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All (37) (25 of 37 results)

  • Table: 88-001-X20000087922
    Description:

    This release provides data on the Research and development activities of the private non-profit sector. Although the contribution of this sector to the national R&D effort is small in dollar terms, its impact, particularly in the university sector, is significant.Questionnaires were mailed to 94 private non-profit organizations thought to be supporting Research and development activities. Twenty organizations reported performing Research and development.

    Release date: 2000-12-22

  • Table: 88-001-X20000077923
    Description:

    The higher education sector is composed of "all universities, colleges of technology and other institutes of post-secondary education, whatever their source of finance or legal status. It also includes all research institutes, experimental stations and clinics operating under the direct control of, or administered by, or associated with higher education establishments."

    Release date: 2000-12-21

  • Table: 88-001-X20000067924
    Description:

    Gross domestic expenditures on research and development (GERD) represents total R&D expenditures performed in a country's national territory during a given year. GERD includes research and development performed within a country and funded from abroad but excludes payments sent abroad for research and development performed in other countries.

    Release date: 2000-12-20

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M2000123
    Description:

    Recent studies have demonstrated the quantitative importance of entry, exit, growth and decline in the industrial population. It is this turnover that rewards innovative activity and contributes to productivity growth.

    While the size of the entry population is impressive - especially when cumulated over time - the importance of entry is ultimately due to its impact on innovation in the economy. Experimentation is important in a dynamic, market-based economy. A key part of the experimentation comes from entrants. New entrepreneurs constantly offer consumers new products both in terms of the basic good and the level of service that accompanies it.

    This experimentation is associated with significant costs since many entrants fail. Young firms are most at risk of failure; data drawn from a longitudinal file of Canadian entrants in both the goods and service sectors show that over half the new firms that fail do so in the first two years of life. Life is short for the majority of entrants. Only 1 in 5 new firms survive to their tenth birthday.

    Since so many entrants fall by the wayside, it is of inherent interest to understand the conditions that are associated with success, the conditions that allow the potential in new entrepreneurs to come to fruition. The success of an entrant is due to its choosing the correct combination of strategies and activities. To understand how these capabilities contribute to growth, it is necessary to study how the performance of entrants relates to differences in strategies and pursued activities.

    This paper describes the environment and the characteristics of entrants that manage to survive and grow. In doing so, it focuses on two issues. The first is the innovativeness of entrants and the extent to which their growth depends on their innovativeness. The second is to outline how the stress on worker skills, which is partially related to training, complements innovation and contributes to growth.

    Release date: 2000-12-08

  • Table: 88-001-X20000057925
    Description:

    This Bulletin provides recent information on the performance and funding of Federal Government Expenditures on Scientific Activities, 2000-2001. The statistics presented are derived from the survey of the science and technology (S&T) activities of Federal departments and agencies. According to international convention, S&T is divided into two fields; Natural Sciences and Engineering (NSE) and Social Sciences and Humanities (SSH). These fields of science are further divided into Research and Development (R&D) and Related Scientific Activities (RSA).

    Release date: 2000-11-23

  • Table: 88-001-X20000047926
    Description:

    Statistics presented are derived from a survey of nine Provincial Research Organizations (PRO): the InNOVAcorp (formerly the Nova Scotia Research Foundation Corporation), the New Brunswick Research and Productivity Council, the "Centre de recherche industrielle du Québec (CRIQ)", the Industrial Technology Centre (Manitoba) (formerly the Economic Innovation and Technology Council), the Saskatchewan Research Council, the Alberta Research Council, the Yukon Research Institute, the NUNAVUT Research Institute (formerly the Science Institute of the Northwest Territories) and the Aurora Research Institute.

    Release date: 2000-11-16

  • Articles and reports: 88-003-X20000035763
    Description:

    The growing trend towards a knowledge-based economy has impacted the way research is funded and performed in Canadian universities. As higher quality estimates of R&D activities by this sector are of increasing importance to policy makers, Statistics Canada has begun substantial revisions to the methods for calculating estimates for higher education R&D. The implementation of this plan will provide substantially improved estimates of both dollar values and personnel counts for this sector.

