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All (31) (25 of 31 results)

  • Articles and reports: 91-209-X19990004852
    Description:

    Fifteen years ago in this series, A. Romaniuc published a comprehensive study of how fertility in Canada had evolved over the century. It described the phenomenal increase of fertility in the postwar period, resulting in the baby boom. With the largest cohorts ever known in Canada, the baby boomers, by their numbers alone, will have left their mark on Canada's social, economic and political structure throughout their life cycle.

    Release date: 1999-12-22

  • Articles and reports: 91-209-X19990004854
    Description:

    As the century draws to a close, there are many topics of interest involving Canada's aboriginal peoples: self-government, land claims, the environment, the criminal justice system, urbanization, the labour market, education, etc. However, one topic receives little attention but could have a major impact on how the others will develop: the demographic growth of aboriginal populations.

    Release date: 1999-12-22

  • Articles and reports: 91-209-X19990004853
    Description:

    At the beginning of this century, a Canadian male could expect to live an average of 47 years and a Canadian female, 50 years. At that time, barely 38% of males and 44% of females reached the respectable age of 65 years. They could then expect to live for roughly another decade.

    Release date: 1999-12-22

  • Articles and reports: 11-008-X19990034790
    Description:

    This article compares some selected indicators of psychological and social well-being for married seniors in poor health with those for seniors in good health. It also examines whether the well-being of partners is affected by their spouse's health.

    Release date: 1999-12-09

  • Articles and reports: 89-569-X19990014850
    Description:

    The chapter discusses the implications of demographic changes for the family ties of current and future older Canadians, focusing on the extent to which families can sustain support to their older members. Among those aged 65 and over, the likelihood of being married increased between 1981 and 1996. However, while the modal experience for men aged 75 and over is to be married, the modal experience for women of this age is to be widowed. The proportion of divorced or separated individuals rose consistently from 1961 to 1991 for all age groups, with slightly higher percentages among women. Current trends indicate that widowhood will decline and divorce will increase in significance as the basis for being unattached in old age. Major changes in family size include a decline in the percentage of women who are childless or have only one child and who have five or more children. Regarding siblings, most Canadians have at least one brother or sister. Although the proportion of adults with five or more brothers and sisters and with no siblings has declined, there has been an increase in the percentages for those with one to four siblings. Most Canadians do and will have the potential support of siblings in their familial networks. Smaller families, greater geographic dispersion, and higher divorce rates may increase the need for siblings to work together to support their parents and one another.

    Release date: 1999-12-07

  • Articles and reports: 89-569-X19990014847
    Description:

    This article is intended to trace a portrait of developments in health status in the United States, France, Canada and Quebec, despite the difficulty posed by a lack of consistent tools for measuring morbidity as a whole or restrictions on activities. A review of the data showed a significant decline in mortality over the past few years. This decline was largely attributable to the drop in chronic disease. Developments with respect to morbidity, however, are less certain. Reported morbidity rose in France between 1980 and 1991, while the average number of pathologies among the elderly declined in the United States between 1982 and 1989. Some studies concluded increased life expectancy essentially amounted to an increased number of years lived with disabilities. This means life expectancy free of disabilities would have stagnated. Subsequent American data, however, showed a significant decline in chronic disabilities among cohorts of elderly persons. Between 1981 and 1991 in France, all increased life expectancy resulted in extended life free of disabilities. Quebec experienced substantial overall increased during the 1987-1993 period, although men gained more than women. The additional life span gained was free of moderate or serious disabilities. Life expectancy free of severe disabilities, as with life expectancy, shows similar progress among countries. Only life expectancy free of any form of disability has shown different results according to time periods and countries.

    Release date: 1999-12-07

  • Articles and reports: 89-569-X19990014846
    Description:

    The chapter commences with a brief review of the history of social protection of the elderly in France and the characteristics of the current pension system in order that the reader can have a better understanding of the changes that have taken place in the living conditions of the elderly. Then, the authors introduce a comparison of the elderly's current standard of living with that of the working population. Income differences as well as the standard of living in households of persons over 60 years of age are examined. Lastly, the chapter concludes with a short description of the reality of ageing for persons of advanced age; dependency and isolation remain a major risk often associated with insufficient income in order to be able to cope better with their handicaps.

