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All (136)

All (136) (25 of 136 results)

  • Articles and reports: 12-001-X201700254887
    Description:

    This paper proposes a new approach to decompose the wage difference between men and women that is based on a calibration procedure. This approach generalizes two current decomposition methods that are re-expressed using survey weights. The first one is the Blinder-Oaxaca method and the second one is a reweighting method proposed by DiNardo, Fortin and Lemieux. The new approach provides a weighting system that enables us to estimate such parameters of interest like quantiles. An application to data from the Swiss Structure of Earnings Survey shows the interest of this method.

    Release date: 2017-12-21

  • Articles and reports: 12-001-X201700114818
    Description:

    The protection of data confidentiality in tables of magnitude can become extremely difficult when working in a custom tabulation environment. A relatively simple solution consists of perturbing the underlying microdata beforehand, but the negative impact on the accuracy of aggregates can be too high. A perturbative method is proposed that aims to better balance the needs of data protection and data accuracy in such an environment. The method works by processing the data in each cell in layers, applying higher levels of perturbation for the largest values and little or no perturbation for the smallest ones. The method is primarily aimed at protecting personal data, which tend to be less skewed than business data.

    Release date: 2017-06-22

  • Articles and reports: 82-003-X201601214687
    Description:

    This study describes record linkage of the Canadian Community Health Survey and the Canadian Mortality Database. The article explains the record linkage process and presents results about associations between health behaviours and mortality among a representative sample of Canadians.

    Release date: 2016-12-21

  • Articles and reports: 12-001-X201600214660
    Description:

    In an economic survey of a sample of enterprises, occupations are randomly selected from a list until a number r of occupations in a local unit has been identified. This is an inverse sampling problem for which we are proposing a few solutions. Simple designs with and without replacement are processed using negative binomial distributions and negative hypergeometric distributions. We also propose estimators for when the units are selected with unequal probabilities, with or without replacement.

    Release date: 2016-12-20

  • Articles and reports: 12-001-X201600214663
    Description:

    We present theoretical evidence that efforts during data collection to balance the survey response with respect to selected auxiliary variables will improve the chances for low nonresponse bias in the estimates that are ultimately produced by calibrated weighting. One of our results shows that the variance of the bias – measured here as the deviation of the calibration estimator from the (unrealized) full-sample unbiased estimator – decreases linearly as a function of the response imbalance that we assume measured and controlled continuously over the data collection period. An attractive prospect is thus a lower risk of bias if one can manage the data collection to get low imbalance. The theoretical results are validated in a simulation study with real data from an Estonian household survey.

    Release date: 2016-12-20

  • Articles and reports: 12-001-X201600214676
    Description:

    Winsorization procedures replace extreme values with less extreme values, effectively moving the original extreme values toward the center of the distribution. Winsorization therefore both detects and treats influential values. Mulry, Oliver and Kaputa (2014) compare the performance of the one-sided Winsorization method developed by Clark (1995) and described by Chambers, Kokic, Smith and Cruddas (2000) to the performance of M-estimation (Beaumont and Alavi 2004) in highly skewed business population data. One aspect of particular interest for methods that detect and treat influential values is the range of values designated as influential, called the detection region. The Clark Winsorization algorithm is easy to implement and can be extremely effective. However, the resultant detection region is highly dependent on the number of influential values in the sample, especially when the survey totals are expected to vary greatly by collection period. In this note, we examine the effect of the number and magnitude of influential values on the detection regions from Clark Winsorization using data simulated to realistically reflect the properties of the population for the Monthly Retail Trade Survey (MRTS) conducted by the U.S. Census Bureau. Estimates from the MRTS and other economic surveys are used in economic indicators, such as the Gross Domestic Product (GDP).

    Release date: 2016-12-20

  • Articles and reports: 12-001-X201600214661
    Description:

    An example presented by Jean-Claude Deville in 2005 is subjected to three estimation methods: the method of moments, the maximum likelihood method, and generalized calibration. The three methods yield exactly the same results for the two non-response models. A discussion follows on how to choose the most appropriate model.

