Statistics by subject – Income, pensions, spending and wealth

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Data (69)

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  • The Daily
    Description: Release published in The Daily – Statistics Canada’s official release bulletin
    Release date: 2018-05-16

  • The Daily
    Description: Release published in The Daily – Statistics Canada’s official release bulletin
    Release date: 2018-01-08

  • The Daily
    Description: Release published in The Daily – Statistics Canada’s official release bulletin
    Release date: 2016-12-05

  • The Daily
    Description: Release published in The Daily – Statistics Canada’s official release bulletin
    Release date: 2015-12-17

  • Journals and periodicals: 75-001-X
    Description:

    This publication brings together and analyzes a wide range of labour and income data. Topics include youth in the labour market, pensions and retirement, work arrangements, education and training, and trends in family income. One section highlights new products, surveys, research projects and conferences. Another section uses charts and text to describe a variety of subjects related to labour and income. Each winter print issue contains an index of all published articles.

    To find the latest updates on labour market and household issues such as gambling, minimum wage, retirement and unionization, please visit: Topics of interest on labour and income.

    Release date: 2012-08-22

  • Journals and periodicals: 75-202-X
    Description:

    Income in Canada is an annual analytical report which summarizes the economic well-being of Canadians. It includes an extensive collection of income statistics, covering topics such as income distribution, income tax, government transfers, and low income back to 1976. The data prior to 1993 are drawn from the Survey of Consumer Finances (SCF). Beginning with 1998, the data are taken from the Survey of Labour and Income Dynamnics (SLID). For the 1993 to 1997 period, estimates are based on a combined sample from SCF and SLID.

    Income in Canada provides a complete list of the tables and directions for getting started. It also contains links to the background information on the survey, including content and methodology, and other SLID data products and services.

    With this release, users now have free access to the 202 CANSIM Series tables. Tables are accessible using a PC or Mac via the web browser.

    Release date: 2012-06-18

  • Articles and reports: 81-599-X2009004
    Description:

    This fact sheet provides information on the proportion of the school-age population - defined as children and youth aged 5 to 24 - living in low-income circumstances, including the duration of low-income spells, using data from Statistics Canada's Survey of Labour and Income Dynamics (SLID). The percentage of children in low-income is calculated based on Statistics Canada's low income cut-offs (LICOs), using data on family income after government benefits are received and after federal and provincial taxes are paid.

    Release date: 2009-12-16

  • Articles and reports: 81-595-M2005036
    Description:

    This report builds on previous research examining the role of family income in postsecondary education. The paper attempts to address three broad questions using data from the Survey of Labour and Income Dynamics (SLID). First, has the postsecondary education participation pattern changed in the recent past either for college and university participation, or for youth of various backgrounds? Second, how are the socio-economic factors related to postsecondary participation? Does the impact of socio-economic factors differ for college and university participation? Thirdly, for those who did pursue postsecondary education, which factors are more important in the choice of institution - university versus college?

    Release date: 2005-10-17

Reference (56)

Reference (56) (25 of 56 results)

  • Technical products: 75F0002M
    Description:

    This series provides detailed documentation on income developments, including survey design issues, data quality evaluation and exploratory research.

    Release date: 2018-04-05

  • Technical products: 75F0002M2014001
    Description:

    This series provides detailed documentation on income developments, including survey design issues, data quality evaluation and exploratory research for the Survey of Labour and Income Dynamics in 2011.

    Release date: 2014-07-30

  • Surveys and statistical programs – Documentation: 75F0011X
    Description:

    This overview for the Survey of Labour and Income Dynamics (SLID) provides information on the purpose, content, methodology and products and services pertaining to SLID. Its HTML, menu-driven format enables users to discover all main elements of the survey in one, easy-to-use document. This publication was designed for survey respondents, users of SLID data, researchers and analysts, and individuals who would like to learn more about the survey.