    Release date: 2000-10-06

  • Articles and reports: 88-003-X20000035766
    Description:

    Although universities and federal government departments have unique mandates, both are striving to promote applied research. Recent surveys finally provide a basis for comparison. In 1999, universities reported over 1,800 active patents with royalties approaching $19 million. Federal governments departments had almost 2,000 patents generating $12 million in royalties.

    Release date: 2000-10-06

  • Articles and reports: 88-003-X20000035762
    Description:

    The first survey of innovation, advanced technologies and practices in the Canadian construction sector was recently conducted. Of the five types of technologies listed in the survey, communications technologies have the highest percentage of use (46% of businesses). Of all the techonolgies, three computer-related technologies had the highest percentage of use : e-mail (38%), company computer networks (25%) and computer aided design (23%). The three advanced practices with the largest percentage of business using them, each with one third of businesses, are: design-build contracts, computerized inventory control and computerized estimating software.

    Release date: 2000-10-06

  • Articles and reports: 88-003-X20000035772
    Description:

    Technological change and innovations depend greatly on R&D activities and investments. R&D is concentrated around the "core firms" that are responsible for 87% of expenditures. Biotechnology R&D performers accounted for $904 million of R&D expenditure. Biotechnology R&D is concentrated in large firms with 75% of R&D occuring in firms with 100 or more employees. Almost 77% of funding sources for R&D in biotechnology came from the private sector and 21% from foreign sources.

    Release date: 2000-10-06

  • Articles and reports: 88-003-X20000035768
    Description:

    Why do innovation surveys produce radically different estimates of the number of R&D performers than R&D surveys? The factors contributing to divergence are presented with detail on selected contributors.

    Release date: 2000-10-06

  • Articles and reports: 88-003-X20000035778
    Description:

    Updates on expenditures and personnel.

    Release date: 2000-10-06

  • Articles and reports: 88-003-X20000035776
    Description:

    Location, location, location - is it important in research and technology? Statistics Canada survey data are being used to provide a new approach to analyze the usefulness of mapping key innovation indicators. By attaching survey data sets to sources with a larger sample size, detailed geographic distributions of establishments are estimated. Numerous data sets are being explored with the benefits to be realized in an interactive GIS.

    Release date: 2000-10-06

  • Articles and reports: 88-003-X20000035770
    Description:

    Given the high cost of R&D, adopting the correct strategies and mix of products is required for success for Canadian biotechnology firms. A recent survey examined the rapid growth of 30 companies. Fast-growing enterprises adopted a strategy of patenting their products, avoiding major production delays, targeting export markets, accessing venture capital, conducting key alliances, and planning the IPO.

    Release date: 2000-10-06

  • Table: 88-001-X20000037927
    Description:

    The statistics presented in this bulletin are derived from the 1998 survey of industrial Research and development activities in Canada and from Canada Customs and Revenue Agency's administrative data for firms performing or funding R&D under $1 million . In 1997, a decision was made to eliminate the short survey forms in favour of administrative data in order to reduce the response burden. The survey collects information on the Research and development spending intentions for 2000, the estimates for 1999 and the actual expenditures for 1998 of corporations performing Research and development activities in Canada.

    Release date: 2000-09-08

  • Articles and reports: 88F0017M2000008
    Description:

    This report examines the factors contributing to the rapid growth of a small number of biotechnology firms in Canada.

    Release date: 2000-08-28

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M2000151
    Description:

    This paper examines whether new views of the multinational that see these firms as decentralizing research and development (R&D) activities abroad to exploit local competencies accord with the activities of multinationals in Canada. The paper describes the innovation regime of multinational firms in Canada by examining the differences between foreign- and domestically owned firms. It focuses on the extent to which R&D is used; the type of R&D activity; the importance of R&D relative to other sources of innovative ideas; whether the use of these other ideas indicates that multinationals are closely tied into local innovation networks; the intensity of innovation; and the use that is made of intellectual property rights to protect innovations from being copied by others.