    Release date: 1999-12-07

  • Articles and reports: 89-569-X19990014849
    Description:

    This chapter is designed to provide the reader with insight into how economic circumstances change over time as people move from working age into, and through, the 'old age' phase of the life cycle. Patterns of change in incomes, levels of consumption, saving or dissaving, as well as other variables are presented in the paper. The level of peak lifetime after-tax income, which was previously attained when the average age of a birth cohort was in the early sixties or late fifties, is now reached when the cohort's average age is in the early fifties. Although the peak has shifted, real incomes have tended to rise from earlier to later cohorts. However, real incomes within a cohort tend to fall sharply as the cohort ages and moves into its sixties and seventies. There is a minor tendency for consumption to decline by less than income as cohorts age. On average, older Canadian households continue to save, and thus increase rather than use up their accumulated wealth, at least into their seventies. A large proportion continue to own their own homes, and most do so free of mortgages. However, lower-income households do not continue to save, and in fact tend to use up their accumulated wealth at older ages, if they have any to use up. The authors emphasize that inflation is a major concern for older cohorts and estimate that a pension without inflation protection commencing at age 65 would almost certainly suffer a loss of purchasing power in excess of 35% by the time the recipient was 80. And with longer life expectancy, cohorts will be subjected to longer periods of exposure to high inflation risks.

    Release date: 1999-12-07

  • Articles and reports: 89-569-X19990014843
    Description:

    Despite the existence of numerous books and articles concerning the actual or potential effects of population ageing, one finds little systematic theory designed to explain the processes or mechanisms by which population ageing exerts the causal forces that are often attributed to it. The chapter's thesis is that the implications of population ageing for a society are not readily discernible until one takes time to study the potentially contrasting patterns by which different cohorts have gone or are going through certain major life course transitions. The chapter illustrates this idea by reviewing cohort-specific age patterns with regard to the following variables: (1) the income position of senior husband-wife families relative to that of all husband-wife families, (2) the institutionalization of young men in the USA, (3) the institutionalization of older men and women in the USA, and (4) patterns of marital status transitions in Canada. The discussion of marital status transitions makes use of the results of applying a new technique, called "Neighborhood Estimation of Transiton Matrices" (NETM), for estimating families of transiton rates. NETM is briefly introduced in the chapter.

    Release date: 1999-12-07

  • Articles and reports: 89-569-X19990014848
    Description:

    This article examines the change, over the last fifteen years, in the standard of living of Canada's elderly. The text attempts to measure the scope and depth of poverty among the elderly, to draw up a historical profile of seniors' economic status based upon average pre-tax and after-tax income. It examines the inequality in the income distribution within the senior group and compares it with the other age groups. In the assessment of the elderly's standard of living, the author tries to expand the concept of resources by including the largest sources of non-money income. There is also discussion on the problems of insecurity specific to the elderly and the most vulnerable groups. The discussion includes consideration of the effects that changes in the terms of transition to retirement, in evidence over the past fifteen years, have had and are likely to have on the economic well being of the elderly. The last section provides an analysis of the change in seniors' income level according to their specific cohort. The conclusion emphasizes the selective and inherently fragile nature of the progress achieved.

    Release date: 1999-12-07

  • Articles and reports: 89-569-X19990014844
    Description:

    The chapter revisits the ageing process from the perspective of the golden years, the tarnished years and the uncertain years. The focus is on two key policy areas: income support, and health and social services, During the 1960s, the true golden years of social policy, the Canada Pension Plan and the twin Quebec Pension Plan, as well as the Guaranteed Income Supplement for low-income seniors were introduced (in conjunction with Old Age Security) creating a de facto guaranteed income for the elderly. In 1966, the Canada Assistance Plan, which allowed the federal government to share the cost of welfare and social services with the provinces, was also introduced. However, by the late 1970s, Canada was facing major social and economic problems. The government experienced financial difficulties, resulting in an unprecendented attack on social programs. By the 1980s, spending restraint became the dominant force shapping social policy reform. Governments began to act on long-standing criticisms of social programs and policy makers turned their attention to reining in the costs of income security, health care and social services. CPP reform became a government priority and amendments were made to the Plan in order to restore the confidence of the Canadian public and made the plan more affordable for future generations. Similar changes were made to the QPP resulting in identical contribution rates. There have been significant changes to health and social services as a result of the Canada Health and Social Transfer (CHST) which replaced the Canada Assistance Plan (CAP) that allowed Ottawa to share the provincial cost of welfare and social services and the Established Programs Financing (EPF) under which Ottawa contributed to health care and postsecondary education.

    Release date: 1999-12-07

  • Articles and reports: 89-569-X19990014845
    Description:

    This chapter assesses some of the key demographic and social changes affecting British social policy in the field of ageing. In the 1990s, personal care needs of the elderly are overwhelming provided by the family, where one is available. Formal care services are much more likely to be provided to those who live alone and have no family members who live near them or to those whose relatives do not have the skills or capabilities to care for them. However, There are changing attitudes regarding the giving and receiving of care and changing patterns of marriage and partnerships. Older people are moving away from wanting dependence on children, especially when it implies a long-term commitment arising out of a chronic illness or the need to provide personal care. Future trends will be affected by demographic and social changes affecting different age cohorts. Notable among these changes is the move towards both later marriage as well as the increased tendency to live outside any form of partnership. Another is the increased diversity of family forms. The family of the future may become at least as much an advocate for a vulnerable elder as it is a direct care provider. Demography is working hand-in hand with shifts in social and personal preferences.