    The SLID is an important source for income data for Canadian families, households and individuals. Introduced in 1993, SLID provides an added dimension to traditional surveys on labour market activity and income: the changes experienced by individuals and families through time. At the heart of the survey's objectives is the understanding of the economic well-being of Canadians. SLID also provides information on a broad selection of human capital variables, labour force experiences and demographic characteristics such as education, family relationships and household composition. Its breadth of content, combined with a relatively large sample, makes it a unique and valuable dataset.

    With this release, users now have free access to the 202 CANSIM Series tables. Tables are accessible using a PC or Mac via the web browser.

    Release date: 2013-06-27

  • Surveys and statistical programs – Documentation: 75F0026X
    Description:

    This electronic product provides information on all Survey of Labour and Income Dynamics (SLID) variables, descriptions and response categories, and range of values. Starting with content themes, information is accessed in a hierarchical fashion, quickly guiding data users to variables of interest.

    Release date: 2013-06-27

  • Technical products: 75F0002M2013001
    Description:

    This series provides detailed documentation on income developments, including survey design issues, data quality evaluation and exploratory research for the Survey of Labour and Income Dynamics in 2010.

    Release date: 2013-03-26

  • Technical products: 75F0002M2012003
    Description:

    The release of the 2010 Survey of Labour and Income Dynamics (SLID) data coincided with a historical revision of the 2006 to 2009 results. The survey weights were updated to take into account new population estimates based on the 2006 Census rather than the 2001 Census. This paper presents a summary of the impact of this revision on the 2006-2009 survey estimates.

    Release date: 2012-11-01

  • Technical products: 75F0002M2012002
    Description:

    In order to provide a holographic or complete picture of low income, Statistics Canada uses three complementary low income lines: the Low Income Cut-offs (LICOs), the Low Income Measures (LIMs) and the Market Basket Measure (MBM). While the first two lines were developed by Statistics Canada, the MBM is based on concepts developed by Human Resources and Skill Development Canada. Though these measures differ from one another, they give a generally consistent picture of low income status over time. None of these measures is the best. Each contributes its own perspective and its own strengths to the study of low income, so that cumulatively, the three provide a better understanding of the phenomenon of low income as a whole. These measures are not measures of poverty, but strictly measures of low income.

    Release date: 2012-06-18

  • Technical products: 75F0002M2012001
    Description:

    This study examines low income in Canada over a 34-year period from 1976 to 2009 with a multi-line, multi-index approach using data from the Survey of Consumer Finance (1976 to 1995) and Survey of Labour and Income Dynamics (1996 to 2009). Three different low income lines are used: the Low Income Cut-offs (LICOs); the Low Income Measure (LIM) and the Market Basket Measure (MBM). In addition, three indexes are used to measure the incidence, depth and severity of low income in the study.

    We first examine the evolution of low-income at the national level. This is followed by an investigation of the low income experiences of children, seniors, lone-parents, unattached non-elderly individuals, recent immigrants, off-reserve aboriginals and persons with activity limitations. Next, we compare low incomes across the ten provinces as well as seven Census Metropolitan Areas (CMA). Finally, we study low income mobility in Canada during the 1993-to-2009 period.

    Release date: 2012-03-07

  • Technical products: 75F0002M2011004
    Description:

    This series provides detailed documentation on income developments, including survey design issues, data quality evaluation and exploratory research for the Survey of Labour and Income Dynamics in 2009.

    Release date: 2011-10-27

  • Technical products: 75F0002M2010005
    Description:

    In order to provide a holographic or complete picture of low income, Statistics Canada uses three complementary low income lines: the Low Income Cut-offs (LICOs), the Low Income Measures (LIMs) and the Market Basket Measure (MBM). While the first two lines were developed by Statistics Canada, the MBM is based on concepts developed by Human Resources and Skill Development Canada. Though these measures differ from one another, they give a generally consistent picture of low income status over time. None of these measures is the best. Each contributes its own perspective and its own strengths to the study of low income, so that cumulatively, the three provide a better understanding of the phenomenon of low income as a whole. These measures are not measures of poverty, but strictly measures of low income.