    We find that, far from being passively dependent on R&D from their parents, foreign-owned firms in Canada are more active in R&D than the population of Canadian-owned firms. They are also more often involved in R&D collaboration projects both abroad and in Canada. As expected, foreign subsidiaries enjoy the advantage of accessing technology from their parent and sister companies. While multinationals are more closely tied into a network of related firms for innovative ideas than are domestically owned firms, their local R&D unit is a more important source of information for innovation than are these inter-firm links. Surprisingly, foreign subsidiaries also more frequently report that they are using technology from unrelated firms. Moreover, the multinational is just as likely to develop links into a local university and other local innovation consortia as are domestically owned firms. This evidence indicates that multinationals in Canada are not, on the whole, operating subsidiaries whose scientific development capabilities are truncated - at least not in comparison to domestically owned firms.

    A comparison of the extent and impact of innovation activity of domestically and foreign-owned firms shows that foreign-owned firms innovate in all sectors more frequently than Canadian-owned companies in almost all size categories. They are also more likely to introduce world-first rather than more imitative innovations. Their superiority is most pronounced in the consumer goods sector. Finally, foreign-owned firms are more likely to protect their innovations with patent protection.

    The paper also compares foreign subsidiaries to Canadian corporations that have an international orientation. These additional comparisons show that the two groups of multinationals are quite similar, both with regards to the likelihood that they conduct some form of R&D and that they introduce innovations. These results indicate that it is as much the degree of globalization that the nationality of ownership that affects the degree of innovativeness.

    Overall, the survey results suggest that foreign-owned firms make a significant contribution to technological progress and innovation in Canadian industry.

    Release date: 2000-06-27

  • Table: 88-001-X20000027928
    Description:

    The statistics presented in this bulletin are derived from our latest survey of research and development activities in Canadian industry. In 1997, a decision was made to reduce response burden by eliminating the short survey forms in favour of using administrative data. Biotechnology data are not currently available from administrative data. Therefore, only those research and development performers with over one million dollars of intramural research and development expenditures are included in these statistics. Based on 1995, the last year of full coverage, 87.6% of biotechnology research and development expenditures were made by these large performers, which represented 24% of all companies reporting biotechnology research and development activities.

    Release date: 2000-06-16

  • Articles and reports: 88-003-X20000025114
    Description:

    Fuelled by rapid technological change and the emerging global marketplace, the need for a stream of new and improved products - in other words innovation - is growing. Some 31% of the engineering firms surveyed replaced an existing products, added a new product to their existing line or diversified into new product lines.

    Release date: 2000-06-01

  • Articles and reports: 88-003-X20000025118
    Description:

    The number of personnel in scientific and technological (S&T) activities in the federal government has declined by 15% since 1990-1991.

    Release date: 2000-06-01

  • Articles and reports: 88-003-X20000025124
    Description:

    The federal government is an essential player S&T activities in Canada in which it invests over five billion dollars each year. In addition to this direct investment, an additional $1.3 billion of assistance is provided through the federal R&D tax incentive program. This article examines regional differences in science and technology tax regimes in Canada.

    Release date: 2000-06-01

  • Articles and reports: 88-003-X20000025116
    Description:

    Innovation is the basis for progress and the key to success for many organizations. This article examines the effect of perceived barriers to innovation by sector. For instance, the financial services sector is cautious about new technological developments due to feasibility risks and markets outlets.

    Release date: 2000-06-01

  • Articles and reports: 88-003-X20000025120
    Description:

    Over two-thirds of Canada's gross domestic product (GDP) and three-quarters of employment result from service activity, and close to 60% of the measured reserach and development is performed in the service sector.

    Release date: 2000-06-01

  • Technical products: 88F0006X2000001
    Description:

    During the summer of 1999, Statistics Canada conducted the second Survey of Intellectual Property Commercialization in the Higher Education Sector, which was designed to illuminate the overall process of intellectual property (IP) management. Over 100 universities, degree-granting colleges and affiliated research hospitals took part in this voluntary survey. The results show that over 60% of institutions are actively managing (identifying, protecting, promoting and/or commercializing) their IP. Within the last five years, 47% of institutions have filed a patent application and 32% have licensed their technologies, to generate over $21 million per annum in royalties. Universities also hold $55 million in equity in their 454 spin-off companies formed to date.

