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All (32)

All (32) (25 of 32 results)

  • Articles and reports: 21-006-X2000001
    Description:

    Historically, female employment rates in rural areas have been significantly below the rates for women in urban areas (Bollman, 1991; Fuguitt, Brown and Beale, 1989). The objective of this paper is to explore some of the factors associated with these rural-urban differences in female employment rates.

    Release date: 2000-12-13

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M2000160
    Description:

    In this paper, we use census tract data to analyse changes in neighbourhood income inequality and residential economic segregation in the eight largest Canadian cities during the 1980-95 period. Is the income gap between richer and poorer neighbourhoods rising? Are high and low-income families increasingly clustered in economically homogeneous neighbourhoods? The main results are an elaboration of the spatial implications of the well documented changes that have occurred in family income and earnings inequality since 1980. We find that between neighbourhood family income (post-transfer/pre-tax) inequality rose in all cities driven by a substantial rise in neighbourhood (employment) earnings inequality. Real average earnings fell, sometimes dramatically, in low-income neighbourhoods in virtually all cities while rising moderately in higher income neighbourhoods. Strikingly, social transfers, which were the main factor stabilizing national level income inequality in the face of rising earnings inequality, had only a modest impact on changes in neighbourhood inequality. Changes in the neighbourhood distribution of earnings signal significant change in the social and economic character of many neighbourhoods. Employment was increasingly concentrated in higher income communities and unemployment in lower income neighbourhoods. Finally, we ask whether neighbourhood inequality rose primarily as a result of rising family income inequality in the city as a whole or because families were increasingly sorting themselves into "like" neighbourhoods so that neighbourhoods were becoming more economically homogeneous (economic "segregation"). We find that economic spatial segregation increased in all cities and was the major factor behind rising neighbourhood inequality in four of the eight cities. A general rise in urban family income inequality was the main factor in the remaining four cities.

    Release date: 2000-12-13

  • Articles and reports: 11-008-X20000035389
    Description:

    This article looks at the effect of declining religious attendance on social cohesion in the general society.

    Release date: 2000-12-12

  • Articles and reports: 85-002-X20000118384
    Description:

    This Juristat outlines the characteristics of criminal harassment incidents as well as the characteristics of the accused and victim for 1999, and identifies trends over the past five years. (Trend data are only available for the five-year period from 1995 to 1999.) This Juristat updates a similar Juristat written in 1996 using information collected from police forces and adult criminal courts to review the charges laid and sentences imposed for cases involving criminal harassment.

    There are many different types of stalkers. However, most victims of criminal harassment know their accused quite well and, in many instances, the stalker and victim were involved in a previous relationship.

    Release date: 2000-11-29

  • Articles and reports: 75-001-X20000035375
    Description:

    For some time, concerns have been raised about the movement of young people away from rural areas, mainly to find work. This article provides information on the extent to which youths stay, leave or return to rural communities. (Adapted from a recently published analytical report.)

    Release date: 2000-09-06

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M2000140
    Description:

    The correlation of occupational gender composition and wages is the basis of pay equity/comparable worth legislation. A number of previous studies have examined this correlation in US data, identifying some of the determinants of low wages in "female jobs", as well as important limitations of public policy in this area. There is little evidence, however, from other jurisdictions. This omission is particularly disturbing in the case of Canada, which now has some of the most extensive pay equity legislation in the world. In this paper, we provide a comprehensive picture, circa the late 1980's, of the occupational gender segregation in Canada and its consequences for wages. We also draw explicit comparisons of our findings to evidence for the United States. We find that the link between female wages and gender composition is much stronger in the United States than in Canada, where it is generally small and not statistically significant. The relatively more advantageous position of women in female jobs in Canada is found to be linked to higher unionization rates and the industry-wage effects of "public goods" sectors.

    Release date: 2000-09-05

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M2000152
    Description:

    There has been for some time substantial concern regarding the loss of young people in rural communities. There is a sense that most rural communities offer few opportunities for their younger people, requiring them to leave for urban communities, most likely not to return. While there is a considerable body of research on interprovincial migration, relatively little is currently known about migration patterns in rural and urban areas in Canada.