    Release date: 2016-12-20

  • Technical products: 11-522-X201700014755
    Description:

    The National Children’s Study Vanguard Study was a pilot epidemiological cohort study of children and their parents. Measures were to be taken from pre-pregnancy until adulthood. The use of extant data was planned to supplement direct data collection from the respondents. Our paper outlines a strategy for cataloging and evaluating extant data sources for use with large scale longitudinal. Through our review we selected five evaluation factors to guide a researcher through available data sources including 1) relevance, 2) timeliness, 3) spatiality, 4) accessibility, and 5) accuracy.

    Release date: 2016-03-24

  • Technical products: 11-522-X201700014759
    Description:

    Many of the challenges and opportunities of modern data science have to do with dynamic aspects: evolving populations, the growing volume of administrative and commercial data on individuals and establishments, continuous flows of data and the capacity to analyze and summarize them in real time, and the deterioration of data absent the resources to maintain them. With its emphasis on data quality and supportable results, the domain of Official Statistics is ideal for highlighting statistical and data science issues in a variety of contexts. The messages of the talk include the importance of population frames and their maintenance; the potential for use of multi-frame methods and linkages; how the use of large scale non-survey data as auxiliary information shapes the objects of inference; the complexity of models for large data sets; the importance of recursive methods and regularization; and the benefits of sophisticated data visualization tools in capturing change.

    Release date: 2016-03-24

  • Articles and reports: 12-001-X201500214237
    Description:

    Careful design of a dual-frame random digit dial (RDD) telephone survey requires selecting from among many options that have varying impacts on cost, precision, and coverage in order to obtain the best possible implementation of the study goals. One such consideration is whether to screen cell-phone households in order to interview cell-phone only (CPO) households and exclude dual-user household, or to take all interviews obtained via the cell-phone sample. We present a framework in which to consider the tradeoffs between these two options and a method to select the optimal design. We derive and discuss the optimum allocation of sample size between the two sampling frames and explore the choice of optimum p, the mixing parameter for the dual-user domain. We illustrate our methods using the National Immunization Survey, sponsored by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

    Release date: 2015-12-17

  • Articles and reports: 82-003-X201501214295
    Description:

    Using the Wisconsin Cancer Intervention and Surveillance Monitoring Network breast cancer simulation model adapted to the Canadian context, costs and quality-adjusted life years were evaluated for 11 mammography screening strategies that varied by start/stop age and screening frequency for the general population. Incremental cost-effectiveness ratios are presented, and sensitivity analyses are used to assess the robustness of model conclusions.

    Release date: 2015-12-16

  • Articles and reports: 82-003-X201501014228
    Description:

    This study presents the results of a hierarchical exact matching approach to link the 2006 Census of Population with hospital data for all provinces and territories (excluding Quebec) to the 2006/2007-to-2008/2009 Discharge Abstract Database. The purpose is to determine if the Census–DAD linkage performed similarly in different jurisdictions, and if linkage and coverage rates declined as time passed since the census.

    Release date: 2015-10-21

  • Articles and reports: 82-003-X201500714205
    Description:

    Discrepancies between self-reported and objectively measured physical activity are well-known. For the purpose of validation, this study compares a new self-reported physical activity questionnaire with an existing one and with accelerometer data.

    Release date: 2015-07-15

  • Articles and reports: 82-003-X201500614196
    Description:

    This study investigates the feasibility and validity of using personal health insurance numbers to deterministically link the CCR and the Discharge Abstract Database to obtain hospitalization information about people with primary cancers.

    Release date: 2015-06-17

  • Technical products: 12-002-X201500114147
    Description:

    Influential observations in logistic regression are those that have a notable effect on certain aspects of the model fit. Large sample size alone does not eliminate this concern; it is still important to examine potentially influential observations, especially in complex survey data. This paper describes a straightforward algorithm for examining potentially influential observations in complex survey data using SAS software. This algorithm was applied in a study using the 2005 Canadian Community Health Survey that examined factors associated with family physician utilization for adolescents.

    Release date: 2015-03-25

  • Articles and reports: 12-001-X201400214090
    Description:

    When studying a finite population, it is sometimes necessary to select samples from several sampling frames in order to represent all individuals. Here we are interested in the scenario where two samples are selected using a two-stage design, with common first-stage selection. We apply the Hartley (1962), Bankier (1986) and Kalton and Anderson (1986) methods, and we show that these methods can be applied conditional on first-stage selection. We also compare the performance of several estimators as part of a simulation study. Our results suggest that the estimator should be chosen carefully when there are multiple sampling frames, and that a simple estimator is sometimes preferable, even if it uses only part of the information collected.