    Release date: 2000-05-29

  • Articles and reports: 63F0002X2000030
    Description:

    Rapid technological change and an emerging global marketplace underscore the need for firms to innovate in order to succeed. The 1997 Survey of Innovation was the first to look at innovation in selected knowledge-based and information-intensive services industries. This article presents estimates of innovation in the engineering services industry over the 1994 to 1996 period. The survey findings show that large firms are very innovative, but that innovation rates are low among small firms. Further, firms that do not innovate are less likely to try because of the risks inherent in innovation activity. Product innovation is the most common of the three types of innovation studied. While organizational change usually leads to innovations yielding new products and more efficient processes, it is the least common form of innovation. Firms cite their clients as being their most important source of innovative ideas, and also acknowledge the importance of research and development (R&D). Firms perceive that market uncertainties and difficulties in obtaining capital are their most significant barriers to innovation.

    Release date: 2000-05-08

Data (8)

Data (8) (8 of 8 results)

  • Table: 88-001-X20000087922
    Description:

    This release provides data on the Research and development activities of the private non-profit sector. Although the contribution of this sector to the national R&D effort is small in dollar terms, its impact, particularly in the university sector, is significant.Questionnaires were mailed to 94 private non-profit organizations thought to be supporting Research and development activities. Twenty organizations reported performing Research and development.

    Release date: 2000-12-22

  • Table: 88-001-X20000077923
    Description:

    The higher education sector is composed of "all universities, colleges of technology and other institutes of post-secondary education, whatever their source of finance or legal status. It also includes all research institutes, experimental stations and clinics operating under the direct control of, or administered by, or associated with higher education establishments."

    Release date: 2000-12-21

  • Table: 88-001-X20000067924
    Description:

    Gross domestic expenditures on research and development (GERD) represents total R&D expenditures performed in a country's national territory during a given year. GERD includes research and development performed within a country and funded from abroad but excludes payments sent abroad for research and development performed in other countries.

    Release date: 2000-12-20

  • Table: 88-001-X20000057925
    Description:

    This Bulletin provides recent information on the performance and funding of Federal Government Expenditures on Scientific Activities, 2000-2001. The statistics presented are derived from the survey of the science and technology (S&T) activities of Federal departments and agencies. According to international convention, S&T is divided into two fields; Natural Sciences and Engineering (NSE) and Social Sciences and Humanities (SSH). These fields of science are further divided into Research and Development (R&D) and Related Scientific Activities (RSA).

    Release date: 2000-11-23

  • Table: 88-001-X20000047926
    Description:

    Statistics presented are derived from a survey of nine Provincial Research Organizations (PRO): the InNOVAcorp (formerly the Nova Scotia Research Foundation Corporation), the New Brunswick Research and Productivity Council, the "Centre de recherche industrielle du Québec (CRIQ)", the Industrial Technology Centre (Manitoba) (formerly the Economic Innovation and Technology Council), the Saskatchewan Research Council, the Alberta Research Council, the Yukon Research Institute, the NUNAVUT Research Institute (formerly the Science Institute of the Northwest Territories) and the Aurora Research Institute.

    Release date: 2000-11-16

  • Table: 88-001-X20000037927
    Description:

    The statistics presented in this bulletin are derived from the 1998 survey of industrial Research and development activities in Canada and from Canada Customs and Revenue Agency's administrative data for firms performing or funding R&D under $1 million . In 1997, a decision was made to eliminate the short survey forms in favour of administrative data in order to reduce the response burden. The survey collects information on the Research and development spending intentions for 2000, the estimates for 1999 and the actual expenditures for 1998 of corporations performing Research and development activities in Canada.

    Release date: 2000-09-08

  • Table: 88-001-X20000027928
    Description:

    The statistics presented in this bulletin are derived from our latest survey of research and development activities in Canadian industry. In 1997, a decision was made to reduce response burden by eliminating the short survey forms in favour of using administrative data. Biotechnology data are not currently available from administrative data. Therefore, only those research and development performers with over one million dollars of intramural research and development expenditures are included in these statistics. Based on 1995, the last year of full coverage, 87.6% of biotechnology research and development expenditures were made by these large performers, which represented 24% of all companies reporting biotechnology research and development activities.