    According to our analysis, in virtually all provinces young people 15 to 19 years of age are leaving rural areas in greater proportions than urban areas - in part to pursue post-secondary education. While there are more complex migration patterns affecting the 20-29 age group, the net result of all migration is that the Atlantic provinces - as well as Manitoba and Saskatchewan - are net losers of their rural population aged 15-29. The problem is particularly acute in Newfoundland. In the Atlantic provinces, rural areas which fare worse than the national average - in terms of net gains of youth population - do so not because they have a higher than average percentage of leavers but rather because they are unable to attract a sufficiently high proportion of individuals into their communities.

    Of all individuals who move out of their rural community, at most 25% return to this community ten years later. The implication of this result is clear: one cannot count on return migration as a means of preserving the population size of a given cohort. Rather, rural areas must rely on inflows from other (urban) areas to achieve this goal. Some rural communities achieve this; that is, they register positive net in-migration of persons aged 25-29 or older, even though they incur a net loss of younger people.

    Individuals who move out of rural areas generally experience higher earnings growth than their counterparts who stay. However, it remains an open question in which direction the causality works: is the higher earnings growth the result of the migration process itself or does it reflect the possibility that people with higher earnings growth potential are more likely to become movers?

    Release date: 2000-09-05

  • Table: 85-224-X20000005249
    Description:

    The incidence and prevalence of spousal violence was measured through the 1999 General Social Survey. Both women and men were asked a module of ten questions concerning violence by their current and/or previous spouses and common-law partners. The nature of the violence under study ranged in seriousness from threats to sexual assault and concerned acts that happened in the 12-month and 5-year period proceeding the survey interview.

    Release date: 2000-07-25

  • Table: 85-224-X20000005251
    Description:

    For many years now, various levels of governments and community organizations have put considerable effort into reducing the level of family violence. An important question for these groups and for society in general is whether the prevalence of spousal violence has changed in recent years.

    Release date: 2000-07-25

  • Table: 85-224-X20000005259
    Description:

    From 1979 to 1998, there were 12,767 victims of homicide in Canada. One-third of the victims were killed by family members, another 36% were committed by acquaintances, and 12% by strangers.

    Release date: 2000-07-25

  • Table: 85-224-X20000005253
    Description:

    There are currently 164 police forces in 7 provinces that participate in this Incident-based Uniform Crime Reporting (UCR2) Survey, representing nearly one half (46%) of the national volume of reported crime. Although UCR2 data are not nationally representative, they provide useful descriptive information about the type of crimes that come to the attention of the police.

    Release date: 2000-07-25

  • Articles and reports: 11-008-X20000015087
    Description:

    This article considers the degree to which organized activities in youth may influence community involvement in adulthood.

    Release date: 2000-06-13

  • Articles and reports: 11-008-X20000015088
    Description:

    This article asks whether we talk to our neighbours and how often we do so. It focuses on the role that housing type, family life cycle and place of residence may play in neighbourhood interaction.

    Release date: 2000-06-13

  • Articles and reports: 11-008-X20000015089
    Description:

    This article examines the time parents spend with their children in families where both mother and father are employed full-time.

    Release date: 2000-06-13

  • Articles and reports: 75F0033M2000003
    Description:

    This report provides an overview of an inventory of publicly available data on the nonprofit sector.

    Release date: 2000-06-12

  • Articles and reports: 75F0033M2000002
    Description:

    This report summarizes a study conducted to identify distinctive traits shared by active volunteers in Canada.

    Release date: 2000-05-29

  • Articles and reports: 75F0033M2000001
    Description:

    This report summarizes a study that was undertaken to ascertain the state of the voluntary sector in Ontario.

    Release date: 2000-05-15

  • Articles and reports: 75-001-X20000014888
    Description:

    This article reveals what types of volunteer organizations attract young people, and considers some factors that may have encouraged growth in youth volunteering, including changes in the labour market.

