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All (289) (25 of 289 results)

  • Journals and periodicals: 11-633-X
    Description:

    Papers in this series provide background discussions of the methods used to develop data for economic, health, and social analytical studies at Statistics Canada. They are intended to provide readers with information on the statistical methods, standards and definitions used to develop databases for research purposes. All papers in this series have undergone peer and institutional review to ensure that they conform to Statistics Canada's mandate and adhere to generally accepted standards of good professional practice.

    Release date: 2018-01-11

  • Articles and reports: 11-633-X2018012
    Description:

    This study investigates the extent to which income tax reassessments and delayed tax filing affect the reliability of Canadian administrative tax datasets used for economic analysis. The study is based on individual income tax records from the T1 Personal Master File and Historical Personal Master File for selected years from 1990 to 2010. These datasets contain tax records for approximately 100% of initial and all income tax filers, who submitted returns to the Canada Revenue Agency (CRA) before specific processing cut-off dates.

    Release date: 2018-01-11

  • The Daily
    Description: Release published in The Daily – Statistics Canada’s official release bulletin
    Release date: 2018-01-05

  • Articles and reports: 18-001-X2017001
    Description:

    This working paper profiles Canadian firms involved in the development and production of Bioproducts. It provides data on the number and types of Bioproducts firms in 2015, covering bioproducts revenues, research and development, use of biomass, patents, products, business practices and the impact of government regulations on the sector.

    Release date: 2017-12-22

  • Articles and reports: 12-001-X201700254887
    Description:

    This paper proposes a new approach to decompose the wage difference between men and women that is based on a calibration procedure. This approach generalizes two current decomposition methods that are re-expressed using survey weights. The first one is the Blinder-Oaxaca method and the second one is a reweighting method proposed by DiNardo, Fortin and Lemieux. The new approach provides a weighting system that enables us to estimate such parameters of interest like quantiles. An application to data from the Swiss Structure of Earnings Survey shows the interest of this method.

    Release date: 2017-12-21

  • Articles and reports: 12-001-X201700254872
    Description:

    This note discusses the theoretical foundations for the extension of the Wilson two-sided coverage interval to an estimated proportion computed from complex survey data. The interval is shown to be asymptotically equivalent to an interval derived from a logistic transformation. A mildly better version is discussed, but users may prefer constructing a one-sided interval already in the literature.

    Release date: 2017-12-21

  • Articles and reports: 12-001-X201700114820
    Description:

    Measurement errors can induce bias in the estimation of transitions, leading to erroneous conclusions about labour market dynamics. Traditional literature on gross flows estimation is based on the assumption that measurement errors are uncorrelated over time. This assumption is not realistic in many contexts, because of survey design and data collection strategies. In this work, we use a model-based approach to correct observed gross flows from classification errors with latent class Markov models. We refer to data collected with the Italian Continuous Labour Force Survey, which is cross-sectional, quarterly, with a 2-2-2 rotating design. The questionnaire allows us to use multiple indicators of labour force conditions for each quarter: two collected in the first interview, and a third collected one year later. Our approach provides a method to estimate labour market mobility, taking into account correlated errors and the rotating design of the survey. The best-fitting model is a mixed latent class Markov model with covariates affecting latent transitions and correlated errors among indicators; the mixture components are of mover-stayer type. The better fit of the mixture specification is due to more accurately estimated latent transitions.

    Release date: 2017-06-22

  • Articles and reports: 12-001-X201700114822
    Description:

    We use a Bayesian method to infer about a finite population proportion when binary data are collected using a two-fold sample design from small areas. The two-fold sample design has a two-stage cluster sample design within each area. A former hierarchical Bayesian model assumes that for each area the first stage binary responses are independent Bernoulli distributions, and the probabilities have beta distributions which are parameterized by a mean and a correlation coefficient. The means vary with areas but the correlation is the same over areas. However, to gain some flexibility we have now extended this model to accommodate different correlations. The means and the correlations have independent beta distributions. We call the former model a homogeneous model and the new model a heterogeneous model. All hyperparameters have proper noninformative priors. An additional complexity is that some of the parameters are weakly identified making it difficult to use a standard Gibbs sampler for computation. So we have used unimodal constraints for the beta prior distributions and a blocked Gibbs sampler to perform the computation. We have compared the heterogeneous and homogeneous models using an illustrative example and simulation study. As expected, the two-fold model with heterogeneous correlations is preferred.

    Release date: 2017-06-22

  • Articles and reports: 18-001-X2017002
    Description:

    This working paper presents a methodology to measure remoteness at the community level. The method takes into account some of the recent literature on the subject, as well as new computational opportunities provided by the integration of official statistics with data from non-official statistical sources. The approach that was used in the computations accounts for multiple points of access to services; it also establishes a continuum between communities with different transportation infrastructures and connectivity while at the same time retaining the information on the community transportation infrastructures in the database. In addition, a method to implement accessibility measures to selected services is also outlined and a sample of accessibility measures are computed.

    Release date: 2017-05-09

  • Articles and reports: 11-633-X2017006
    Description:

    This paper describes a method of imputing missing postal codes in a longitudinal database. The 1991 Canadian Census Health and Environment Cohort (CanCHEC), which contains information on individuals from the 1991 Census long-form questionnaire linked with T1 tax return files for the 1984-to-2011 period, is used to illustrate and validate the method. The cohort contains up to 28 consecutive fields for postal code of residence, but because of frequent gaps in postal code history, missing postal codes must be imputed. To validate the imputation method, two experiments were devised where 5% and 10% of all postal codes from a subset with full history were randomly removed and imputed.