    Release date: 2000-06-16

  • Table: 88-001-X20000017929
    Description:

    This service bulletin presents federal government personnel (Full-Time Equivalent - FTE*) engaged in S&T activities. Data on federal government expenditures on S&T are found in Volume 23, No. 5 of this publication.

    Release date: 2000-03-17

Analysis (27)

Analysis (27) (25 of 27 results)

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M2000123
    Description:

    Recent studies have demonstrated the quantitative importance of entry, exit, growth and decline in the industrial population. It is this turnover that rewards innovative activity and contributes to productivity growth.

    While the size of the entry population is impressive - especially when cumulated over time - the importance of entry is ultimately due to its impact on innovation in the economy. Experimentation is important in a dynamic, market-based economy. A key part of the experimentation comes from entrants. New entrepreneurs constantly offer consumers new products both in terms of the basic good and the level of service that accompanies it.

    This experimentation is associated with significant costs since many entrants fail. Young firms are most at risk of failure; data drawn from a longitudinal file of Canadian entrants in both the goods and service sectors show that over half the new firms that fail do so in the first two years of life. Life is short for the majority of entrants. Only 1 in 5 new firms survive to their tenth birthday.

    Since so many entrants fall by the wayside, it is of inherent interest to understand the conditions that are associated with success, the conditions that allow the potential in new entrepreneurs to come to fruition. The success of an entrant is due to its choosing the correct combination of strategies and activities. To understand how these capabilities contribute to growth, it is necessary to study how the performance of entrants relates to differences in strategies and pursued activities.

    This paper describes the environment and the characteristics of entrants that manage to survive and grow. In doing so, it focuses on two issues. The first is the innovativeness of entrants and the extent to which their growth depends on their innovativeness. The second is to outline how the stress on worker skills, which is partially related to training, complements innovation and contributes to growth.

    Release date: 2000-12-08

  • Articles and reports: 88-003-X20000035763
    Description:

    The growing trend towards a knowledge-based economy has impacted the way research is funded and performed in Canadian universities. As higher quality estimates of R&D activities by this sector are of increasing importance to policy makers, Statistics Canada has begun substantial revisions to the methods for calculating estimates for higher education R&D. The implementation of this plan will provide substantially improved estimates of both dollar values and personnel counts for this sector.

    Release date: 2000-10-06

  • Articles and reports: 88-003-X20000035766
    Description:

    Although universities and federal government departments have unique mandates, both are striving to promote applied research. Recent surveys finally provide a basis for comparison. In 1999, universities reported over 1,800 active patents with royalties approaching $19 million. Federal governments departments had almost 2,000 patents generating $12 million in royalties.

    Release date: 2000-10-06

  • Articles and reports: 88-003-X20000035762
    Description:

    The first survey of innovation, advanced technologies and practices in the Canadian construction sector was recently conducted. Of the five types of technologies listed in the survey, communications technologies have the highest percentage of use (46% of businesses). Of all the techonolgies, three computer-related technologies had the highest percentage of use : e-mail (38%), company computer networks (25%) and computer aided design (23%). The three advanced practices with the largest percentage of business using them, each with one third of businesses, are: design-build contracts, computerized inventory control and computerized estimating software.

    Release date: 2000-10-06

  • Articles and reports: 88-003-X20000035772
    Description:

    Technological change and innovations depend greatly on R&D activities and investments. R&D is concentrated around the "core firms" that are responsible for 87% of expenditures. Biotechnology R&D performers accounted for $904 million of R&D expenditure. Biotechnology R&D is concentrated in large firms with 75% of R&D occuring in firms with 100 or more employees. Almost 77% of funding sources for R&D in biotechnology came from the private sector and 21% from foreign sources.

    Release date: 2000-10-06

  • Articles and reports: 88-003-X20000035768
    Description:

    Why do innovation surveys produce radically different estimates of the number of R&D performers than R&D surveys? The factors contributing to divergence are presented with detail on selected contributors.