    Release date: 1999-12-07

  • Articles and reports: 89-569-X19990014851
    Description:

    This chapter aims at using a generational approach to describe the lifestyle of the elderly in the early 1990s. Individuals observed for the purpose of this chapter were born between 1920 and 1936, approximately corresponding to parents of baby boomers. Beyond the positive relationship between the likelihood of institutionalization and an individual's age, marital status also appeared to play a key role. The marked difference between men's and women's life expectancies in private households, combined with a declining propensity of women to remarry after being widowed or divorced, have made elderly women twice as likely to live alone as men. The private households in which the elderly live are most often small, unigenerational family homes. When the household extends beyond this framework, disparities between men and women begin to appear. A man is more likely to cohabit with other generations if his wife was still part of the household. On the other hand, single women are more likely to live alone or with persons to whom they were not related. Women over 65 living within multigenerational households had a greater completed fertility rate than those living in unigenerational households. The fact that mothers of baby boomers are likely to have had a relatively large number of children is thus reassuring concerning their future access to informal support networks. However, we should observe other phenomena that could influence the establishment of informal networks, especially divorce - the increase of which among baby boomers could have a major impact.

    Release date: 1999-12-07

  • Table: 84-214-X
    Description:

    This compendium of vital statistics includes summary data on births, deaths, marriages and divorces. The introduction covers the data sources, data quality, and methods pertaining to each event, and includes a glossary defining the terms used. The first chapter is a brief overview of vital statistics for 1996. Subsequent chapters treat marriage, divorce, birth, fetal and infant mortality, total mortality, causes of death, vital statistics by census division, and international comparisons. Most charts and tables show Canada data for 1986 though 1996, while the charts and tables for causes of death show Canada data for 1979 through1996. Data for the provinces and territories are usually shown for 1995 and 1996. Appendices include population denominator data, age-standardized mortality rate (ASMR) calculation methods, and leading causes of death methodology.

    Release date: 1999-11-25

  • Journals and periodicals: 82F0076X
    Description:

    Heart disease and stroke are major causes of illness, disability and death in Canada and they exact high personal, community and health care costs. The goal of The changing face of heart disease and stroke in Canada, the fifth in a series of reports from the Canadian Heart and Stroke Surveillance System (CHSSS), is to provide health professionals and policy makers with an overview of current trends in risk factors, interventions and services, and health outcomes of heart disease and stroke in Canada.

    Release date: 1999-10-21

  • Technical products: 84F0013X
    Description:

    This study was initiated to test the validity of probabilistic linkage methods used at Statistics Canada. It compared the results of data linkages on infant deaths in Canada with infant death data from Nova Scotia and Alberta. It also compared the availability of fetal deaths on the national and provincial files.

    Release date: 1999-10-08

  • Articles and reports: 11-008-X19990024661
    Description:

    This article looks at the people who are providing care to seniors with a long-term health problem, the factors that influence the amount of time they devote to eldercare and the types of hardships they experience as a result of helping.

    Release date: 1999-09-09

  • Articles and reports: 75-001-X19990034683
    Description:

    Have baby boom women had an easier path through the labour market than women a generation older or younger? This article studies the "success" of baby boom women by looking at their situation in 1977 and 1997 and comparing it with that of the preceding and succeeding generations, using four major indicators: labour force participation; full-time employment; unemployment; and full-year full-time earnings.

    Release date: 1999-09-01

  • Table: 11-516-X198300111298
    Description:

    The statistics in this section are mainly from two sources. Series Al-349 are from censuses, or derived from censuses, published by Statistics Canada or its predecessors. Series A350-416 are from the official records of the Department of Employment and Immigration or its predecessors.

    Release date: 1999-07-29

  • Public use microdata: 95M0012X
    Description:

    This file contains details of family composition in Canada. It features 145 variables, such as information on labour force activity and income for census family and non-family persons.

    The Microdata Files contain samples of anonymous responses to the 1996 Census questionnaire. The files have been carefully scrutinized to ensure the complete confidentiality of the individual responses. PUMFs enable the development of statistical information about Canadians, the families and households to which they belong, and the dwellings in which they live.