    Release date: 2000-03-08

  • Table: 68-513-X
    Description:

    "Generational equity" is a topic that has gradually risen higher and higher on the agenda of governments at all levels. In fact, it is a matter not just for government policy, but a topic that touches many Canadians directly: young and old, parents and grandparents. Canadian policy makers increasingly have to deal with issues associated with the relative status of individuals between successive generations. The reform of public pension programs presents the most obvious example, but there are many other developments that raise the same type of issue. Indeed, the heightened concern over government fiscal policies is due in large part to the readiness of many to view government deficits and debt as a burden on future generations. Generational equity, however, is also a concern of individual Canadians and their families. The allocation of resources between the young and the old within the family is becoming an increasingly important issue for many, especially in light not only of an aging population but also the belief that those just entering the labour force will likely not attain the standard of living to which their parents have become accustomed.

    The contributors to this book examine the operation of government taxes and expenditures from a generational perspective. In part the motivation for bringing these essays together is to offer comprehensive and up-to-date information on the age incidence of government finances. This motivation, however, also has to do with the development of a new accounting framework, Generational Accounting, that has gained some currency in many industrialized countries, particularly in the United States. It is a truism to say that good analysis requires good data, and certainly Statistic Canada's central role is to offer high-quality data in support of analysis and decision making. But the opposite is equally true, if not as obvious: good data requires good analysis. That is to say, new analytical frameworks often highlight the need to organize existing data in different ways, as well as the need for the development of new types of data. This is certainly one of several reasons that Statistics Canada has sought to develop a strong analytical capacity, and to maintain strong ties with the research community. This book is meant to contribute to this process by examining Canadian data through the lens of Generational Accounting, and by analyzing some of the issues that arise.

    Release date: 2000-01-18

  • Technical products: 21-601-M1998037
    Description:

    This paper looks at the number of business establishment starts in smaller and larger communities in Canada from 1993 to 1996.

    Release date: 2000-01-18

  • Technical products: 21-601-M1996030
    Description:

    This paper looks at trends in rural employment in Canada and compares them with trends for other Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) countries.

    Release date: 2000-01-14

  • Technical products: 21-601-M1996031
    Description:

    This paper looks at non-metropolitan areas in Canada in depth by breaking them down into three smaller areas using the Metropolitan Influence Zones (MIZ) conceptual framework. It then looks at the differences between these areas.

    Release date: 2000-01-14

  • Technical products: 21-601-M1998033
    Description:

    This paper examines hobby farming in Canada and the factors that keep hobby farmers farming.

    Release date: 2000-01-14

  • Technical products: 21-601-M1998035
    Description:

    This paper examines employment growth rates in rural and small town (RST) Canada, compared with larger urban centres.

    Release date: 2000-01-14

  • Technical products: 21-601-M1998036
    Description:

    This paper looks at the increase in population in rural and small town Canada.

    Release date: 2000-01-14

Data (6)

Data (6) (6 of 6 results)

  • Table: 85-224-X20000005249
    Description:

    The incidence and prevalence of spousal violence was measured through the 1999 General Social Survey. Both women and men were asked a module of ten questions concerning violence by their current and/or previous spouses and common-law partners. The nature of the violence under study ranged in seriousness from threats to sexual assault and concerned acts that happened in the 12-month and 5-year period proceeding the survey interview.

    Release date: 2000-07-25

  • Table: 85-224-X20000005251
    Description:

    For many years now, various levels of governments and community organizations have put considerable effort into reducing the level of family violence. An important question for these groups and for society in general is whether the prevalence of spousal violence has changed in recent years.

    Release date: 2000-07-25

  • Table: 85-224-X20000005259
    Description:

    From 1979 to 1998, there were 12,767 victims of homicide in Canada. One-third of the victims were killed by family members, another 36% were committed by acquaintances, and 12% by strangers.

    Release date: 2000-07-25

  • Table: 85-224-X20000005253
    Description:

    There are currently 164 police forces in 7 provinces that participate in this Incident-based Uniform Crime Reporting (UCR2) Survey, representing nearly one half (46%) of the national volume of reported crime. Although UCR2 data are not nationally representative, they provide useful descriptive information about the type of crimes that come to the attention of the police.