    Release date: 2000-10-06

  • Articles and reports: 88-003-X20000035778
    Description:

    Updates on expenditures and personnel.

    Release date: 2000-10-06

  • Articles and reports: 88-003-X20000035776
    Description:

    Location, location, location - is it important in research and technology? Statistics Canada survey data are being used to provide a new approach to analyze the usefulness of mapping key innovation indicators. By attaching survey data sets to sources with a larger sample size, detailed geographic distributions of establishments are estimated. Numerous data sets are being explored with the benefits to be realized in an interactive GIS.

    Release date: 2000-10-06

  • Articles and reports: 88-003-X20000035770
    Description:

    Given the high cost of R&D, adopting the correct strategies and mix of products is required for success for Canadian biotechnology firms. A recent survey examined the rapid growth of 30 companies. Fast-growing enterprises adopted a strategy of patenting their products, avoiding major production delays, targeting export markets, accessing venture capital, conducting key alliances, and planning the IPO.

    Release date: 2000-10-06

  • Articles and reports: 88F0017M2000008
    Description:

    This report examines the factors contributing to the rapid growth of a small number of biotechnology firms in Canada.

    Release date: 2000-08-28

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M2000151
    Description:

    This paper examines whether new views of the multinational that see these firms as decentralizing research and development (R&D) activities abroad to exploit local competencies accord with the activities of multinationals in Canada. The paper describes the innovation regime of multinational firms in Canada by examining the differences between foreign- and domestically owned firms. It focuses on the extent to which R&D is used; the type of R&D activity; the importance of R&D relative to other sources of innovative ideas; whether the use of these other ideas indicates that multinationals are closely tied into local innovation networks; the intensity of innovation; and the use that is made of intellectual property rights to protect innovations from being copied by others.

    We find that, far from being passively dependent on R&D from their parents, foreign-owned firms in Canada are more active in R&D than the population of Canadian-owned firms. They are also more often involved in R&D collaboration projects both abroad and in Canada. As expected, foreign subsidiaries enjoy the advantage of accessing technology from their parent and sister companies. While multinationals are more closely tied into a network of related firms for innovative ideas than are domestically owned firms, their local R&D unit is a more important source of information for innovation than are these inter-firm links. Surprisingly, foreign subsidiaries also more frequently report that they are using technology from unrelated firms. Moreover, the multinational is just as likely to develop links into a local university and other local innovation consortia as are domestically owned firms. This evidence indicates that multinationals in Canada are not, on the whole, operating subsidiaries whose scientific development capabilities are truncated - at least not in comparison to domestically owned firms.

    A comparison of the extent and impact of innovation activity of domestically and foreign-owned firms shows that foreign-owned firms innovate in all sectors more frequently than Canadian-owned companies in almost all size categories. They are also more likely to introduce world-first rather than more imitative innovations. Their superiority is most pronounced in the consumer goods sector. Finally, foreign-owned firms are more likely to protect their innovations with patent protection.

    The paper also compares foreign subsidiaries to Canadian corporations that have an international orientation. These additional comparisons show that the two groups of multinationals are quite similar, both with regards to the likelihood that they conduct some form of R&D and that they introduce innovations. These results indicate that it is as much the degree of globalization that the nationality of ownership that affects the degree of innovativeness.

    Overall, the survey results suggest that foreign-owned firms make a significant contribution to technological progress and innovation in Canadian industry.

    Release date: 2000-06-27

  • Articles and reports: 88-003-X20000025114
    Description:

    Fuelled by rapid technological change and the emerging global marketplace, the need for a stream of new and improved products - in other words innovation - is growing. Some 31% of the engineering firms surveyed replaced an existing products, added a new product to their existing line or diversified into new product lines.

    Release date: 2000-06-01

  • Articles and reports: 88-003-X20000025118
    Description:

    The number of personnel in scientific and technological (S&T) activities in the federal government has declined by 15% since 1990-1991.