    Release date: 2017-03-13

  • Articles and reports: 11-633-X2016004
    Description:

    Understanding the importance of the dynamic entry process in the Canadian economy involves measuring the amount and size of firm entry. The paper presents estimates of the importance of firm entry in Canada. It uses the database underlying the Longitudinal Employment Analysis Program (LEAP), which has produced measures of firm entry and exit since 1988. This paper discusses the methodology used to estimate entry and exit, the issues that had to be resolved and the reasons for choosing the particular solutions that were adopted. It then presents measures that are derived from LEAP. Finally, it analyzes the sensitivity of the estimates associated with LEAP to alternative methods of estimating entry and exit.

    Release date: 2016-11-10

  • The Daily
    Description: Release published in The Daily – Statistics Canada’s official release bulletin
    Release date: 2016-11-10

  • Articles and reports: 11-633-X2016003
    Description:

    Large national mortality cohorts are used to estimate mortality rates for different socioeconomic and population groups, and to conduct research on environmental health. In 2008, Statistics Canada created a cohort linking the 1991 Census to mortality. The present study describes a linkage of the 2001 Census long-form questionnaire respondents aged 19 years and older to the T1 Personal Master File and the Amalgamated Mortality Database. The linkage tracks all deaths over a 10.6-year period (until the end of 2011, to date).

    Release date: 2016-10-26

  • The Daily
    Description: Release published in The Daily – Statistics Canada’s official release bulletin
    Release date: 2016-10-26

  • Articles and reports: 82-003-X201601014665
    Description:

    The purpose of this analysis was to use data from the 2007-to-2013 Canadian Health Measures Survey to develop reference equations for maximum, right-hand and left-hand grip strength for Canadians aged 6 to79, based on a healthy, nationally representative population. These equations can be used to determine reference values against which to assess an individual’s grip strength.

    Release date: 2016-10-19

  • Articles and reports: 11-630-X2016007
    Description:

    This edition of Canadian Megatrends looks at the changes of the Canadian stay-at-home parents since 1976.

    Release date: 2016-09-28

  • Articles and reports: 11-633-X2016002
    Description:

    Immigrants comprise an ever-increasing percentage of the Canadian population—at more than 20%, which is the highest percentage among the G8 countries (Statistics Canada 2013a). This figure is expected to rise to 25% to 28% by 2031, when at least one in four people living in Canada will be foreign-born (Statistics Canada 2010).

    This report summarizes the linkage of the Immigrant Landing File (ILF) for all provinces and territories, excluding Quebec, to hospital data from the Discharge Abstract Database (DAD), a national database containing information about hospital inpatient and day-surgery events. A deterministic exact-matching approach was used to link data from the 1980-to-2006 ILF and from the DAD (2006/2007, 2007/2008 and 2008/2009) with the 2006 Census, which served as a “bridge” file. This was a secondary linkage in that it used linkage keys created in two previous projects (primary linkages) that separately linked the ILF and the DAD to the 2006 Census. The ILF–DAD linked data were validated by means of a representative sample of 2006 Census records containing immigrant information previously linked to the DAD.

    Release date: 2016-08-17

  • Articles and reports: 11-630-X2016006
    Description:

    This edition of Canadian Megatrends looks at immigration to Canada since Canada's Confederation.

    Release date: 2016-06-29

  • Articles and reports: 12-001-X201600114541
    Description:

    In this work we compare nonparametric estimators for finite population distribution functions based on two types of fitted values: the fitted values from the well-known Kuo estimator and a modified version of them, which incorporates a nonparametric estimate for the mean regression function. For each type of fitted values we consider the corresponding model-based estimator and, after incorporating design weights, the corresponding generalized difference estimator. We show under fairly general conditions that the leading term in the model mean square error is not affected by the modification of the fitted values, even though it slows down the convergence rate for the model bias. Second order terms of the model mean square errors are difficult to obtain and will not be derived in the present paper. It remains thus an open question whether the modified fitted values bring about some benefit from the model-based perspective. We discuss also design-based properties of the estimators and propose a variance estimator for the generalized difference estimator based on the modified fitted values. Finally, we perform a simulation study. The simulation results suggest that the modified fitted values lead to a considerable reduction of the design mean square error if the sample size is small.

    Release date: 2016-06-22

  • Articles and reports: 12-001-X201600114546
    Description:

    Adjusting the base weights using weighting classes is a standard approach for dealing with unit nonresponse. A common approach is to create nonresponse adjustments that are weighted by the inverse of the assumed response propensity of respondents within weighting classes under a quasi-randomization approach. Little and Vartivarian (2003) questioned the value of weighting the adjustment factor. In practice the models assumed are misspecified, so it is critical to understand the impact of weighting might have in this case. This paper describes the effects on nonresponse adjusted estimates of means and totals for population and domains computed using the weighted and unweighted inverse of the response propensities in stratified simple random sample designs. The performance of these estimators under different conditions such as different sample allocation, response mechanism, and population structure is evaluated. The findings show that for the scenarios considered the weighted adjustment has substantial advantages for estimating totals and using an unweighted adjustment may lead to serious biases except in very limited cases. Furthermore, unlike the unweighted estimates, the weighted estimates are not sensitive to how the sample is allocated.

