainment services providers may have been affected by such changes. As the entertainment services market grows, the providers of these services face the challenge of retaining existing customers and attracting new ones. Knowing how consumer characteristics such as income, type of household and geographical location affect entertainment spending can enable suppliers to better provide and market their services.

    Release date: 2006-06-27

  • Articles and reports: 63-018-X20060029223
    Description:

    In recent years, while Canadians have spent more on entertainment at home, there has concurrently been an increase in demand for entertainment outside the home. The entertainment services outside the home discussed in this article include attendance at movie theatres, performing arts and spectator sports events and admissions to heritage institutions. This shift in preferences along with growth in incomes, population and prices caused the consumer market for entertainment services to expand from $2.3 billion in 1998 to $3.2 billion in 2003, an increase of 41%.

    Based primarily on Survey of Household Spending data from 1998 and 2003, this article examines changes over the five year period in household spending on entertainment services. In particular, it investigates how spending changed in each province and for some household types and each household income quintile. It also looks at how the performance of entertainment services providers may have been affected by such changes. As the entertainment services market grows, the providers of these services face the challenge of retaining existing customers and attracting new ones. Knowing how consumer characteristics such as income, type of household and geographical location affect entertainment spending can enable suppliers to better provide and market their services.

    Release date: 2006-06-27

  • Articles and reports: 75-001-X200610413161
    Description:

    A registered retirement savings plan (RRSP) constitutes a key component of retirement income planning in Canada. RRSPs allow individuals to save pre-tax dollars in a variety of investment instruments where interest, dividends and capital gains accrue tax free until the funds are withdrawn. However, the taxman will eventually receive his due. RRSPs must be converted into an annuity or a registered retirement income fund (RRIF) in the year the taxpayer turns 69, with prescribed minimum withdrawals starting the following year. RRSP withdrawals already generate significant tax revenues, estimated at over $4 billion in 2002. Although mandatory conversion affects mainly middle- and high-income earners, some low-income savers could have their means-tested social benefits reduced by the boost in income.

    Release date: 2006-06-20

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M2006280
    Description:

    Before 1989, childless social assistance recipients in Quebec under age 30 received much lower benefits than recipients over age 30. We use this sharp discontinuity in policy to estimate the effects of social assistance on various labour market outcomes using a regression discontinuity approach. We find strong evidence that more generous social assistance benefits reduce employment. The estimates exhibit little sensitivity to the degree of flexibility in the specification, and perform very well when we control for unobserved heterogeneity using a first difference specification. Finally, we show that commonly used difference-in-differences estimators may perform poorly with inappropriately chosen control groups.

    Release date: 2006-06-14

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M2006282
    Description:

    Employment rates and earnings among single mothers improved significantly after 1980, and by 2000, low-income rates reached new historic lows. Unlike married mothers, most of the gains among lone mothers were the result of the dynamics of population change and cohort replacement as the large and better educated baby boom generation replaced earlier cohorts and began entering their forties. Most of these gains, moreover, went to older lone mothers. The demographically driven gains of lone mothers in the past quarter century were an historical event unlikely to be repeated in the future. Since the demographic drivers underlying these gains are now nearing maturity, future gains from this source are likely to be modest.

    Release date: 2006-06-07

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M2006281
    Description:

    This research paper examines whether various measures of family income are associated with the cognitive, social/emotional, physical and behavioural development of children. Data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Children and Youth were used to assess a range of measures of well-being among children aged 4-15 in 1998, whose family composition remained unchanged between 1994 and 1998. The study finds that regardless of age or how income is measured, higher family income is almost always associated with better child well-being. Among children in lower income families, incremental increases in household income are found to be associated with better child development outcomes. Increases in income continue to remain associated with better well-being, even once children are out of low income. In fact, the study does not find a point above which high income ceases to benefit children's development. In particular, children's cognitive and behavioural development measures appear to have the strongest associations with levels of family income.

    The results show that changes in family income appear to be less important for child outcomes than levels of family income for 8-11- and 12-15-year-olds. However, for the 4-7-year-old group, changes in family income are more important ' particularly for emotional development scores. Analysis from the Youth in Transition Survey also finds similar relationships between the socio-economic status of the family and the developmental outcomes of children.