    Microdata files are unique among census products in that they give users access to non-aggregated data. This makes PUMFs a powerful research tools. The user can group and manipulate these variables to suit his/her own data and research requirements. These provide quick access to a comprehensive social and economic database about Canada and its people.

    All subject matter covered by the census is included in these files.

    The 1996 PUMFs will only be released on CD-ROM using microcomputer applications.

    Release date: 1999-07-23

  • Public use microdata: 95M0010X
    Description:

    This file provides data on the characteristics of the population such as ethnic origin, labour force activity and income levels. It contains 122 variables.

    The Microdata Files contain samples of anonymous responses to the 1996 Census questionnaire. The files have been carefully scrutinized to ensure the complete confidentiality of the individual responses. PUMFs enable the development of statistical information about Canadians, the families and households to which they belong, and the dwellings in which they live.

    Microdata files are unique among census products in that they give users access to non-aggregated data. This makes PUMFs a powerful research tools. The user can group and manipulate these variables to suit his/her own data and research requirements. These provide quick access to a comprehensive social and economic database about Canada and its people.

    All subject matter covered by the census is included in these files.

    The 1996 PUMFs will only be released on CD-ROM using microcomputer applications.

    Release date: 1999-07-13

  • Index and guides: 92-353-X
    Description:

    This report deals with age, sex, marital status and common-law status. It is aimed at informing users about the complexity of the data and any difficulties that could affect their use. It explains the theoretical framework and definitions used to gather the data, and describes unusual circumstances that could affect data quality. Moreover, the report touches upon data capture, edit and imputation, and deals with the historical comparability of the data.

    Release date: 1999-04-16

  • Table: 94F0005X
    Description:

    This CD-ROM is part of the Dimensions Series which provides an in-depth analysis of census data. More than 150 tables represent a variety of special interest subjects linking a number of Census variables. Statistical information is presented on themes of considerable public interest with some tables examining historical trends and other tables detailing significant sub-populations. Data for geographical levels of Canada, Provinces and Territories are most widely represented with some data tables produced at the Census Metropolitan Area level. The Portrait of Official Language Communities in Canada and the Portrait of Aboriginal Population of Canada contain some information at the community level.Some tables show comparisons with data from earlier censuses to provide an historical perspective.

    Release date: 1999-04-06

  • Table: 94F0011X
    Description:

    This CD-ROM is part of the Dimension Series which provides an in-depth analysis of census data. More than 150 tables represent a variety of special interest subjects linking a number of Census variables. Statistical information is presented on themes of considerable public interest with some tables examining historical trends and other tables detailing significant sub-populations.Data for geographical levels of Canada, Provinces and Territories are most widely represented with some data tables produced at the Census Metropolitan Area level. The Portrait of Official Language Communities in Canada and the Portrait of Aboriginal Population of Canada contain some information at the community level.Some tables show comparisons with data from earlier censuses to provide an historical perspective.

    Release date: 1999-03-30

  • Journals and periodicals: 96-321-M
    Description:

    Series description

    Statistics Canada is publishing a series of six high level analytical products in the form of books of 300 to 500 pages each suitable as textbooks or reference books at the senior undergraduate and graduate levels and suitable to support policy analysis and socio-economic research. The topics of these books include growing old in Canada, women and the labour market, education, employment, the Canadian family and Aboriginal demographics.

    Release date: 1999-03-12

Data (10)

Data (10) (10 of 10 results)

  • Table: 84-214-X
    Description:

    This compendium of vital statistics includes summary data on births, deaths, marriages and divorces. The introduction covers the data sources, data quality, and methods pertaining to each event, and includes a glossary defining the terms used. The first chapter is a brief overview of vital statistics for 1996. Subsequent chapters treat marriage, divorce, birth, fetal and infant mortality, total mortality, causes of death, vital statistics by census division, and international comparisons. Most charts and tables show Canada data for 1986 though 1996, while the charts and tables for causes of death show Canada data for 1979 through1996. Data for the provinces and territories are usually shown for 1995 and 1996. Appendices include population denominator data, age-standardized mortality rate (ASMR) calculation methods, and leading causes of death methodology.

    Release date: 1999-11-25

  • Table: 11-516-X198300111298
    Description:

    The statistics in this section are mainly from two sources. Series Al-349 are from censuses, or derived from censuses, published by Statistics Canada or its predecessors. Series A350-416 are from the official records of the Department of Employment and Immigration or its predecessors.

    Release date: 1999-07-29

  • Public use microdata: 95M0012X
    Description:

    This file contains details of family composition in Canada. It features 145 variables, such as information on labour force activity and income for census family and non-family persons.