    Release date: 2016-06-22

  • Articles and reports: 12-001-X201600114542
    Description:

    The restricted maximum likelihood (REML) method is generally used to estimate the variance of the random area effect under the Fay-Herriot model (Fay and Herriot 1979) to obtain the empirical best linear unbiased (EBLUP) estimator of a small area mean. When the REML estimate is zero, the weight of the direct sample estimator is zero and the EBLUP becomes a synthetic estimator. This is not often desirable. As a solution to this problem, Li and Lahiri (2011) and Yoshimori and Lahiri (2014) developed adjusted maximum likelihood (ADM) consistent variance estimators which always yield positive variance estimates. Some of the ADM estimators always yield positive estimates but they have a large bias and this affects the estimation of the mean squared error (MSE) of the EBLUP. We propose to use a MIX variance estimator, defined as a combination of the REML and ADM methods. We show that it is unbiased up to the second order and it always yields a positive variance estimate. Furthermore, we propose an MSE estimator under the MIX method and show via a model-based simulation that in many situations, it performs better than other ‘Taylor linearization’ MSE estimators proposed recently.

    Release date: 2016-06-22

  • Articles and reports: 11-630-X2016005
    Description:

    This edition of Canadian Megatrends looks at the rise of dual-earner family with children from 1976 to 2015.

    Release date: 2016-05-30

  • Articles and reports: 11-630-X2016004
    Description:

    This edition of Canadian Megatrends looks at changes in the production of honey from 1924 to 2014.

    Release date: 2016-04-27

  • Articles and reports: 82-003-X201600414489
    Description:

    Using accelerometry data for children and youth aged 3 to 17 from the Canadian Health Measures Survey, the probability of adherence to physical activity guidelines is estimated using a conditional probability, given the number of active and inactive days distributed as a Betabinomial.

    Release date: 2016-04-20

  • Technical products: 11-522-X201700014754
    Description:

    Background: There is increasing interest in measuring and benchmarking health system performance. We compared Canada’s health system with other countries in the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) on both the national and provincial levels, across 50 indicators of health system performance. This analysis can help provinces identify potential areas for improvement, considering an optimal comparator for international comparisons. Methods: OECD Health Data from 2013 was used to compare Canada’s results internationally. We also calculated provincial results for OECD’s indicators on health system performance, using OECD methodology. We normalized the indicator results to present multiple indicators on the same scale and compared them to the OECD average, 25th and 75th percentiles. Results: Presenting normalized values allow Canada’s results to be compared across multiple OECD indicators on the same scale. No country or province consistently has higher results than the others. For most indicators, Canadian results are similar to other countries, but there remain areas where Canada performs particularly well (i.e. smoking rates) or poorly (i.e. patient safety). This data was presented in an interactive eTool. Conclusion: Comparing Canada’s provinces internationally can highlight areas where improvement is needed, and help to identify potential strategies for improvement.

    Release date: 2016-03-24

Data (1)

Data (1) (1 result)

  • Table: 53-222-X19980006587
    Description:

    The primary purpose of this article is to present a new time series data and to demonstrate its analytical potential and not to provide a detailed analysis of these data. The analysis in section 5.2.4 will deal primarily with the trends of major variables dealing with domestic and transborder traffic.

    Release date: 2000-03-07

Analysis (137)

Analysis (137) (25 of 137 results)

  • Journals and periodicals: 11-633-X
    Description:

    Papers in this series provide background discussions of the methods used to develop data for economic, health, and social analytical studies at Statistics Canada. They are intended to provide readers with information on the statistical methods, standards and definitions used to develop databases for research purposes. All papers in this series have undergone peer and institutional review to ensure that they conform to Statistics Canada's mandate and adhere to generally accepted standards of good professional practice.

    Release date: 2018-01-11

  • Articles and reports: 11-633-X2018012
    Description:

    This study investigates the extent to which income tax reassessments and delayed tax filing affect the reliability of Canadian administrative tax datasets used for economic analysis. The study is based on individual income tax records from the T1 Personal Master File and Historical Personal Master File for selected years from 1990 to 2010. These datasets contain tax records for approximately 100% of initial and all income tax filers, who submitted returns to the Canada Revenue Agency (CRA) before specific processing cut-off dates.

    Release date: 2018-01-11

  • The Daily
    Description: Release published in The Daily – Statistics Canada’s official release bulletin
    Release date: 2018-01-05

  • Articles and reports: 18-001-X2017001
    Description:

    This working paper profiles Canadian firms involved in the development and production of Bioproducts. It provides data on the number and types of Bioproducts firms in 2015, covering bioproducts revenues, research and development, use of biomass, patents, products, business practices and the impact of government regulations on the sector.

    Release date: 2017-12-22

  • Articles and reports: 12-001-X201700254887
    Description:

    This paper proposes a new approach to decompose the wage difference between men and women that is based on a calibration procedure. This approach generalizes two current decomposition methods that are re-expressed using survey weights. The first one is the Blinder-Oaxaca method and the second one is a reweighting method proposed by DiNardo, Fortin and Lemieux. The new approach provides a weighting system that enables us to estimate such parameters of interest like quantiles. An application to data from the Swiss Structure of Earnings Survey shows the interest of this method.

    Release date: 2017-12-21

  • Articles and reports: 12-001-X201700254872
    Description:

    This note discusses the theoretical foundations for the extension of the Wilson two-sided coverage interval to an estimated proportion computed from complex survey data. The interval is shown to be asymptotically equivalent to an interval derived from a logistic transformation. A mildly better version is discussed, but users may prefer constructing a one-sided interval already in the literature.