    Release date: 2006-05-11

  • Articles and reports: 81-595-M2006042
    Description:

    This study looks at the education costs and financial support for 18 to 24 year old students (17 to 24 in Quebec) pursuing postsecondary studies in Canada during the 2001-2002 academic year. Taking into account the basic costs of postsecondary programs (tuition fees, books and supplies), this study also looks at how students pay for their studies.

    Release date: 2006-04-26

  • Articles and reports: 81-595-M2006039
    Description:

    This study focuses on the experience of students who consolidated their Canada student loans in loan year 1994-1995. It analyses a new database, which was created by linking Canada Student Loan Program records to income tax records from the Statistics Canada Longitudinal Administrative Database (LAD) and looks, in particular, at the relationships between debt size, income and default.

    Release date: 2006-03-29

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M2006275
    Description:

    This study assesses the effects of literacy and numeracy skills on the labour market outcomes of Canadian high school drop-outs. We find that these skills have significant effects on the probability of being employed and on hours and weeks of work for both men and women, and also have strong (direct) influences on men's, but not women's, incomes. These findings imply that high school curricula that develop literacy and numeracy skills could provide significant returns even for those who do not complete their programs and wind up at the lower end of the labour market. Our findings similarly suggest that training programs catering to drop-outs could substantially improve these individuals' labour market outcomes by developing these basic skills. The results also have implications for dual labour market theory, since it is often assumed that the secondary market is characterized by minimal returns to human capital'contrary to what is found here.

    Release date: 2006-03-27

  • Articles and reports: 75-001-X20051128981
    Description:

    The article examines changes between 1981 and 2001 in the characteristics of lone parents. It looks at their earnings and the proportion in low income by age and education, and compares them with parents living as a couple. Changes in low-income rates for full-time, full-year workers are also examined.

    Release date: 2006-03-20

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M2006274
    Description:

    We present new evidence on levels and trends in after-tax income inequality in Canada between 1980 and 2000. We argue that existing data sources may miss changes in the tails of the income distribution, and that much of the changes in the income distribution have been in the tails. Our data are constructed from Census files, which are augmented with predicted taxes based on information available from administrative tax data. After validating our approach in predicting taxes on the Census files, we document differences in the levels and trends in after-tax inequality between the newly constructed data source and the more commonly used survey data. We find that after-tax inequality levels are substantially higher based on the new data, primarily because income levels are lower at the bottom than in survey data. The new data show larger long-term increases in after-tax income inequality and far more variability over the economic cycle. This raises interesting questions about the role of the tax and transfer system in mitigating both trends and fluctuations in market income inequality.

    Release date: 2006-02-27

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M2006268
    Description:

    This paper examines the variability of workers' earnings in Canada over the period 1982-1997 and how earnings variability has varied in terms of the unemployment rate and real gross domestic product (GDP) growth over this period. Using a large panel of tax file data, we decompose total variation in earnings across workers and time into a long-run inequality component between workers and an average earnings instability component over time for workers. The analysis is done for men and women and for both long-run participants and a broad coverage of workers. We find an increase in earnings variability between 1982-1989 and 1990-1997 that is largely confined to men and largely driven by widening long-run earnings inequality. Second, the pattern of unemployment rate and GDP growth rate effects on these variance components is not consistent with conventional explanations of cyclical effects on earnings inequality and is suggestive of an alternative paradigm of how economic growth over this period widens long-run earnings inequality. Third, when the unemployment rate and GDP growth rate effects are considered jointly, macroeconomic improvement is found to reduce the overall variability of earnings as the reduction in earnings instability outweighs the general widening of long-run earnings inequality.

    Release date: 2006-02-07

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M2006269
    Description:

    This article summarizes findings from the research paper entitled: The Impact of Macroeconomic Conditions on the Instability and Long-Run Inequality of Workers' Earnings in Canada.