    Release date: 2014-12-19

  • Articles and reports: 12-001-X201400214113
    Description:

    Rotating panel surveys are used to calculate estimates of gross flows between two consecutive periods of measurement. This paper considers a general procedure for the estimation of gross flows when the rotating panel survey has been generated from a complex survey design with random nonresponse. A pseudo maximum likelihood approach is considered through a two-stage model of Markov chains for the allocation of individuals among the categories in the survey and for modeling for nonresponse.

    Release date: 2014-12-19

  • Technical products: 11-522-X201300014269
    Description:

    The Census Overcoverage Study (COS) is a critical post-census coverage measurement study. Its main objective is to produce estimates of the number of people erroneously enumerated, by province and territory, study the characteristics of individuals counted multiple times and identify possible reasons for the errors. The COS is based on the sampling and clerical review of groups of connected records that are built by linking the census response database to an administrative frame, and to itself. In this paper we describe the new 2011 COS methodology. This methodology has incorporated numerous improvements including a greater use of probabilistic record-linkage, the estimation of linking parameters with an Expectation-Maximization (E-M) algorithm, and the efficient use of household information to detect more overcoverage cases.

    Release date: 2014-10-31

  • Technical products: 11-522-X201300014273
    Description:

    More and more data are being produced by an increasing number of electronic devices physically surrounding us and on the internet. The large amount of data and the high frequency at which they are produced have resulted in the introduction of the term ‘Big Data’. Because of the fact that these data reflect many different aspects of our daily lives and because of their abundance and availability, Big Data sources are very interesting from an official statistics point of view. However, first experiences obtained with analyses of large amounts of Dutch traffic loop detection records, call detail records of mobile phones and Dutch social media messages reveal that a number of challenges need to be addressed to enable the application of these data sources for official statistics. These and the lessons learned during these initial studies will be addressed and illustrated by examples. More specifically, the following topics are discussed: the three general types of Big Data discerned, the need to access and analyse large amounts of data, how we deal with noisy data and look at selectivity (and our own bias towards this topic), how to go beyond correlation, how we found people with the right skills and mind-set to perform the work, and how we have dealt with privacy and security issues.

    Release date: 2014-10-31

  • Technical products: 11-522-X201300014279
    Description:

    As part of the European SustainCity project, a microsimulation model of individuals and households was created to simulate the population of various European cities. The aim of the project was to combine several transportation and land-use microsimulation models (land-use modelling), add on a dynamic population module and apply these microsimulation approaches to three geographic areas of Europe (the Île-de-France region and the Brussels and Zurich agglomerations

    Release date: 2014-10-31

  • Technical products: 11-522-X201300014277
    Description:

    This article gives an overview of adaptive design elements introduced to the PASS panel survey in waves four to seven. The main focus is on experimental interventions in later phases of the fieldwork. These interventions aim at balancing the sample by prioritizing low-propensity sample members. In wave 7, interviewers received a double premium for completion of interviews with low-propensity cases in the final phase of the fieldwork. This premium was restricted to a random half of the cases with low estimated response propensity and no final status after four months of prior fieldwork. This incentive was effective in increasing interviewer effort, however, led to no significant increase in response rates.

    Release date: 2014-10-31

  • Technical products: 11-522-X201300014254
    Description:

    Web surveys have serious shortcomings in terms of their representativeness, but they appear to have some good measurement properties. This talk focuses on the general features of web surveys that affect data quality, especially the fact that they are primarily visual in character. In addition, it examines the effectiveness of web surveys as a form of self-administration. A number of experiments have compared web surveys with other modes of data collection. A meta-analysis of these studies shows that web surveys maintain the advantages of traditional forms of self-administration; in particular, they reduce social desirability bias relative to interviewer administration of the questions. I conclude by discussing some likely future developments in web surveys—their incorporation of avatars as “virtual interviewers” and the increasing use of mobile devices (such as tablet computers and smart phones) to access and complete web surveys.

    Release date: 2014-10-31

  • Articles and reports: 82-003-X201401014098
    Description:

    This study compares registry and non-registry approaches to linking 2006 Census of Population data for Manitoba and Ontario to Hospital data from the Discharge Abstract Database.