    The Microdata Files contain samples of anonymous responses to the 1996 Census questionnaire. The files have been carefully scrutinized to ensure the complete confidentiality of the individual responses. PUMFs enable the development of statistical information about Canadians, the families and households to which they belong, and the dwellings in which they live.

    Microdata files are unique among census products in that they give users access to non-aggregated data. This makes PUMFs a powerful research tools. The user can group and manipulate these variables to suit his/her own data and research requirements. These provide quick access to a comprehensive social and economic database about Canada and its people.

    All subject matter covered by the census is included in these files.

    The 1996 PUMFs will only be released on CD-ROM using microcomputer applications.

    Release date: 1999-07-23

  • Public use microdata: 95M0010X
    Description:

    This file provides data on the characteristics of the population such as ethnic origin, labour force activity and income levels. It contains 122 variables.

    The Microdata Files contain samples of anonymous responses to the 1996 Census questionnaire. The files have been carefully scrutinized to ensure the complete confidentiality of the individual responses. PUMFs enable the development of statistical information about Canadians, the families and households to which they belong, and the dwellings in which they live.

    Microdata files are unique among census products in that they give users access to non-aggregated data. This makes PUMFs a powerful research tools. The user can group and manipulate these variables to suit his/her own data and research requirements. These provide quick access to a comprehensive social and economic database about Canada and its people.

    All subject matter covered by the census is included in these files.

    The 1996 PUMFs will only be released on CD-ROM using microcomputer applications.

    Release date: 1999-07-13

  • Table: 94F0005X
    Description:

    This CD-ROM is part of the Dimensions Series which provides an in-depth analysis of census data. More than 150 tables represent a variety of special interest subjects linking a number of Census variables. Statistical information is presented on themes of considerable public interest with some tables examining historical trends and other tables detailing significant sub-populations. Data for geographical levels of Canada, Provinces and Territories are most widely represented with some data tables produced at the Census Metropolitan Area level. The Portrait of Official Language Communities in Canada and the Portrait of Aboriginal Population of Canada contain some information at the community level.Some tables show comparisons with data from earlier censuses to provide an historical perspective.

    Release date: 1999-04-06

  • Table: 94F0011X
    Description:

    This CD-ROM is part of the Dimension Series which provides an in-depth analysis of census data. More than 150 tables represent a variety of special interest subjects linking a number of Census variables. Statistical information is presented on themes of considerable public interest with some tables examining historical trends and other tables detailing significant sub-populations.Data for geographical levels of Canada, Provinces and Territories are most widely represented with some data tables produced at the Census Metropolitan Area level. The Portrait of Official Language Communities in Canada and the Portrait of Aboriginal Population of Canada contain some information at the community level.Some tables show comparisons with data from earlier censuses to provide an historical perspective.

    Release date: 1999-03-30

  • Table: 94F0007X
    Description:

    This CD-ROM is part of the Dimension Series which provides an in-depth analysis of census data. More than 150 tables represent a variety of special interest subjects linking a number of Census variables. Statistical information is presented on themes of considerable public interest with some tables examining historical trends and other tables detailing significant sub-populations.Data for geographical levels of Canada, Provinces and Territories are most widely represented with some data tables produced at the Census Metropolitan Area level. The Portrait of Official Language Communities in Canada and the Portrait of Aboriginal Population of Canada contain some information at the community level.Some tables show comparisons with data from earlier censuses to provide an historical perspective.

    Release date: 1999-03-05

  • Table: 94F0004X
    Description:

    This series provides an in-depth analysis of census data. More than 150 tables represent a variety of special interest subjects linking a number of Census variables. Statistical information is presented on themes of considerable public interest with some tables examining historical trends and other tables detailing significant sub-populations.Data for geographical levels of Canada, Provinces and Territories are most widely represented with some data tables produced at the Census Metropolitan Area level. The Portrait of Official Language Communities in Canada and the Portrait of Aboriginal Population of Canada contain some information at the community level.Some tables show comparisons with data from earlier censuses to provide an historical perspective.

    Release date: 1999-03-03

  • Table: 94F0006X
    Description:

    This CD-ROM is part of the Dimension Series which provides an in-depth analysis of census data. More than 150 tables represent a variety of special interest subjects linking a number of Census variables. Statistical information is presented on themes of considerable public interest with some tables examining historical trends and other tables detailing significant sub-populations.Data for geographical levels of Canada, Provinces and Territories are most widely represented with some data tables produced at the Census Metropolitan Area level. The Portrait of Official Language Communities in Canada and the Portrait of Aboriginal Population of Canada contain some information at the community level.Some tables show comparisons with data from earlier censuses to provide an historical perspective.