    Release date: 2000-07-25

  • Table: 68-513-X
    Description:

    "Generational equity" is a topic that has gradually risen higher and higher on the agenda of governments at all levels. In fact, it is a matter not just for government policy, but a topic that touches many Canadians directly: young and old, parents and grandparents. Canadian policy makers increasingly have to deal with issues associated with the relative status of individuals between successive generations. The reform of public pension programs presents the most obvious example, but there are many other developments that raise the same type of issue. Indeed, the heightened concern over government fiscal policies is due in large part to the readiness of many to view government deficits and debt as a burden on future generations. Generational equity, however, is also a concern of individual Canadians and their families. The allocation of resources between the young and the old within the family is becoming an increasingly important issue for many, especially in light not only of an aging population but also the belief that those just entering the labour force will likely not attain the standard of living to which their parents have become accustomed.

    The contributors to this book examine the operation of government taxes and expenditures from a generational perspective. In part the motivation for bringing these essays together is to offer comprehensive and up-to-date information on the age incidence of government finances. This motivation, however, also has to do with the development of a new accounting framework, Generational Accounting, that has gained some currency in many industrialized countries, particularly in the United States. It is a truism to say that good analysis requires good data, and certainly Statistic Canada's central role is to offer high-quality data in support of analysis and decision making. But the opposite is equally true, if not as obvious: good data requires good analysis. That is to say, new analytical frameworks often highlight the need to organize existing data in different ways, as well as the need for the development of new types of data. This is certainly one of several reasons that Statistics Canada has sought to develop a strong analytical capacity, and to maintain strong ties with the research community. This book is meant to contribute to this process by examining Canadian data through the lens of Generational Accounting, and by analyzing some of the issues that arise.

    Release date: 2000-01-18

Analysis (14)

Analysis (14) (14 of 14 results)

  • Articles and reports: 21-006-X2000001
    Description:

    Historically, female employment rates in rural areas have been significantly below the rates for women in urban areas (Bollman, 1991; Fuguitt, Brown and Beale, 1989). The objective of this paper is to explore some of the factors associated with these rural-urban differences in female employment rates.

    Release date: 2000-12-13

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M2000160
    Description:

    In this paper, we use census tract data to analyse changes in neighbourhood income inequality and residential economic segregation in the eight largest Canadian cities during the 1980-95 period. Is the income gap between richer and poorer neighbourhoods rising? Are high and low-income families increasingly clustered in economically homogeneous neighbourhoods? The main results are an elaboration of the spatial implications of the well documented changes that have occurred in family income and earnings inequality since 1980. We find that between neighbourhood family income (post-transfer/pre-tax) inequality rose in all cities driven by a substantial rise in neighbourhood (employment) earnings inequality. Real average earnings fell, sometimes dramatically, in low-income neighbourhoods in virtually all cities while rising moderately in higher income neighbourhoods. Strikingly, social transfers, which were the main factor stabilizing national level income inequality in the face of rising earnings inequality, had only a modest impact on changes in neighbourhood inequality. Changes in the neighbourhood distribution of earnings signal significant change in the social and economic character of many neighbourhoods. Employment was increasingly concentrated in higher income communities and unemployment in lower income neighbourhoods. Finally, we ask whether neighbourhood inequality rose primarily as a result of rising family income inequality in the city as a whole or because families were increasingly sorting themselves into "like" neighbourhoods so that neighbourhoods were becoming more economically homogeneous (economic "segregation"). We find that economic spatial segregation increased in all cities and was the major factor behind rising neighbourhood inequality in four of the eight cities. A general rise in urban family income inequality was the main factor in the remaining four cities.

    Release date: 2000-12-13

  • Articles and reports: 11-008-X20000035389
    Description:

    This article looks at the effect of declining religious attendance on social cohesion in the general society.

    Release date: 2000-12-12

  • Articles and reports: 85-002-X20000118384
    Description:

    This Juristat outlines the characteristics of criminal harassment incidents as well as the characteristics of the accused and victim for 1999, and identifies trends over the past five years. (Trend data are only available for the five-year period from 1995 to 1999.) This Juristat updates a similar Juristat written in 1996 using information collected from police forces and adult criminal courts to review the charges laid and sentences imposed for cases involving criminal harassment.

    There are many different types of stalkers. However, most victims of criminal harassment know their accused quite well and, in many instances, the stalker and victim were involved in a previous relationship.