    Release date: 2017-12-21

  • Articles and reports: 12-001-X201700114820
    Description:

    Measurement errors can induce bias in the estimation of transitions, leading to erroneous conclusions about labour market dynamics. Traditional literature on gross flows estimation is based on the assumption that measurement errors are uncorrelated over time. This assumption is not realistic in many contexts, because of survey design and data collection strategies. In this work, we use a model-based approach to correct observed gross flows from classification errors with latent class Markov models. We refer to data collected with the Italian Continuous Labour Force Survey, which is cross-sectional, quarterly, with a 2-2-2 rotating design. The questionnaire allows us to use multiple indicators of labour force conditions for each quarter: two collected in the first interview, and a third collected one year later. Our approach provides a method to estimate labour market mobility, taking into account correlated errors and the rotating design of the survey. The best-fitting model is a mixed latent class Markov model with covariates affecting latent transitions and correlated errors among indicators; the mixture components are of mover-stayer type. The better fit of the mixture specification is due to more accurately estimated latent transitions.

    Release date: 2017-06-22

  • Articles and reports: 12-001-X201700114822
    Description:

    We use a Bayesian method to infer about a finite population proportion when binary data are collected using a two-fold sample design from small areas. The two-fold sample design has a two-stage cluster sample design within each area. A former hierarchical Bayesian model assumes that for each area the first stage binary responses are independent Bernoulli distributions, and the probabilities have beta distributions which are parameterized by a mean and a correlation coefficient. The means vary with areas but the correlation is the same over areas. However, to gain some flexibility we have now extended this model to accommodate different correlations. The means and the correlations have independent beta distributions. We call the former model a homogeneous model and the new model a heterogeneous model. All hyperparameters have proper noninformative priors. An additional complexity is that some of the parameters are weakly identified making it difficult to use a standard Gibbs sampler for computation. So we have used unimodal constraints for the beta prior distributions and a blocked Gibbs sampler to perform the computation. We have compared the heterogeneous and homogeneous models using an illustrative example and simulation study. As expected, the two-fold model with heterogeneous correlations is preferred.

    Release date: 2017-06-22

  • Articles and reports: 18-001-X2017002
    Description:

    This working paper presents a methodology to measure remoteness at the community level. The method takes into account some of the recent literature on the subject, as well as new computational opportunities provided by the integration of official statistics with data from non-official statistical sources. The approach that was used in the computations accounts for multiple points of access to services; it also establishes a continuum between communities with different transportation infrastructures and connectivity while at the same time retaining the information on the community transportation infrastructures in the database. In addition, a method to implement accessibility measures to selected services is also outlined and a sample of accessibility measures are computed.

    Release date: 2017-05-09

  • Articles and reports: 11-633-X2017006
    Description:

    This paper describes a method of imputing missing postal codes in a longitudinal database. The 1991 Canadian Census Health and Environment Cohort (CanCHEC), which contains information on individuals from the 1991 Census long-form questionnaire linked with T1 tax return files for the 1984-to-2011 period, is used to illustrate and validate the method. The cohort contains up to 28 consecutive fields for postal code of residence, but because of frequent gaps in postal code history, missing postal codes must be imputed. To validate the imputation method, two experiments were devised where 5% and 10% of all postal codes from a subset with full history were randomly removed and imputed.

    Release date: 2017-03-13

  • Articles and reports: 11-633-X2016004
    Description:

    Understanding the importance of the dynamic entry process in the Canadian economy involves measuring the amount and size of firm entry. The paper presents estimates of the importance of firm entry in Canada. It uses the database underlying the Longitudinal Employment Analysis Program (LEAP), which has produced measures of firm entry and exit since 1988. This paper discusses the methodology used to estimate entry and exit, the issues that had to be resolved and the reasons for choosing the particular solutions that were adopted. It then presents measures that are derived from LEAP. Finally, it analyzes the sensitivity of the estimates associated with LEAP to alternative methods of estimating entry and exit.

    Release date: 2016-11-10

  • The Daily
    Description: Release published in The Daily – Statistics Canada’s official release bulletin
    Release date: 2016-11-10

  • Articles and reports: 11-633-X2016003
    Description:

    Large national mortality cohorts are used to estimate mortality rates for different socioeconomic and population groups, and to conduct research on environmental health. In 2008, Statistics Canada created a cohort linking the 1991 Census to mortality. The present study describes a linkage of the 2001 Census long-form questionnaire respondents aged 19 years and older to the T1 Personal Master File and the Amalgamated Mortality Database. The linkage tracks all deaths over a 10.6-year period (until the end of 2011, to date).

    Release date: 2016-10-26

  • The Daily
    Description: Release published in The Daily – Statistics Canada’s official release bulletin
    Release date: 2016-10-26

  • Articles and reports: 82-003-X201601014665
    Description:

    The purpose of this analysis was to use data from the 2007-to-2013 Canadian Health Measures Survey to develop reference equations for maximum, right-hand and left-hand grip strength for Canadians aged 6 to79, based on a healthy, nationally representative population. These equations can be used to determine reference values against which to assess an individual’s grip strength.

    Release date: 2016-10-19

  • Articles and reports: 11-630-X2016007
    Description:

    This edition of Canadian Megatrends looks at the changes of the Canadian stay-at-home parents since 1976.

    Release date: 2016-09-28

  • Articles and reports: 11-633-X2016002
    Description:

    Immigrants comprise an ever-increasing percentage of the Canadian population—at more than 20%, which is the highest percentage among the G8 countries (Statistics Canada 2013a). This figure is expected to rise to 25% to 28% by 2031, when at least one in four people living in Canada will be foreign-born (Statistics Canada 2010).