    Release date: 2010-06-17

  • Technical products: 75F0002M2010004
    Description:

    Statistics Canada introduced its Low Income Measure (LIM) in 1991 as a complement to its Low Income Cut-Offs (LICOs). The Low Income Measure (LIM) is a dollar threshold that delineates low-income in relation to the median income and different versions of this measure are in wide use internationally. Over the intervening 25 years there have been a number of useful methodological and conceptual developments in the area of low income measurement. To make the Canadian LIM methodology consistent with international norms and practices, a revision of the Statistics Canada LIM methodology appears desirable.

    This paper describes three modifications to the LIM that Statistics Canada plans to introduce in 2010: replacing the economic family by household; replacing the current LIM equivalence scale by the square root of household size; and taking household size into consideration in determining the low-income thresholds. The paper explains the rationale behind each modification and demonstrates the impacts the revisions will have on low-income statistics in comparison with those under the existing LIM. Overall the revisions do not have any significant effect on broad historic trends in low-income statistics in Canada. However, compared to the existing LIM the revised LIM produces lower estimates of low-income incidence for certain groups of individuals such as unattached non-elderly individuals.

    Release date: 2010-06-07

  • Technical products: 75F0002M2010003
    Description:

    This study assesses the existing LICO, LIM, and MBM lines, together with a fixed LIM, by using several distribution sensitive indexes. We found that the low income lines tracked each other well in the long-run. But, in the short-run, they often behaved differently. The same was observed when examining different indexes under the same line. In the long-run, the low income rate, gap, and severity indexes all moved in the same direction. However in the short-run, they sometimes varied in opposite directions, or in the same direction with different magnitudes, suggesting that a single line or index can be misleading in some circumstances.

    Release date: 2010-05-26

  • Technical products: 75F0002M2010002
    Description:

    This report compares the aggregate income estimates as published by four different statistical programs. The System of National Accounts provides a portrait of economic activity at the macro economic level. The three other programs considered generate data from a micro-economic perspective: two are survey based (Census of Population and Survey of Labour and Income Dynamics) and the third derives all its results from administrative data (Annual Estimates for Census Families and Individuals). A review of the conceptual differences across the sources is followed by a discussion of coverage issues and processing discrepancies that might influence estimates. Aggregate income estimates with adjustments where possible to account for known conceptual differences are compared. Even allowing for statistical variability, some reconciliation issues remain. These are sometimes are explained by the use of different methodologies or data gathering instruments but they sometimes also remain unexplained.

    Release date: 2010-04-06

  • Technical products: 75F0002M2010001
    Description:

    This series provides detailed documentation on income developments, including survey design issues, data quality evaluation and exploratory research for the Survey of Labour and Income Dynamics in 2007

    Release date: 2010-03-02

  • Technical products: 75F0002M2009002
    Description:

    Low income cut-offs (LICOs) are income thresholds, determined by analysing family expenditure data, below which families will devote a larger share of income to the necessities of food, shelter and clothing than the average family would. To reflect differences in the costs of necessities among different community and family sizes, LICOs are defined for five categories of community size and seven of family size.

    Low income measures (LIMs), on the other hand, are strictly relative measures of low income, set at 50% of adjusted median family income. These measures are categorized according to the number of adults and children present in families, reflecting the economies of scale inherent in family size and composition. This publication incorporates a detailed description of the methods used to arrive at both measurements. It also explains how base years are defined and how LICOs are updated using the Consumer Price Index.

    Release date: 2009-06-03

  • Technical products: 75F0002M2009001
    Description:

    This series provides detailed documentation on income developments, including survey design issues, data quality evaluation and exploratory research for the Survey of Labour and Income Dynamics in 2006.

    Release date: 2009-01-13

  • Technical products: 75F0002M2008004
    Description:

    Low income cut-offs (LICOs) are income thresholds, determined by analysing family expenditure data, below which families will devote a larger share of income to the necessities of food, shelter and clothing than the average family would. To reflect differences in the costs of necessities among different community and family sizes, LICOs are defined for five categories of community size and seven of family size.