    Release date: 2014-10-15

  • Articles and reports: 12-001-X201400114000
    Description:

    We have used the generalized linearization technique based on the concept of influence function, as Osier has done (Osier 2009), to estimate the variance of complex statistics such as Laeken indicators. Simulations conducted using the R language show that the use of Gaussian kernel estimation to estimate an income density function results in a strongly biased variance estimate. We are proposing two other density estimation methods that significantly reduce the observed bias. One of the methods has already been outlined by Deville (2000). The results published in this article will help to significantly improve the quality of information on the precision of certain Laeken indicators that are disseminated and compared internationally.

    Release date: 2014-06-27

  • Articles and reports: 12-001-X201300211868
    Description:

    Thompson and Sigman (2000) introduced an estimation procedure for estimating medians from highly positively skewed population data. Their procedure uses interpolation over data-dependent intervals (bins). The earlier paper demonstrated that this procedure has good statistical properties for medians computed from a highly skewed sample. This research extends the previous work to decile estimation methods for a positively skewed population using complex survey data. We present three different interpolation methods along with the traditional decile estimation method (no bins) and evaluate each method empirically, using residential housing data from the Survey of Construction and via a simulation study. We found that a variant of the current procedure using the 95th percentile as a scaling factor produces decile estimates with the best statistical properties.

    Release date: 2014-01-15

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Analysis (86)

Analysis (86) (25 of 86 results)

  • Articles and reports: 12-001-X201700254887
    Description:

    This paper proposes a new approach to decompose the wage difference between men and women that is based on a calibration procedure. This approach generalizes two current decomposition methods that are re-expressed using survey weights. The first one is the Blinder-Oaxaca method and the second one is a reweighting method proposed by DiNardo, Fortin and Lemieux. The new approach provides a weighting system that enables us to estimate such parameters of interest like quantiles. An application to data from the Swiss Structure of Earnings Survey shows the interest of this method.

    Release date: 2017-12-21

  • Articles and reports: 12-001-X201700114818
    Description:

    The protection of data confidentiality in tables of magnitude can become extremely difficult when working in a custom tabulation environment. A relatively simple solution consists of perturbing the underlying microdata beforehand, but the negative impact on the accuracy of aggregates can be too high. A perturbative method is proposed that aims to better balance the needs of data protection and data accuracy in such an environment. The method works by processing the data in each cell in layers, applying higher levels of perturbation for the largest values and little or no perturbation for the smallest ones. The method is primarily aimed at protecting personal data, which tend to be less skewed than business data.

    Release date: 2017-06-22

  • Articles and reports: 82-003-X201601214687
    Description:

    This study describes record linkage of the Canadian Community Health Survey and the Canadian Mortality Database. The article explains the record linkage process and presents results about associations between health behaviours and mortality among a representative sample of Canadians.

    Release date: 2016-12-21

  • Articles and reports: 12-001-X201600214660
    Description:

    In an economic survey of a sample of enterprises, occupations are randomly selected from a list until a number r of occupations in a local unit has been identified. This is an inverse sampling problem for which we are proposing a few solutions. Simple designs with and without replacement are processed using negative binomial distributions and negative hypergeometric distributions. We also propose estimators for when the units are selected with unequal probabilities, with or without replacement.

    Release date: 2016-12-20

  • Articles and reports: 12-001-X201600214663
    Description:

    We present theoretical evidence that efforts during data collection to balance the survey response with respect to selected auxiliary variables will improve the chances for low nonresponse bias in the estimates that are ultimately produced by calibrated weighting. One of our results shows that the variance of the bias – measured here as the deviation of the calibration estimator from the (unrealized) full-sample unbiased estimator – decreases linearly as a function of the response imbalance that we assume measured and controlled continuously over the data collection period. An attractive prospect is thus a lower risk of bias if one can manage the data collection to get low imbalance. The theoretical results are validated in a simulation study with real data from an Estonian household survey.