    Release date: 2000-11-29

  • Articles and reports: 75-001-X20000035375
    Description:

    For some time, concerns have been raised about the movement of young people away from rural areas, mainly to find work. This article provides information on the extent to which youths stay, leave or return to rural communities. (Adapted from a recently published analytical report.)

    Release date: 2000-09-06

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M2000140
    Description:

    The correlation of occupational gender composition and wages is the basis of pay equity/comparable worth legislation. A number of previous studies have examined this correlation in US data, identifying some of the determinants of low wages in "female jobs", as well as important limitations of public policy in this area. There is little evidence, however, from other jurisdictions. This omission is particularly disturbing in the case of Canada, which now has some of the most extensive pay equity legislation in the world. In this paper, we provide a comprehensive picture, circa the late 1980's, of the occupational gender segregation in Canada and its consequences for wages. We also draw explicit comparisons of our findings to evidence for the United States. We find that the link between female wages and gender composition is much stronger in the United States than in Canada, where it is generally small and not statistically significant. The relatively more advantageous position of women in female jobs in Canada is found to be linked to higher unionization rates and the industry-wage effects of "public goods" sectors.

    Release date: 2000-09-05

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M2000152
    Description:

    There has been for some time substantial concern regarding the loss of young people in rural communities. There is a sense that most rural communities offer few opportunities for their younger people, requiring them to leave for urban communities, most likely not to return. While there is a considerable body of research on interprovincial migration, relatively little is currently known about migration patterns in rural and urban areas in Canada.

    According to our analysis, in virtually all provinces young people 15 to 19 years of age are leaving rural areas in greater proportions than urban areas - in part to pursue post-secondary education. While there are more complex migration patterns affecting the 20-29 age group, the net result of all migration is that the Atlantic provinces - as well as Manitoba and Saskatchewan - are net losers of their rural population aged 15-29. The problem is particularly acute in Newfoundland. In the Atlantic provinces, rural areas which fare worse than the national average - in terms of net gains of youth population - do so not because they have a higher than average percentage of leavers but rather because they are unable to attract a sufficiently high proportion of individuals into their communities.

    Of all individuals who move out of their rural community, at most 25% return to this community ten years later. The implication of this result is clear: one cannot count on return migration as a means of preserving the population size of a given cohort. Rather, rural areas must rely on inflows from other (urban) areas to achieve this goal. Some rural communities achieve this; that is, they register positive net in-migration of persons aged 25-29 or older, even though they incur a net loss of younger people.

    Individuals who move out of rural areas generally experience higher earnings growth than their counterparts who stay. However, it remains an open question in which direction the causality works: is the higher earnings growth the result of the migration process itself or does it reflect the possibility that people with higher earnings growth potential are more likely to become movers?

    Release date: 2000-09-05

  • Articles and reports: 11-008-X20000015087
    Description:

    This article considers the degree to which organized activities in youth may influence community involvement in adulthood.

    Release date: 2000-06-13

  • Articles and reports: 11-008-X20000015088
    Description:

    This article asks whether we talk to our neighbours and how often we do so. It focuses on the role that housing type, family life cycle and place of residence may play in neighbourhood interaction.

    Release date: 2000-06-13

  • Articles and reports: 11-008-X20000015089
    Description:

    This article examines the time parents spend with their children in families where both mother and father are employed full-time.

    Release date: 2000-06-13

  • Articles and reports: 75F0033M2000003
    Description:

    This report provides an overview of an inventory of publicly available data on the nonprofit sector.

    Release date: 2000-06-12

  • Articles and reports: 75F0033M2000002
    Description:

    This report summarizes a study conducted to identify distinctive traits shared by active volunteers in Canada.

    Release date: 2000-05-29

  • Articles and reports: 75F0033M2000001
    Description:

    This report summarizes a study that was undertaken to ascertain the state of the voluntary sector in Ontario.

    Release date: 2000-05-15

  • Articles and reports: 75-001-X20000014888
    Description:

    This article reveals what types of volunteer organizations attract young people, and considers some factors that may have encouraged growth in youth volunteering, including changes in the labour market.

    Release date: 2000-03-08

Reference (12)

Reference (12) (12 of 12 results)

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