    Release date: 1999-02-25

  • Table: 94F0008X
    Description:

    This CD-ROM is part of the Dimension Series which provides an in-depth analysis of census data. More than 150 tables represent a variety of special interest subjects linking a number of Census variables. Statistical information is presented on themes of considerable public interest with some tables examining historical trends and other tables detailing significant sub-populations.Data for geographical levels of Canada, Provinces and Territories are most widely represented with some data tables produced at the Census Metropolitan Area level. The Portrait of Official Language Communities in Canada and the Portrait of Aboriginal Population of Canada contain some information at the community level.Some tables show comparisons with data from earlier censuses to provide an historical perspective.

    Release date: 1999-02-05

Analysis (19)

Analysis (19) (19 of 19 results)

  • Articles and reports: 91-209-X19990004852
    Description:

    Fifteen years ago in this series, A. Romaniuc published a comprehensive study of how fertility in Canada had evolved over the century. It described the phenomenal increase of fertility in the postwar period, resulting in the baby boom. With the largest cohorts ever known in Canada, the baby boomers, by their numbers alone, will have left their mark on Canada's social, economic and political structure throughout their life cycle.

    Release date: 1999-12-22

  • Articles and reports: 91-209-X19990004854
    Description:

    As the century draws to a close, there are many topics of interest involving Canada's aboriginal peoples: self-government, land claims, the environment, the criminal justice system, urbanization, the labour market, education, etc. However, one topic receives little attention but could have a major impact on how the others will develop: the demographic growth of aboriginal populations.

    Release date: 1999-12-22

  • Articles and reports: 91-209-X19990004853
    Description:

    At the beginning of this century, a Canadian male could expect to live an average of 47 years and a Canadian female, 50 years. At that time, barely 38% of males and 44% of females reached the respectable age of 65 years. They could then expect to live for roughly another decade.

    Release date: 1999-12-22

  • Articles and reports: 11-008-X19990034790
    Description:

    This article compares some selected indicators of psychological and social well-being for married seniors in poor health with those for seniors in good health. It also examines whether the well-being of partners is affected by their spouse's health.

    Release date: 1999-12-09

  • Articles and reports: 89-569-X19990014850
    Description:

    The chapter discusses the implications of demographic changes for the family ties of current and future older Canadians, focusing on the extent to which families can sustain support to their older members. Among those aged 65 and over, the likelihood of being married increased between 1981 and 1996. However, while the modal experience for men aged 75 and over is to be married, the modal experience for women of this age is to be widowed. The proportion of divorced or separated individuals rose consistently from 1961 to 1991 for all age groups, with slightly higher percentages among women. Current trends indicate that widowhood will decline and divorce will increase in significance as the basis for being unattached in old age. Major changes in family size include a decline in the percentage of women who are childless or have only one child and who have five or more children. Regarding siblings, most Canadians have at least one brother or sister. Although the proportion of adults with five or more brothers and sisters and with no siblings has declined, there has been an increase in the percentages for those with one to four siblings. Most Canadians do and will have the potential support of siblings in their familial networks. Smaller families, greater geographic dispersion, and higher divorce rates may increase the need for siblings to work together to support their parents and one another.

    Release date: 1999-12-07

  • Articles and reports: 89-569-X19990014847
    Description:

    This article is intended to trace a portrait of developments in health status in the United States, France, Canada and Quebec, despite the difficulty posed by a lack of consistent tools for measuring morbidity as a whole or restrictions on activities. A review of the data showed a significant decline in mortality over the past few years. This decline was largely attributable to the drop in chronic disease. Developments with respect to morbidity, however, are less certain. Reported morbidity rose in France between 1980 and 1991, while the average number of pathologies among the elderly declined in the United States between 1982 and 1989. Some studies concluded increased life expectancy essentially amounted to an increased number of years lived with disabilities. This means life expectancy free of disabilities would have stagnated. Subsequent American data, however, showed a significant decline in chronic disabilities among cohorts of elderly persons. Between 1981 and 1991 in France, all increased life expectancy resulted in extended life free of disabilities. Quebec experienced substantial overall increased during the 1987-1993 period, although men gained more than women. The additional life span gained was free of moderate or serious disabilities. Life expectancy free of severe disabilities, as with life expectancy, shows similar progress among countries. Only life expectancy free of any form of disability has shown different results according to time periods and countries.

    Release date: 1999-12-07

  • Articles and reports: 89-569-X19990014846
    Description:

    The chapter commences with a brief review of the history of social protection of the elderly in France and the characteristics of the current pension system in order that the reader can have a better understanding of the changes that have taken place in the living conditions of the elderly. Then, the authors introduce a comparison of the elderly's current standard of living with that of the working population. Income differences as well as the standard of living in households of persons over 60 years of age are examined. Lastly, the chapter concludes with a short description of the reality of ageing for persons of advanced age; dependency and isolation remain a major risk often associated with insufficient income in order to be able to cope better with their handicaps.