    Release date: 2016-12-20

  • Articles and reports: 12-001-X201600214676
    Description:

    Winsorization procedures replace extreme values with less extreme values, effectively moving the original extreme values toward the center of the distribution. Winsorization therefore both detects and treats influential values. Mulry, Oliver and Kaputa (2014) compare the performance of the one-sided Winsorization method developed by Clark (1995) and described by Chambers, Kokic, Smith and Cruddas (2000) to the performance of M-estimation (Beaumont and Alavi 2004) in highly skewed business population data. One aspect of particular interest for methods that detect and treat influential values is the range of values designated as influential, called the detection region. The Clark Winsorization algorithm is easy to implement and can be extremely effective. However, the resultant detection region is highly dependent on the number of influential values in the sample, especially when the survey totals are expected to vary greatly by collection period. In this note, we examine the effect of the number and magnitude of influential values on the detection regions from Clark Winsorization using data simulated to realistically reflect the properties of the population for the Monthly Retail Trade Survey (MRTS) conducted by the U.S. Census Bureau. Estimates from the MRTS and other economic surveys are used in economic indicators, such as the Gross Domestic Product (GDP).

    Release date: 2016-12-20

  • Articles and reports: 12-001-X201600214661
    Description:

    An example presented by Jean-Claude Deville in 2005 is subjected to three estimation methods: the method of moments, the maximum likelihood method, and generalized calibration. The three methods yield exactly the same results for the two non-response models. A discussion follows on how to choose the most appropriate model.

    Release date: 2016-12-20

  • Articles and reports: 12-001-X201500214237
    Description:

    Careful design of a dual-frame random digit dial (RDD) telephone survey requires selecting from among many options that have varying impacts on cost, precision, and coverage in order to obtain the best possible implementation of the study goals. One such consideration is whether to screen cell-phone households in order to interview cell-phone only (CPO) households and exclude dual-user household, or to take all interviews obtained via the cell-phone sample. We present a framework in which to consider the tradeoffs between these two options and a method to select the optimal design. We derive and discuss the optimum allocation of sample size between the two sampling frames and explore the choice of optimum p, the mixing parameter for the dual-user domain. We illustrate our methods using the National Immunization Survey, sponsored by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

    Release date: 2015-12-17

  • Articles and reports: 82-003-X201501214295
    Description:

    Using the Wisconsin Cancer Intervention and Surveillance Monitoring Network breast cancer simulation model adapted to the Canadian context, costs and quality-adjusted life years were evaluated for 11 mammography screening strategies that varied by start/stop age and screening frequency for the general population. Incremental cost-effectiveness ratios are presented, and sensitivity analyses are used to assess the robustness of model conclusions.

    Release date: 2015-12-16

  • Articles and reports: 82-003-X201501014228
    Description:

    This study presents the results of a hierarchical exact matching approach to link the 2006 Census of Population with hospital data for all provinces and territories (excluding Quebec) to the 2006/2007-to-2008/2009 Discharge Abstract Database. The purpose is to determine if the Census–DAD linkage performed similarly in different jurisdictions, and if linkage and coverage rates declined as time passed since the census.

    Release date: 2015-10-21

  • Articles and reports: 82-003-X201500714205
    Description:

    Discrepancies between self-reported and objectively measured physical activity are well-known. For the purpose of validation, this study compares a new self-reported physical activity questionnaire with an existing one and with accelerometer data.

    Release date: 2015-07-15

  • Articles and reports: 82-003-X201500614196
    Description:

    This study investigates the feasibility and validity of using personal health insurance numbers to deterministically link the CCR and the Discharge Abstract Database to obtain hospitalization information about people with primary cancers.

    Release date: 2015-06-17

  • Articles and reports: 12-001-X201400214090
    Description:

    When studying a finite population, it is sometimes necessary to select samples from several sampling frames in order to represent all individuals. Here we are interested in the scenario where two samples are selected using a two-stage design, with common first-stage selection. We apply the Hartley (1962), Bankier (1986) and Kalton and Anderson (1986) methods, and we show that these methods can be applied conditional on first-stage selection. We also compare the performance of several estimators as part of a simulation study. Our results suggest that the estimator should be chosen carefully when there are multiple sampling frames, and that a simple estimator is sometimes preferable, even if it uses only part of the information collected.

    Release date: 2014-12-19

  • Articles and reports: 12-001-X201400214113
    Description:

    Rotating panel surveys are used to calculate estimates of gross flows between two consecutive periods of measurement. This paper considers a general procedure for the estimation of gross flows when the rotating panel survey has been generated from a complex survey design with random nonresponse. A pseudo maximum likelihood approach is considered through a two-stage model of Markov chains for the allocation of individuals among the categories in the survey and for modeling for nonresponse.