    This paper examines the variability of workers' earnings in Canada over the period 1982-1997 and how earnings variability has varied in terms of the unemployment rate and real gross domestic product (GDP) growth over this period. Using a large panel of tax file data, we decompose total variation in earnings across workers and time into a long-run inequality component between workers and an average earnings instability component over time for workers. The analysis is done for men and women and for both long-run participants and a broad coverage of workers. We find an increase in earnings variability between 1982-1989 and 1990-1997 that is largely confined to men and largely driven by widening long-run earnings inequality. Second, the pattern of unemployment rate and GDP growth rate effects on these variance components is not consistent with conventional explanations of cyclical effects on earnings inequality and is suggestive of an alternative paradigm of how economic growth over this period widens long-run earnings inequality. Third, when the unemployment rate and GDP growth rate effects are considered jointly, macroeconomic improvement is found to reduce the overall variability of earnings as the reduction in earnings instability outweighs the general widening of long-run earnings inequality.

    Release date: 2006-02-07

Reference (6)

Reference (6) (6 of 6 results)

  • Surveys and statistical programs – Documentation: 62F0026M2006001
    Description:

    This guide presents information of interest to users of data from the Survey of Household Spending, which gathers information on the spending habits, dwelling characteristics and household equipment of Canadian households. The survey covers private households in the 10 provinces. (The territories are surveyed every second year, starting in 1999.)

    This guide includes definitions of survey terms and variables, as well as descriptions of survey methodology and data quality. One section describes the various statistics that can be created using expenditure data (e.g., budget share, market share, aggregates and medians).

    Release date: 2006-12-12

  • Surveys and statistical programs – Documentation: 13F0026M2006001
    Description:

    This report provides an overview of the results of the Survey of Financial Security (SFS). This survey collected information on the assets and debts of families and unattached individuals. Data collection took place from May to July 2005, in all provinces.

    The 2005 SFS provides a comprehensive picture of the wealth of Canadians. Information was collected on the value of all major financial and non-financial assets and on the money owing on mortgages, vehicles, credit cards, student loans and other debts. The value of these assets less the debts is referred to in this report as net worth.

    Release date: 2006-12-07

  • Index and guides: 17-507-X
    Description:

    "Neighbourhood insights" is your guide to the statistical information packages available from the Small Area and Administrative Data Division. The guide provides descriptions of the various databanks, the geographic availability and the pricing structure. The guide also contains sample statistical tables showing data for Canada.

    Release date: 2006-05-04

  • Technical products: 75F0002M2006003
    Description:

    The Survey of Income and Labour Dynamics (SLID) interview is conducted using computer-assisted interviewing (CAI). CAI is paperless interviewing. This document is therefore a written approximation of the CAI interview, or the questionnaire.

    In previous years, SLID conducted a Labour interview each January and a separate Income interview in May. In 2005 (reference year 2004) the two interviews were combined and collected in one interview in January.

    A labour and income interview is collected for all respondents 16 years of age and over. Respondents have the option of answering income questions during the interview, or of giving Statistics Canada permission to use their income tax records.

    In January 2005, data was collected for reference year 2004 from panels 3 and 4. Panel 3, in its sixth and final year, consisted of approximately 17,000 households and panel 4, in its third year, also consisted of approximately 17,000 households.

    This document outlines the structure of the January 2005 Labour and Income interview (for the 2004 reference year) including question wording, possible responses, and flows of questions.

    Release date: 2006-04-06

  • Technical products: 75F0002M2006004
    Description:

    Low income cut-offs (LICOs) are income thresholds, determined by analysing family expenditure data, below which families will devote a larger share of income to the necessities of food, shelter and clothing than the average family would. To reflect differences in the costs of necessities among different community and family sizes, LICOs are defined for five categories of community size and seven of family size.

    Low income Measures (LIMs), on the other hand, are strictly relative measures of low income, set at 50% of adjusted median family income. These measures are categorized according to the number of adults and children present in families, reflecting the economies of scale inherent in family size and composition. This publication incorporates a detailed description of the methods used to arrive at both measurements. It also explains how base years are defined and how LICOs are updated using the Consumer Price Index.

    Release date: 2006-04-06

  • Technical products: 75F0002M2006006
    Description:

    This report examines the transitions into and out of low income and the persistence of low income among Canadians. It also examines the incidence of low wage among full-time workers and the extent to which low wage workers live in low income families.

    Release date: 2006-04-06

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