    Release date: 2000-06-01

  • Articles and reports: 88-003-X20000025124
    Description:

    The federal government is an essential player S&T activities in Canada in which it invests over five billion dollars each year. In addition to this direct investment, an additional $1.3 billion of assistance is provided through the federal R&D tax incentive program. This article examines regional differences in science and technology tax regimes in Canada.

    Release date: 2000-06-01

  • Articles and reports: 88-003-X20000025116
    Description:

    Innovation is the basis for progress and the key to success for many organizations. This article examines the effect of perceived barriers to innovation by sector. For instance, the financial services sector is cautious about new technological developments due to feasibility risks and markets outlets.

    Release date: 2000-06-01

  • Articles and reports: 88-003-X20000025120
    Description:

    Over two-thirds of Canada's gross domestic product (GDP) and three-quarters of employment result from service activity, and close to 60% of the measured reserach and development is performed in the service sector.

    Release date: 2000-06-01

  • Articles and reports: 63F0002X2000030
    Description:

    Rapid technological change and an emerging global marketplace underscore the need for firms to innovate in order to succeed. The 1997 Survey of Innovation was the first to look at innovation in selected knowledge-based and information-intensive services industries. This article presents estimates of innovation in the engineering services industry over the 1994 to 1996 period. The survey findings show that large firms are very innovative, but that innovation rates are low among small firms. Further, firms that do not innovate are less likely to try because of the risks inherent in innovation activity. Product innovation is the most common of the three types of innovation studied. While organizational change usually leads to innovations yielding new products and more efficient processes, it is the least common form of innovation. Firms cite their clients as being their most important source of innovative ideas, and also acknowledge the importance of research and development (R&D). Firms perceive that market uncertainties and difficulties in obtaining capital are their most significant barriers to innovation.

    Release date: 2000-05-08

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M2000122
    Description:

    This paper examines how several factors contribute to innovative activity in the Canadian manufacturing sector. First, it investigates the extent to which intellectual property right protection stimulates innovation. Second, it examines the contribution that R&D makes to innovation. Third, it considers the importance of various competencies in the area of marketing, human resource, technology and production to the innovation process. Fourth, it examines the extent to which a larger firm size and less competition serve to stimulate competition-the so-called Schumpeterian hypothesis. Fifth, the effect of the nationality of a firm on innovation is also investigated. Finally, the paper examines the effect of an industry's environment on a firm's ability to innovate.

    Several findings are of note. First, the relationship between innovation and patent use is found to be much stronger going from innovation to patent use than from patent use to innovation. Firms that innovate take out patents; but firms and industries that make more intensive use of patents do not tend to produce more innovations. Second, while R&D is important, developing capabilities in other areas, such as technological competency and marketing, is also important. Third, size effects are significant. The largest firms tend to be more innovative. As for competition, intermediate levels of competition are the most conducive to innovation. Fourth, foreign-controlled firms are not significantly more likely to innovate than domestic-controlled firms once differences in competencies have been taken into account. Fifth, the scientific infrastructure provided by university research is a significant determinant of innovation.

    Release date: 2000-03-07

  • Articles and reports: 12-001-X19990024875
    Description:

    Dr. Fellegi considers the challenges facing government statistical agencies and strategies to prepare for these challenges. He first describes the environment of changing information needs and the social, economic and technological developments driving this change. He goes on to describe both internal and external elements of a strategy to meet these evolving needs. Internally, a flexible capacity for survey taking and information gathering must be developed. Externally, contacts must be developed to ensure continuing relevance of statistical programs while maintaining non-political objectivity.

    Release date: 2000-03-01

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M2000143
    Description:

    This paper explores differences between innovative and non-innovative establishments in business service industries. It focuses on small establishments that supply core technical inputs to other firms: establishments in computer and related services, engineering, and other scientific and technical services.

    The analysis begins by examining the incidence of innovation within the small firm population. Forty percent of small businesses report introducing new or improved products, processes or organizational forms. Among these businesses, product innovation dominates over process or organizational change. A majority of these establishments reveal an ongoing commitment to innovation programs by introducing innovations on a regular basis. By contrast, businesses that do not introduce new or improved products, processes or organizational methods reveal little supporting evidence of innovation activity.