    Low income Measures (LIMs), on the other hand, are strictly relative measures of low income, set at 50% of adjusted median family income. These measures are categorized according to the number of adults and children present in families, reflecting the economies of scale inherent in family size and composition. This publication incorporates a detailed description of the methods used to arrive at both measurements. It also explains how base years are defined and how LICOs are updated using the Consumer Price Index.

    Release date: 2008-06-04

  • Technical products: 75F0002M2008003
    Description:

    The Survey of Labour and Income Dynamics (SLID) is a longitudinal survey which collects information related to the standard of living of individuals and their families. By interviewing the same people over a period of six years, changes and the causes of these changes can be monitored.

    A preliminary interview of background information is collected for all respondents aged 16 and over, who enter the SLID sample. Preliminary interviews are conducted for new household members during their first labour and income interview after they join the household. A labour and income interview is collected each year for all respondents 16 years of age and over.

    The purpose of this document is to present the questions, possible responses and question flows for the 2007 preliminary, labour and income questionnaire (for the 2006 reference year).

    Release date: 2008-05-30

  • Technical products: 75F0002M1992001
    Description:

    Starting in 1994, the Survey of Labour and Income Dynamics (SLID) will follow individuals and families for at least six years, tracking their labour market experiences, changes in income and family circumstances. An initial proposal for the content of SLID, entitled "Content of the Survey of Labour and Income Dynamics : Discussion Paper", was distributed in February 1992.

    That paper served as a background document for consultation with and a review by interested users. The content underwent significant change during this process. Based upon the revised content, a large-scale test of SLID will be conducted in February and May 1993.

    The present document outlines the income and wealth content to be tested in May 1993. This document is really a continuation of SLID Research Paper Series 92-01A, which outlines the demographic and labour content used in the January /February 1993 test.

    Release date: 2008-02-29

  • Technical products: 75F0002M2008001
    Description:

    Shelter is the biggest expenditure most households make and its affordability can have an impact on the wellbeing of household members. For this reason, housing affordability is closely watched by a wide range of stakeholders - from housing advocates to policy analysts - interested in the welfare of Canadians. Measuring affordability involves comparing housing costs to a household's ability to meet them. One common measure is the shelter-cost-to-income-ratio (STIR). The 30% level is commonly accepted as the upper limit for affordable housing. Housing affordability is also a critical input to Canada Mortgage and Housing Corporation's core housing need indicator which is used by governments to help design, deliver, fund and evaluate social housing programs. This report, jointly authored by Statistics Canada and CMHC, focuses purely on the dynamics of housing affordability, not on core housing need. It examines the likelihood of spending 30% or more of household income on shelter, how often this occurs, whether it is occasional or persistent, and contrasts those spending 30% or more to those spending less. Cross-sectional estimates indicate that around 19% of Canadians lived in households spending more than the affordability benchmark in 2002. Longitudinally however, less than 9% lived in households that spent above the benchmark in each year between 2002 and 2004, while another 19% lived in households spending above the benchmark for either one or two years. The attributes associated with the highest probabilities of living in a household spending above the affordability benchmark were: living alone, being a female lone parent, renting, being an immigrant, or living in Vancouver or Toronto. In addition, those living in households experiencing some kind of transition between 2002 and 2004 period had a higher probability of exceeding the benchmark at least once during the period. Such transitions included renters with a change in rent-subsidy status, those who changed from owner to renter or vice versa, those who changed family type (for example, marrying or divorcing), and those who moved between cities. Notably, those experiencing these transitions did not exceed the benchmark persistently.

    Release date: 2008-01-25

  • Technical products: 75F0002M2007006
    Description:

    This study uses administrative tax data and the Survey of Financial Security to explore trends in the number and characteristics of high-income Canadians, as well as their wealth and effective income tax rates, from 1982 to 2004. The paper uses a range of thresholds to delineate high income and emphasizes statistics on the top 5%, 1%, 0.1% and 0.01% of tax filers.