    This report summarizes the linkage of the Immigrant Landing File (ILF) for all provinces and territories, excluding Quebec, to hospital data from the Discharge Abstract Database (DAD), a national database containing information about hospital inpatient and day-surgery events. A deterministic exact-matching approach was used to link data from the 1980-to-2006 ILF and from the DAD (2006/2007, 2007/2008 and 2008/2009) with the 2006 Census, which served as a “bridge” file. This was a secondary linkage in that it used linkage keys created in two previous projects (primary linkages) that separately linked the ILF and the DAD to the 2006 Census. The ILF–DAD linked data were validated by means of a representative sample of 2006 Census records containing immigrant information previously linked to the DAD.

    Release date: 2016-08-17

  • Articles and reports: 11-630-X2016006
    Description:

    This edition of Canadian Megatrends looks at immigration to Canada since Canada's Confederation.

    Release date: 2016-06-29

  • Articles and reports: 12-001-X201600114541
    Description:

    In this work we compare nonparametric estimators for finite population distribution functions based on two types of fitted values: the fitted values from the well-known Kuo estimator and a modified version of them, which incorporates a nonparametric estimate for the mean regression function. For each type of fitted values we consider the corresponding model-based estimator and, after incorporating design weights, the corresponding generalized difference estimator. We show under fairly general conditions that the leading term in the model mean square error is not affected by the modification of the fitted values, even though it slows down the convergence rate for the model bias. Second order terms of the model mean square errors are difficult to obtain and will not be derived in the present paper. It remains thus an open question whether the modified fitted values bring about some benefit from the model-based perspective. We discuss also design-based properties of the estimators and propose a variance estimator for the generalized difference estimator based on the modified fitted values. Finally, we perform a simulation study. The simulation results suggest that the modified fitted values lead to a considerable reduction of the design mean square error if the sample size is small.

    Release date: 2016-06-22

  • Articles and reports: 12-001-X201600114546
    Description:

    Adjusting the base weights using weighting classes is a standard approach for dealing with unit nonresponse. A common approach is to create nonresponse adjustments that are weighted by the inverse of the assumed response propensity of respondents within weighting classes under a quasi-randomization approach. Little and Vartivarian (2003) questioned the value of weighting the adjustment factor. In practice the models assumed are misspecified, so it is critical to understand the impact of weighting might have in this case. This paper describes the effects on nonresponse adjusted estimates of means and totals for population and domains computed using the weighted and unweighted inverse of the response propensities in stratified simple random sample designs. The performance of these estimators under different conditions such as different sample allocation, response mechanism, and population structure is evaluated. The findings show that for the scenarios considered the weighted adjustment has substantial advantages for estimating totals and using an unweighted adjustment may lead to serious biases except in very limited cases. Furthermore, unlike the unweighted estimates, the weighted estimates are not sensitive to how the sample is allocated.

    Release date: 2016-06-22

  • Articles and reports: 12-001-X201600114542
    Description:

    The restricted maximum likelihood (REML) method is generally used to estimate the variance of the random area effect under the Fay-Herriot model (Fay and Herriot 1979) to obtain the empirical best linear unbiased (EBLUP) estimator of a small area mean. When the REML estimate is zero, the weight of the direct sample estimator is zero and the EBLUP becomes a synthetic estimator. This is not often desirable. As a solution to this problem, Li and Lahiri (2011) and Yoshimori and Lahiri (2014) developed adjusted maximum likelihood (ADM) consistent variance estimators which always yield positive variance estimates. Some of the ADM estimators always yield positive estimates but they have a large bias and this affects the estimation of the mean squared error (MSE) of the EBLUP. We propose to use a MIX variance estimator, defined as a combination of the REML and ADM methods. We show that it is unbiased up to the second order and it always yields a positive variance estimate. Furthermore, we propose an MSE estimator under the MIX method and show via a model-based simulation that in many situations, it performs better than other ‘Taylor linearization’ MSE estimators proposed recently.

    Release date: 2016-06-22

  • Articles and reports: 11-630-X2016005
    Description:

    This edition of Canadian Megatrends looks at the rise of dual-earner family with children from 1976 to 2015.

    Release date: 2016-05-30

  • Articles and reports: 11-630-X2016004
    Description:

    This edition of Canadian Megatrends looks at changes in the production of honey from 1924 to 2014.

    Release date: 2016-04-27

  • Articles and reports: 82-003-X201600414489
    Description:

    Using accelerometry data for children and youth aged 3 to 17 from the Canadian Health Measures Survey, the probability of adherence to physical activity guidelines is estimated using a conditional probability, given the number of active and inactive days distributed as a Betabinomial.

    Release date: 2016-04-20

  • Articles and reports: 11-630-X2016003
    Description:

    This edition of Canadian Megatrends looks at changes in the causes of death from 1950 to 2012.

    Release date: 2016-03-21

Reference (151)

Reference (151) (25 of 151 results)

  • Technical products: 11-522-X201700014754
    Description:

    Background: There is increasing interest in measuring and benchmarking health system performance. We compared Canada’s health system with other countries in the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) on both the national and provincial levels, across 50 indicators of health system performance. This analysis can help provinces identify potential areas for improvement, considering an optimal comparator for international comparisons. Methods: OECD Health Data from 2013 was used to compare Canada’s results internationally. We also calculated provincial results for OECD’s indicators on health system performance, using OECD methodology. We normalized the indicator results to present multiple indicators on the same scale and compared them to the OECD average, 25th and 75th percentiles. Results: Presenting normalized values allow Canada’s results to be compared across multiple OECD indicators on the same scale. No country or province consistently has higher results than the others. For most indicators, Canadian results are similar to other countries, but there remain areas where Canada performs particularly well (i.e. smoking rates) or poorly (i.e. patient safety). This data was presented in an interactive eTool. Conclusion: Comparing Canada’s provinces internationally can highlight areas where improvement is needed, and help to identify potential strategies for improvement.