    Release date: 1999-12-07

  • Articles and reports: 89-569-X19990014849
    Description:

    This chapter is designed to provide the reader with insight into how economic circumstances change over time as people move from working age into, and through, the 'old age' phase of the life cycle. Patterns of change in incomes, levels of consumption, saving or dissaving, as well as other variables are presented in the paper. The level of peak lifetime after-tax income, which was previously attained when the average age of a birth cohort was in the early sixties or late fifties, is now reached when the cohort's average age is in the early fifties. Although the peak has shifted, real incomes have tended to rise from earlier to later cohorts. However, real incomes within a cohort tend to fall sharply as the cohort ages and moves into its sixties and seventies. There is a minor tendency for consumption to decline by less than income as cohorts age. On average, older Canadian households continue to save, and thus increase rather than use up their accumulated wealth, at least into their seventies. A large proportion continue to own their own homes, and most do so free of mortgages. However, lower-income households do not continue to save, and in fact tend to use up their accumulated wealth at older ages, if they have any to use up. The authors emphasize that inflation is a major concern for older cohorts and estimate that a pension without inflation protection commencing at age 65 would almost certainly suffer a loss of purchasing power in excess of 35% by the time the recipient was 80. And with longer life expectancy, cohorts will be subjected to longer periods of exposure to high inflation risks.

    Release date: 1999-12-07

  • Articles and reports: 89-569-X19990014843
    Description:

    Despite the existence of numerous books and articles concerning the actual or potential effects of population ageing, one finds little systematic theory designed to explain the processes or mechanisms by which population ageing exerts the causal forces that are often attributed to it. The chapter's thesis is that the implications of population ageing for a society are not readily discernible until one takes time to study the potentially contrasting patterns by which different cohorts have gone or are going through certain major life course transitions. The chapter illustrates this idea by reviewing cohort-specific age patterns with regard to the following variables: (1) the income position of senior husband-wife families relative to that of all husband-wife families, (2) the institutionalization of young men in the USA, (3) the institutionalization of older men and women in the USA, and (4) patterns of marital status transitions in Canada. The discussion of marital status transitions makes use of the results of applying a new technique, called "Neighborhood Estimation of Transiton Matrices" (NETM), for estimating families of transiton rates. NETM is briefly introduced in the chapter.

    Release date: 1999-12-07

  • Articles and reports: 89-569-X19990014848
    Description:

    This article examines the change, over the last fifteen years, in the standard of living of Canada's elderly. The text attempts to measure the scope and depth of poverty among the elderly, to draw up a historical profile of seniors' economic status based upon average pre-tax and after-tax income. It examines the inequality in the income distribution within the senior group and compares it with the other age groups. In the assessment of the elderly's standard of living, the author tries to expand the concept of resources by including the largest sources of non-money income. There is also discussion on the problems of insecurity specific to the elderly and the most vulnerable groups. The discussion includes consideration of the effects that changes in the terms of transition to retirement, in evidence over the past fifteen years, have had and are likely to have on the economic well being of the elderly. The last section provides an analysis of the change in seniors' income level according to their specific cohort. The conclusion emphasizes the selective and inherently fragile nature of the progress achieved.

    Release date: 1999-12-07

  • Articles and reports: 89-569-X19990014844
    Description:

    The chapter revisits the ageing process from the perspective of the golden years, the tarnished years and the uncertain years. The focus is on two key policy areas: income support, and health and social services, During the 1960s, the true golden years of social policy, the Canada Pension Plan and the twin Quebec Pension Plan, as well as the Guaranteed Income Supplement for low-income seniors were introduced (in conjunction with Old Age Security) creating a de facto guaranteed income for the elderly. In 1966, the Canada Assistance Plan, which allowed the federal government to share the cost of welfare and social services with the provinces, was also introduced. However, by the late 1970s, Canada was facing major social and economic problems. The government experienced financial difficulties, resulting in an unprecendented attack on social programs. By the 1980s, spending restraint became the dominant force shapping social policy reform. Governments began to act on long-standing criticisms of social programs and policy makers turned their attention to reining in the costs of income security, health care and social services. CPP reform became a government priority and amendments were made to the Plan in order to restore the confidence of the Canadian public and made the plan more affordable for future generations. Similar changes were made to the QPP resulting in identical contribution rates. There have been significant changes to health and social services as a result of the Canada Health and Social Transfer (CHST) which replaced the Canada Assistance Plan (CAP) that allowed Ottawa to share the provincial cost of welfare and social services and the Established Programs Financing (EPF) under which Ottawa contributed to health care and postsecondary education.