    The study found that an individual income of $89,000 was needed to be counted among the top 5% if income recipients in 2004. A family income of $154,000 would place one in the top 5% of families. The growth in incomes at the high end has been quite rapid while incomes of the majority of the population remained stable. Compared with the U.S., Canada had significantly fewer high-income recipients in 2004, and their incomes were considerably less. Higher-income individuals tend to be middle aged married males that live in the larger urban centres. While women have made up a larger portion on the top 5% of tax filers since 1982, they have not made gains in the very highest income groups. High income Canadians have roughly the same share of total wealth as they do of total income.

    High income Canadians, in line with an increasing share of total income, have been paying an increasing share of total personal income taxes. Their share of total income increased from 21% to 25% between 1992 and 2004 while their share of income taxes paid increased from 30% to 36%. At the same time their effective tax rate dropped from 29% to 27%. Thus despite lower tax rates the increase in incomes was large enough, when combined with the progressive tax system, to result in an increased share of total taxes paid by high income Canadians. There is considerable heterogeneity in effective tax rates at the individual level with some high income individuals facing an effective tax rate of over 45%, while some pay as little as 10%. The proportion of tax filers, across the income distribution, who pay zero taxes decreased between 1992 and 2004.

    Release date: 2007-09-24

  • Technical products: 75F0002M2007005
    Description:

    This research examines the characteristics of non-elderly unattached Canadians who experience persistent low income and their transition patterns into and out of low income. It also examines the factors associated with increased risk of persistent low income.

    The study found that unattached individuals aged 45 to 64, the activity limited, the not employed, visible minorities, and high school leavers all faced a higher rate of the most persistent low income (6 years out 6). Family formation reduced the incidence and persistence of low income.

    Statistical analyses showed that among working-aged unattached individuals, those who faced the greatest risks of the most persistent low income included the unemployed and those who had reported limitations to work. Individuals also at great risk were those who had not completed high school, those who were aged 45 to 64, or those whose unattached status remained unchanged over the six-year study period.

    Release date: 2007-06-15

  • Technical products: 75F0002M2007004
    Description:

    Low income cut-offs (LICOs) are income thresholds, determined by analysing family expenditure data, below which families will devote a larger share of income to the necessities of food, shelter and clothing than the average family would. To reflect differences in the costs of necessities among different community and family sizes, LICOs are defined for five categories of community size and seven of family size.

    Low income Measures (LIMs), on the other hand, are strictly relative measures of low income, set at 50% of adjusted median family income. These measures are categorized according to the number of adults and children present in families, reflecting the economies of scale inherent in family size and composition. This publication incorporates a detailed description of the methods used to arrive at both measurements. It also explains how base years are defined and how LICOs are updated using the Consumer Price Index.

    Release date: 2007-05-10

  • Technical products: 75F0002M2007001
    Description:

    The Survey of Labour and Income Dynamics (SLID) is a longitudinal survey which collects information related to the standard of living of individuals and their families. By interviewing the same people over a period of six years, changes and the causes of these changes can be monitored.

    A preliminary interview of background information is collected for all respondents aged 16 and over, who enter the SLID sample. Preliminary interviews are conducted for new household members during their first labour and income interview after they join the household. A labour and income interview is collected each year for all respondents 16 years of age and over.

    The purpose of this document is to present the questions, possible responses and question flows for the 2006 preliminary, labour and income questionnaire (for the 2005 reference year).

    Release date: 2007-05-10

  • Technical products: 75F0002M2006004
    Description:

    Low income cut-offs (LICOs) are income thresholds, determined by analysing family expenditure data, below which families will devote a larger share of income to the necessities of food, shelter and clothing than the average family would. To reflect differences in the costs of necessities among different community and family sizes, LICOs are defined for five categories of community size and seven of family size.

    Low income Measures (LIMs), on the other hand, are strictly relative measures of low income, set at 50% of adjusted median family income. These measures are categorized according to the number of adults and children present in families, reflecting the economies of scale inherent in family size and composition. This publication incorporates a detailed description of the methods used to arrive at both measurements. It also explains how base years are defined and how LICOs are updated using the Consumer Price Index.

    Release date: 2006-04-06

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