    Release date: 2016-03-24

  • Technical products: 11-522-X201700014710
    Description:

    The Data Warehouse has modernized the way the Canadian System of Macroeconomic Accounts (MEA) are produced and analyzed today. Its continuing evolution facilitates the amounts and types of analytical work that is done within the MEA. It brings in the needed element of harmonization and confrontation as the macroeconomic accounts move toward full integration. The improvements in quality, transparency, and timeliness have strengthened the statistics that are being disseminated.

    Release date: 2016-03-24

  • Technical products: 11-522-X201700014714
    Description:

    The Labour Market Development Agreements (LMDAs) between Canada and the provinces and territories fund labour market training and support services to Employment Insurance claimants. The objective of this paper is to discuss the improvements over the years in the impact assessment methodology. The paper describes the LMDAs and past evaluation work and discusses the drivers to make better use of large administrative data holdings. It then explains how the new approach made the evaluation less resource-intensive, while results are more relevant to policy development. The paper outlines the lessons learned from a methodological perspective and provides insight into ways for making this type of use of administrative data effective, especially in the context of large programs.

    Release date: 2016-03-24

  • Technical products: 11-522-X201700014756
    Description:

    How can we bring together multidimensional health system performance data in a simplified way that is easy to access and provides comparable and actionable information to accelerate improvements in health care? The Canadian Institute for Health Information has developed a suite of tools to meet performance measurement needs across different audiences, to identify improvement priorities, understand how health regions and facilities compare with peers and support transparency and accountability. The pan-Canadian tools [Your Health System (YHS)] consolidates reporting of 45 key performance indicators in a structured way, and are comparable over time and at different geographic levels. This paper outlines the development and the methodological approaches and considerations taken to create a dynamic tool that facilitates benchmarking and meaningful comparisons for health system performance improvement.

    Release date: 2016-03-24

  • Technical products: 11-522-X201700014740
    Description:

    In this paper, we discuss the impacts of Employment Benefit and Support Measures delivered in Canada under the Labour Market Development Agreements. We use linked rich longitudinal administrative data covering all LMDA participants from 2002 to 2005. We Apply propensity score matching as in Blundell et al. (2002), Gerfin and Lechner (2002), and Sianesi (2004), and produced the national incremental impact estimates using difference-in-differences and Kernel Matching estimator (Heckman and Smith, 1999). The findings suggest that, both Employment Assistance Services and employment benefit such as Skills Development and Targeted Wage Subsidies had positive effects on earnings and employment.

    Release date: 2016-03-24

  • Technical products: 11-522-X201700014757
    Description:

    The Unified Brazilian Health System (SUS) was created in 1988 and, with the aim of organizing the health information systems and databases already in use, a unified databank (DataSUS) was created in 1991. DataSUS files are freely available via Internet. Access and visualization of such data is done through a limited number of customized tables and simple diagrams, which do not entirely meet the needs of health managers and other users for a flexible and easy-to-use tool that can tackle different aspects of health which are relevant to their purposes of knowledge-seeking and decision-making. We propose the interactive monthly generation of synthetic epidemiological reports, which are not only easily accessible but also easy to interpret and understand. Emphasis is put on data visualization through more informative diagrams and maps.

    Release date: 2016-03-24

  • Technical products: 11-522-X201700014718
    Description:

    This study assessed whether starting participation in Employment Assistance Services (EAS) earlier after initiating an Employment Insurance (EI) claim leads to better impacts for unemployed individuals than participating later during the EI benefit period. As in Sianesi (2004) and Hujer and Thomsen (2010), the analysis relied on a stratified propensity score matching approach conditional on the discretized duration of unemployment until the program starts. The results showed that individuals who participated in EAS within the first four weeks after initiating an EI claim had the best impacts on earnings and incidence of employment while also experiencing reduced use of EI starting the second year post-program.

    Release date: 2016-03-24

  • Technical products: 12-002-X201200111642
    Description:

    It is generally recommended that weighted estimation approaches be used when analyzing data from a long-form census microdata file. Since such data files are now available in the RDC's, there is a need to provide researchers there with more information about doing weighted estimation with these files. The purpose of this paper is to provide some of this information - in particular, how the weight variables were derived for the census microdata files and what weight should be used for different units of analysis. For the 1996, 2001 and 2006 censuses the same weight variable is appropriate regardless of whether people, families or households are being studied. For the 1991 census, recommendations are more complex: a different weight variable is required for households than for people and families, and additional restrictions apply to obtain the correct weight value for families.

    Release date: 2012-10-25

  • Technical products: 11-522-X2009000
    Description:

    Symposium 2009 was the twenty-fifth in Statistics Canada's series of international symposia on methodological issues. Each year the symposium focuses on a particular theme. In 2009, the theme was: "Longitudinal Surveys: From Design to Analysis".

    Release date: 2012-10-03

  • Surveys and statistical programs – Documentation: 62F0026M2010002
    Description:

    This report describes the quality indicators produced for the 2005 Survey of Household Spending. These quality indicators, such as coefficients of variation, nonresponse rates, slippage rates and imputation rates, help users interpret the survey data.