    Release date: 1999-12-07

  • Articles and reports: 89-569-X19990014845
    Description:

    This chapter assesses some of the key demographic and social changes affecting British social policy in the field of ageing. In the 1990s, personal care needs of the elderly are overwhelming provided by the family, where one is available. Formal care services are much more likely to be provided to those who live alone and have no family members who live near them or to those whose relatives do not have the skills or capabilities to care for them. However, There are changing attitudes regarding the giving and receiving of care and changing patterns of marriage and partnerships. Older people are moving away from wanting dependence on children, especially when it implies a long-term commitment arising out of a chronic illness or the need to provide personal care. Future trends will be affected by demographic and social changes affecting different age cohorts. Notable among these changes is the move towards both later marriage as well as the increased tendency to live outside any form of partnership. Another is the increased diversity of family forms. The family of the future may become at least as much an advocate for a vulnerable elder as it is a direct care provider. Demography is working hand-in hand with shifts in social and personal preferences.

    Release date: 1999-12-07

  • Articles and reports: 89-569-X19990014851
    Description:

    This chapter aims at using a generational approach to describe the lifestyle of the elderly in the early 1990s. Individuals observed for the purpose of this chapter were born between 1920 and 1936, approximately corresponding to parents of baby boomers. Beyond the positive relationship between the likelihood of institutionalization and an individual's age, marital status also appeared to play a key role. The marked difference between men's and women's life expectancies in private households, combined with a declining propensity of women to remarry after being widowed or divorced, have made elderly women twice as likely to live alone as men. The private households in which the elderly live are most often small, unigenerational family homes. When the household extends beyond this framework, disparities between men and women begin to appear. A man is more likely to cohabit with other generations if his wife was still part of the household. On the other hand, single women are more likely to live alone or with persons to whom they were not related. Women over 65 living within multigenerational households had a greater completed fertility rate than those living in unigenerational households. The fact that mothers of baby boomers are likely to have had a relatively large number of children is thus reassuring concerning their future access to informal support networks. However, we should observe other phenomena that could influence the establishment of informal networks, especially divorce - the increase of which among baby boomers could have a major impact.

    Release date: 1999-12-07

  • Journals and periodicals: 82F0076X
    Description:

    Heart disease and stroke are major causes of illness, disability and death in Canada and they exact high personal, community and health care costs. The goal of The changing face of heart disease and stroke in Canada, the fifth in a series of reports from the Canadian Heart and Stroke Surveillance System (CHSSS), is to provide health professionals and policy makers with an overview of current trends in risk factors, interventions and services, and health outcomes of heart disease and stroke in Canada.

    Release date: 1999-10-21

  • Articles and reports: 11-008-X19990024661
    Description:

    This article looks at the people who are providing care to seniors with a long-term health problem, the factors that influence the amount of time they devote to eldercare and the types of hardships they experience as a result of helping.

    Release date: 1999-09-09

  • Articles and reports: 75-001-X19990034683
    Description:

    Have baby boom women had an easier path through the labour market than women a generation older or younger? This article studies the "success" of baby boom women by looking at their situation in 1977 and 1997 and comparing it with that of the preceding and succeeding generations, using four major indicators: labour force participation; full-time employment; unemployment; and full-year full-time earnings.

    Release date: 1999-09-01

  • Journals and periodicals: 96-321-M
    Description:

    Series description

    Statistics Canada is publishing a series of six high level analytical products in the form of books of 300 to 500 pages each suitable as textbooks or reference books at the senior undergraduate and graduate levels and suitable to support policy analysis and socio-economic research. The topics of these books include growing old in Canada, women and the labour market, education, employment, the Canadian family and Aboriginal demographics.

    Release date: 1999-03-12

  • Articles and reports: 11-008-X19980044421
    Description:

    This article highlights the key demographic and socio-economic characteristics of seniors in Canada.

    Release date: 1999-03-11

  • Articles and reports: 21-006-X1998002
    Description:

    Job creation is one major focus of rural development initiatives. The purpose of this bulletin is to provide an overview of employment and unemployment patterns in the non-metro workforce. In this bulletin, we combined the rural and small town population (as defined in ANALYSIS BULLETIN No. 1) with the Census Agglomeration (CA) population to constitute the non-metro population (see "Definitions" box). Our results for the overall non-metro workforce also apply to the rural and small town component of the non-metro workforce (refer to Employment Patterns in the Non-metro Workforce {Ottawa: Statistics Canada, Agriculture and Rural Working Paper No. 35, Cat. No. 21-601-MPE98035}).

    Release date: 1999-02-23

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