    Release date: 2014-12-19

  • Articles and reports: 82-003-X201401014098
    Description:

    This study compares registry and non-registry approaches to linking 2006 Census of Population data for Manitoba and Ontario to Hospital data from the Discharge Abstract Database.

    Release date: 2014-10-15

  • Articles and reports: 12-001-X201400114000
    Description:

    We have used the generalized linearization technique based on the concept of influence function, as Osier has done (Osier 2009), to estimate the variance of complex statistics such as Laeken indicators. Simulations conducted using the R language show that the use of Gaussian kernel estimation to estimate an income density function results in a strongly biased variance estimate. We are proposing two other density estimation methods that significantly reduce the observed bias. One of the methods has already been outlined by Deville (2000). The results published in this article will help to significantly improve the quality of information on the precision of certain Laeken indicators that are disseminated and compared internationally.

    Release date: 2014-06-27

  • Articles and reports: 12-001-X201300211868
    Description:

    Thompson and Sigman (2000) introduced an estimation procedure for estimating medians from highly positively skewed population data. Their procedure uses interpolation over data-dependent intervals (bins). The earlier paper demonstrated that this procedure has good statistical properties for medians computed from a highly skewed sample. This research extends the previous work to decile estimation methods for a positively skewed population using complex survey data. We present three different interpolation methods along with the traditional decile estimation method (no bins) and evaluate each method empirically, using residential housing data from the Survey of Construction and via a simulation study. We found that a variant of the current procedure using the 95th percentile as a scaling factor produces decile estimates with the best statistical properties.

    Release date: 2014-01-15

  • Articles and reports: 82-003-X201301011873
    Description:

    A computer simulation model of physical activity was developed for the Canadian adult population using longitudinal data from the National Population Health Survey and cross-sectional data from the Canadian Community Health Survey. The model is based on the Population Health Model (POHEM) platform developed by Statistics Canada. This article presents an overview of POHEM and describes the additions that were made to create the physical activity module (POHEM-PA). These additions include changes in physical activity over time, and the relationship between physical activity levels and health-adjusted life expectancy, life expectancy and the onset of selected chronic conditions. Estimates from simulation projections are compared with nationally representative survey data to provide an indication of the validity of POHEM-PA.

    Release date: 2013-10-16

  • Articles and reports: 82-003-X201300611796
    Description:

    The study assesses the feasibility of using statistical modelling techniques to fill information gaps related to risk factors, specifically, smoking status, in linked long-form census data.

    Release date: 2013-06-19

  • Articles and reports: 12-001-X201100211604
    Description:

    We propose a method of mean squared error (MSE) estimation for estimators of finite population domain means that can be expressed in pseudo-linear form, i.e., as weighted sums of sample values. In particular, it can be used for estimating the MSE of the empirical best linear unbiased predictor, the model-based direct estimator and the M-quantile predictor. The proposed method represents an extension of the ideas in Royall and Cumberland (1978) and leads to MSE estimators that are simpler to implement, and potentially more bias-robust, than those suggested in the small area literature. However, it should be noted that the MSE estimators defined using this method can also exhibit large variability when the area-specific sample sizes are very small. We illustrate the performance of the method through extensive model-based and design-based simulation, with the latter based on two realistic survey data sets containing small area information.

    Release date: 2011-12-21

  • Articles and reports: 12-001-X201100211609
    Description:

    This paper presents a review and assessment of the use of balanced sampling by means of the cube method. After defining the notion of balanced sample and balanced sampling, a short history of the concept of balancing is presented. The theory of the cube method is briefly presented. Emphasis is placed on the practical problems posed by balanced sampling: the interest of the method with respect to other sampling methods and calibration, the field of application, the accuracy of balancing, the choice of auxiliary variables and ways to implement the method.

    Release date: 2011-12-21

  • Articles and reports: 12-001-X201100211607
    Description:

    This paper describes recent developments in adaptive sampling strategies and introduces new variations on those strategies. Recent developments described included targeted random walk designs and adaptive web sampling. These designs are particularly suited for sampling in networks; for example, for finding a sample of people from a hidden human population by following social links from sample individuals to find additional members of the hidden population to add to the sample. Each of these designs can also be translated into spatial settings to produce flexible new spatial adaptive strategies for sampling unevenly distributed populations. Variations on these sampling strategies include versions in which the network or spatial links have unequal weights and are followed with unequal probabilities.