    Release date: 2010-04-26

  • Surveys and statistical programs – Documentation: 62F0026M2010003
    Description:

    This report describes the quality indicators produced for the 2006 Survey of Household Spending. These quality indicators, such as coefficients of variation, nonresponse rates, slippage rates and imputation rates, help users interpret the survey data.

    Release date: 2010-04-26

  • Surveys and statistical programs – Documentation: 62F0026M2010001
    Description:

    This report describes the quality indicators produced for the 2004 Survey of Household Spending. These quality indicators, such as coefficients of variation, nonresponse rates, slippage rates and imputation rates, help users interpret the survey data.

    Release date: 2010-04-26

  • Technical products: 11-522-X200800010972
    Description:

    Background: Evaluation of the coverage that results from linking routinely collected administrative hospital data with survey data is an important preliminary step to undertaking analyses based on the linked file. Data and methods: To evaluate the coverage of the linkage between data from cycle 1.1 of the Canadian Community Health Survey (CCHS) and in-patient hospital data (Health Person-Oriented Information or HPOI), the number of people admitted to hospital according to HPOI was compared with the weighted estimate for CCHS respondents who were successfully linked to HPOI. Differences between HPOI and the linked and weighted CCHS estimate indicated linkage failure and/or undercoverage. Results: According to HPOI, from September 2000 through November 2001, 1,572,343 people (outside Quebec) aged 12 or older were hospitalized. Weighted estimates from the linked CCHS, adjusted for agreement to link and plausible health number, were 7.7% lower. Coverage rates were similar for males and females. Provincial rates did not differ from those for the rest of Canada, although differences were apparent for the territories. Coverage rates were significantly lower among people aged 75 or older than among those aged 12 to 74.

    Release date: 2009-12-03

  • Technical products: 11-522-X200800010937
    Description:

    The context of the discussion is the increasing incidence of international surveys, of which one is the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Policy Evaluation Project, which began in 2002. The ITC country surveys are longitudinal, and their aim is to evaluate the effects of policy measures being introduced in various countries under the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control. The challenges of organization, data collection and analysis in international surveys are reviewed and illustrated. Analysis is an increasingly important part of the motivation for large scale cross-cultural surveys. The fundamental challenge for analysis is to discern the real response (or lack of response) to policy change, separating it from the effects of data collection mode, differential non-response, external events, time-in-sample, culture, and language. Two problems relevant to statistical analysis are discussed. The first problem is the question of when and how to analyze pooled data from several countries, in order to strengthen conclusions which might be generally valid. While in some cases this seems to be straightforward, there are differing opinions on the extent to which pooling is possible and reasonable. It is suggested that for formal comparisons, random effects models are of conceptual use. The second problem is to find models of measurement across cultures and data collection modes which will enable calibration of continuous, binary and ordinal responses, and produce comparisons from which extraneous effects have been removed. It is noted that hierarchical models provide a natural way of relaxing requirements of model invariance across groups.

    Release date: 2009-12-03

  • Technical products: 11-522-X200800010988
    Description:

    Online data collection emerged in 1995 as an alternative approach for conducting certain types of consumer research studies and has grown in 2008. This growth has been primarily in studies where non-probability sampling methods are used. While online sampling has gained acceptance for some research applications, serious questions remain concerning online samples' suitability for research requiring precise volumetric measurement of the behavior of the U.S. population, particularly their travel behavior. This paper reviews literature and compares results from studies using probability samples and online samples to understand whether results differ from the two sampling approaches. The paper also demonstrates that online samples underestimate critical types of travel even after demographic and geographic weighting.

    Release date: 2009-12-03

  • Technical products: 11-522-X200800011004
    Description:

    The issue of reducing the response burden is not new. Statistics Sweden works in different ways to reduce response burden and to decrease the administrative costs of data collection from enterprises and organizations. According to legislation Statistics Sweden must reduce response burden for the business community. Therefore, this work is a priority. There is a fixed level decided by the Government to decrease the administrative costs of enterprises by twenty-five percent until year 2010. This goal is valid also for data collection for statistical purposes. The goal concerns surveys with response compulsory legislation. In addition to these surveys there are many more surveys and a need to measure and reduce the burden from these surveys as well. In order to help measure, analyze and reduce the burden, Statistics Sweden has developed the Register of Data providers concerning enterprises and organization (ULR). The purpose of the register is twofold, to measure and analyze the burden on an aggregated level and to be able to give information to each individual enterprise which surveys they are participating in.

    Release date: 2009-12-03

  • Technical products: 12-539-X
    Description:

    This document brings together guidelines and checklists on many issues that need to be considered in the pursuit of quality objectives in the execution of statistical activities. Its focus is on how to assure quality through effective and appropriate design or redesign of a statistical project or program from inception through to data evaluation, dissemination and documentation. These guidelines draw on the collective knowledge and experience of many Statistics Canada employees. It is expected that Quality Guidelines will be useful to staff engaged in the planning and design of surveys and other statistical projects, as well as to those who evaluate and analyze the outputs of these projects.

    Release date: 2009-12-02

  • Surveys and statistical programs – Documentation: 62F0026M2009001
    Description:

    This guide presents information of interest to users of data from the Survey of Household Spending, which gathers information on the spending habits, dwelling characteristics and household equipment of Canadian households. The survey covers private households in the 10 provinces. (The territories are surveyed every second year, starting in 1999.)