    The paper then investigates differences in strategic intensity between innovative and non-innovative businesses. Innovators attach greater importance to financial management and capital acquisition. Innovators also place more emphasis on recruiting skilled labour and on promoting incentive compensation. These distinctions are sensible - among small firms in R&D-intensive industries, financing and human resource competencies play a critical role in the innovation process.

    A final section examines whether the obstacles to innovation differ between innovators and non-innovators. Innovators are more likely to report difficulties related to market success, imitation, and skill restrictions. Evidence of learning-by-doing is more apparent within a multivariate framework. The probability of encountering risk-related obstacles and input restrictions is higher among establishments that engage in R&D and use intellectual property rights, both key elements of the innovation process. Many obstacles to innovation are also more apparent for businesses that stress financing, marketing, production or human resource strategies.

    Release date: 2000-01-25

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M2000127
    Description:

    In studies of business innovation, the term innovation process is used to describe (i) the array of sources and objectives that culminate in the act of innovation, (ii) the set of market effects that result from innovation, and (iii) the obstacles that firms encounter when pursuing innovation strategies. An examination of the innovation process is thus designed to bring about a more comprehensive understanding of the characteristics that innovative firms share, as well as of those characteristics that set innovators apart from other businesses. The Survey of Innovation, 1996 examined innovation in three dynamic service industries: communications, financial services, and technical business services.

    This paper explores the principal findings to emerge from the Survey of Innovation, 1996. Two themes are apparent. In the first instance, many elements of the innovation process are common to all the service industries studied, such as an emphasis on product innovation, a strong customer orientation, and a commitment to service quality. Beyond these common elements, however, differences in competitive pressures across these industries serve to engender important differences in innovation strategies. Accordingly, much of what we can ultimately learn about the innovation process occurs at the industry level.

    Release date: 2000-01-19

  • Articles and reports: 63-016-X19990034860
    Description:

    This article presents, for the first time, findings about the engineering services industry. This industry is comprised of firms primarily engaged in providing engineering services. It offers services ranging from feasibility studies to design, project management and commissioning (or the start-up of the operation) of projects.

    Release date: 2000-01-18

  • Articles and reports: 88-003-X19990025343
    Description:

    Gross domestic product expenditures on R&D (GERD) for 1999 increased by 3.5% to $14.9 billion over the previous year. Despite this increase, the proportion of GDP devoted to R&D (1.6%) is still among the lowest of the G-7 countries.

    Release date: 2000-01-17

  • Articles and reports: 88-003-X19990025345
    Description:

    Some analysts suggest that biotechnology may trigger a revolution equal to the one prompted by information technology. Various sectors of Canadian industry are already actively using biotechnologies for purposes ranging from research and development to pollution control. Many still see obstacles to adopting new biotechnologies including lack of information and government regulation.

    Release date: 2000-01-17

  • Articles and reports: 88-003-X19990025340
    Description:

    In 1999, the federal government expects to fund 19.4% of the R&D in Canada. Less and less of the government-funded R&D is taking place in government labs. Although overall spending on R&D will increase from $3.5 billion to $4.0 billion, the share of this going to the government research has dropped from 59% to 52%.

    Release date: 2000-01-17

Reference (2)

Reference (2) (2 results)

  • Technical products: 88F0006X2000001
    Description:

    During the summer of 1999, Statistics Canada conducted the second Survey of Intellectual Property Commercialization in the Higher Education Sector, which was designed to illuminate the overall process of intellectual property (IP) management. Over 100 universities, degree-granting colleges and affiliated research hospitals took part in this voluntary survey. The results show that over 60% of institutions are actively managing (identifying, protecting, promoting and/or commercializing) their IP. Within the last five years, 47% of institutions have filed a patent application and 32% have licensed their technologies, to generate over $21 million per annum in royalties. Universities also hold $55 million in equity in their 454 spin-off companies formed to date.

    Release date: 2000-05-29

  • Technical products: 21-601-M1998034
    Description:

    This paper describes the experiences, the issues and the expectations of the many different players involved in the implementation of document imaging for the Canadian Census of Agriculture.

    Release date: 2000-01-13

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