    Release date: 2011-12-21

  • Articles and reports: 82-003-X201100311534
    Description:

    Using data from the 2007 to 2009 Canadian Health Measures Survey, this study investigates the bias that exists when height, weight and body mass index are based on parent-reported values. Factors associated with reporting error are used to establish the feasibility of developing correction equations to adjust parent-reported estimates.

    Release date: 2011-08-17

  • Articles and reports: 82-003-X201100311533
    Description:

    This study compares the bias in self-reported height, weight and body mass index in the 2008 and 2005 Canadian Community Health Surveys and the 2007 to 2009 Canadian Health Measures Survey. The feasibility of using correction equations to adjust self-reported 2008 Canadian Community Health Survey values to more closely approximate measured values is assessed.

    Release date: 2011-08-17

  • Articles and reports: 12-001-X201000211385
    Description:

    In this short note, we show that simple random sampling without replacement and Bernoulli sampling have approximately the same entropy when the population size is large. An empirical example is given as an illustration.

    Release date: 2010-12-21

Reference (50)

Reference (50) (25 of 50 results)

  • Technical products: 11-522-X201700014755
    Description:

    The National Children’s Study Vanguard Study was a pilot epidemiological cohort study of children and their parents. Measures were to be taken from pre-pregnancy until adulthood. The use of extant data was planned to supplement direct data collection from the respondents. Our paper outlines a strategy for cataloging and evaluating extant data sources for use with large scale longitudinal. Through our review we selected five evaluation factors to guide a researcher through available data sources including 1) relevance, 2) timeliness, 3) spatiality, 4) accessibility, and 5) accuracy.

    Release date: 2016-03-24

  • Technical products: 11-522-X201700014759
    Description:

    Many of the challenges and opportunities of modern data science have to do with dynamic aspects: evolving populations, the growing volume of administrative and commercial data on individuals and establishments, continuous flows of data and the capacity to analyze and summarize them in real time, and the deterioration of data absent the resources to maintain them. With its emphasis on data quality and supportable results, the domain of Official Statistics is ideal for highlighting statistical and data science issues in a variety of contexts. The messages of the talk include the importance of population frames and their maintenance; the potential for use of multi-frame methods and linkages; how the use of large scale non-survey data as auxiliary information shapes the objects of inference; the complexity of models for large data sets; the importance of recursive methods and regularization; and the benefits of sophisticated data visualization tools in capturing change.

    Release date: 2016-03-24

  • Technical products: 12-002-X201500114147
    Description:

    Influential observations in logistic regression are those that have a notable effect on certain aspects of the model fit. Large sample size alone does not eliminate this concern; it is still important to examine potentially influential observations, especially in complex survey data. This paper describes a straightforward algorithm for examining potentially influential observations in complex survey data using SAS software. This algorithm was applied in a study using the 2005 Canadian Community Health Survey that examined factors associated with family physician utilization for adolescents.

    Release date: 2015-03-25

  • Technical products: 11-522-X201300014269
    Description:

    The Census Overcoverage Study (COS) is a critical post-census coverage measurement study. Its main objective is to produce estimates of the number of people erroneously enumerated, by province and territory, study the characteristics of individuals counted multiple times and identify possible reasons for the errors. The COS is based on the sampling and clerical review of groups of connected records that are built by linking the census response database to an administrative frame, and to itself. In this paper we describe the new 2011 COS methodology. This methodology has incorporated numerous improvements including a greater use of probabilistic record-linkage, the estimation of linking parameters with an Expectation-Maximization (E-M) algorithm, and the efficient use of household information to detect more overcoverage cases.

    Release date: 2014-10-31

  • Technical products: 11-522-X201300014273
    Description:

    More and more data are being produced by an increasing number of electronic devices physically surrounding us and on the internet. The large amount of data and the high frequency at which they are produced have resulted in the introduction of the term ‘Big Data’. Because of the fact that these data reflect many different aspects of our daily lives and because of their abundance and availability, Big Data sources are very interesting from an official statistics point of view. However, first experiences obtained with analyses of large amounts of Dutch traffic loop detection records, call detail records of mobile phones and Dutch social media messages reveal that a number of challenges need to be addressed to enable the application of these data sources for official statistics. These and the lessons learned during these initial studies will be addressed and illustrated by examples. More specifically, the following topics are discussed: the three general types of Big Data discerned, the need to access and analyse large amounts of data, how we deal with noisy data and look at selectivity (and our own bias towards this topic), how to go beyond correlation, how we found people with the right skills and mind-set to perform the work, and how we have dealt with privacy and security issues.