    This guide includes definitions of survey terms and variables, as well as descriptions of survey methodology and data quality. One section describes the various statistics that can be created using expenditure data (e.g., budget share, market share, aggregates and medians)

    Release date: 2008-12-22

  • Technical products: 11-522-X200600110397
    Description:

    In practice it often happens that some collected data are subject to measurement error. Sometimes covariates (or risk factors) of interest may be difficult to observe precisely due to physical location or cost. Sometimes it is impossible to measure covariates accurately due to the nature of the covariates. In other situations, a covariate may represent an average of a certain quantity over time, and any practical way of measuring such a quantity necessarily features measurement error. When carrying out statistical inference in such settings, it is important to account for the effects of mismeasured covariates; otherwise, erroneous or even misleading results may be produced. In this paper, we discuss several measurement error examples arising in distinct contexts. Specific attention is focused on survival data with covariates subject to measurement error. We discuss a simulation-extrapolation method for adjusting for measurement error effects. A simulation study is reported.

    Release date: 2008-03-17

  • Technical products: 11-522-X200600110452
    Description:

    Accurate information about the timing of access to primary mental health care is critically important in order to identify potentially modifiable factors which could facilitate timely and on-going management of care. No "gold standard" measure of mental health care utilization exists, so it useful to know how strengths, gaps, and limitations in different data sources influence study results. This study compares two population-wide measures of primary mental health care utilization data: the Canadian Community Health Survey of Mental Health and Well-being (CCHS, cycle 1.2) and provincial health insurance records in the province of British Columbia. It explores four questions: (1) Is 12-month prevalence of contacts with general practitioners for mental heath issues the same regardless of whether survey data or administrative data are used? (2) What is the level of agreement between the survey data and administrative data for having had any contact with a general practitioner for mental heath issues during the 12 month period before the survey interview? (3) Is the level of agreement constant throughout the 12-month period or does it decline over more distant sub-timeframes within the 12-month period? (4) What kinds of respondent characteristics, including mental disorders, are associated with agreement or lack of agreement? The results of this study will provide useful information about how to use and interpret each measure of health care utilization. In addition, it will contribute to survey design research, and to research which aims to improve the methods for using administrative data for mental health services research.

    Release date: 2008-03-17

  • Technical products: 11-522-X200600110395
    Description:

    This study investigates factors associated with obesity in Canada and the U.S., using data from the 2002-03 Joint Canada/United States Survey of Health, a telephone survey conducted jointly by Statistics Canada and the U.S. National Center for Health Statistics. Essentially the same questionnaire was administered in both countries at the same time, yielding a data set that provided unprecedented comparability of national estimates from the two countries. Analysis of empirical distributions of body mass index (BMI) show that American women are appreciably heavier than Canadian women, whereas the distributions of BMI are almost identical for American men and Canadian men. Factors are investigated that may account for the differences between women.

    Release date: 2008-03-17

  • Technical products: 11-522-X200600110448
    Description:

    Approaches used to select records for tabulation of national injury hospitalization data were identified. Three of the approaches were based on the principal diagnosis in the hospital separation record; the other three required that the record contain a code for an external cause of injury. Differences within these two main groups resulted in identification of six distinct approaches. Each approach was applied to the same set of hospital separation data. The numbers and types of injury records retrieved with the six approaches are compared and implications of the findings for injury surveillance are discussed.

    Release date: 2008-03-17

  • Technical products: 11-522-X200600110418
    Description:

    The current use of multilevel models to examine the effects of surrounding contexts on health outcomes attest to their value as a statistical method for analyzing grouped data. But the use of multilevel modeling with data from population-based surveys is often limited by the small number of cases per level-2 unit, prompting a recent trend in the neighborhood literature to apply cluster analysis techniques to address the problem of data sparseness. In this paper we use Monte Carlo simulations to investigate the effects of marginal group sizes and cluster analysis techniques on the validity of parameter estimates in both linear and non-linear multilevel models.

    Release date: 2008-03-17

  • Technical products: 11-522-X200600110445
    Description:

    When Chiang's "standard" method is used, calculating life expectancy for (small) census agglomerations in Canada can produce estimates whose confidence intervals are too wide to be useful. However, we have been able to show that by combining small area estimation methods and simulation methods, we can obtain narrower confidence intervals.

    Release date: 2008-03-17

  • Technical products: 11-522-X200600110447
    Description:

    The classification and identification of locations where persons report to be more or less healthy or have more or less social capital, within a specific area such as a health region, is tremendously helpful for understanding place and health associations. The objective of the proposed study is to classify and map areas within the Zone 6 Health Region (Figure 1) of Nova Scotia (Halifax Regional Municipality and Annapolis Valley regions) according to health status (Dimension 1) and social capital (Dimension 2). We abstracted responses to questions about self-reported health status, mental health, and social capital from the master files of the Canadian Community Health Survey (Cycles 1.1, 1.2 and 2.1), National Population Health Survey (Cycle 5), and the General Social Survey (Cycles 13, 14, 17, and 18). Responses were geocoded using the Statistics Canada Postal Code Conversion File (PCCF+) and imported into a geographical information system (GIS) so that the postal code associated with the response will be assigned to a latitude and longitude within the Nova Scotia Zone 6 health region. Kernel density estimators and additional spatial interpolators were used to develop statistically-smoothed surfaces of the distribution of respondent values for each question. The smoothing process eliminates the possibility of revealing individual respondent location and confidential Statistics Canada sampling frame information. Using responses from similar questions across multiple surveys improves the likelihood of detecting heterogeneity among the responses within the health region area, as well as the accuracy of the smoothed map classification.

    Release date: 2008-03-17

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