    Release date: 2014-10-31

  • Technical products: 11-522-X201300014279
    Description:

    As part of the European SustainCity project, a microsimulation model of individuals and households was created to simulate the population of various European cities. The aim of the project was to combine several transportation and land-use microsimulation models (land-use modelling), add on a dynamic population module and apply these microsimulation approaches to three geographic areas of Europe (the Île-de-France region and the Brussels and Zurich agglomerations

    Release date: 2014-10-31

  • Technical products: 11-522-X201300014277
    Description:

    This article gives an overview of adaptive design elements introduced to the PASS panel survey in waves four to seven. The main focus is on experimental interventions in later phases of the fieldwork. These interventions aim at balancing the sample by prioritizing low-propensity sample members. In wave 7, interviewers received a double premium for completion of interviews with low-propensity cases in the final phase of the fieldwork. This premium was restricted to a random half of the cases with low estimated response propensity and no final status after four months of prior fieldwork. This incentive was effective in increasing interviewer effort, however, led to no significant increase in response rates.

    Release date: 2014-10-31

  • Technical products: 11-522-X201300014254
    Description:

    Web surveys have serious shortcomings in terms of their representativeness, but they appear to have some good measurement properties. This talk focuses on the general features of web surveys that affect data quality, especially the fact that they are primarily visual in character. In addition, it examines the effectiveness of web surveys as a form of self-administration. A number of experiments have compared web surveys with other modes of data collection. A meta-analysis of these studies shows that web surveys maintain the advantages of traditional forms of self-administration; in particular, they reduce social desirability bias relative to interviewer administration of the questions. I conclude by discussing some likely future developments in web surveys—their incorporation of avatars as “virtual interviewers” and the increasing use of mobile devices (such as tablet computers and smart phones) to access and complete web surveys.

    Release date: 2014-10-31

  • Technical products: 11-522-X200800010966
    Description:

    Blaise has been in development in Statistics Canada since 1997. Over the years, the complexity of applications that have been deployed using this software is constantly increasing. Last year a very interesting approach has been developed to read bio-metrics directly from medical instruments, and input them into the Blaise software. This presentation will elaborate on this new usage of the software that just opens the door to an infinity of different applications and the added data quality of performing collection in this manner.

    Release date: 2009-12-03

  • Technical products: 11-522-X200800010955
    Description:

    Survey managers are still discovering the usefulness of digital audio recording for monitoring and managing field staff. Its value so far has been for confirming the authenticity of interviews, detecting curbstoning, offering a concrete basis for feedback on interviewing performance and giving data collection managers an intimate view of in-person interviews. In addition, computer audio-recorded interviewing (CARI) can improve other aspects of survey data quality, offering corroboration or correction of response coding by field staff. Audio recordings may replace or supplement in-field verbatim transcription of free responses, and speech-to-text technology might make this technique more efficient in the future.

    Release date: 2009-12-03

  • Technical products: 11-522-X200800011003
    Description:

    This study examined the feasibility of developing correction factors to adjust self-reported measures of Body Mass Index to more closely approximate measured values. Data are from the 2005 Canadian Community Health Survey where respondents were asked to report their height and weight and were subsequently measured. Regression analyses were used to determine which socio-demographic and health characteristics were associated with the discrepancies between reported and measured values. The sample was then split into two groups. In the first, the self-reported BMI and the predictors of the discrepancies were regressed on the measured BMI. Correction equations were generated using all predictor variables that were significant at the p<0.05 level. These correction equations were then tested in the second group to derive estimates of sensitivity, specificity and of obesity prevalence. Logistic regression was used to examine the relationship between measured, reported and corrected BMI and obesity-related health conditions. Corrected estimates provided more accurate measures of obesity prevalence, mean BMI and sensitivity levels. Self-reported data exaggerated the relationship between BMI and health conditions, while in most cases the corrected estimates provided odds ratios that were more similar to those generated with the measured BMI.

    Release date: 2009-12-03

  • Technical products: 11-522-X200800010949
    Description:

    The expansion in scope of UK equality legislation has led to a requirement for data on sexual orientation. In response, the Office for National Statistics has initiated a project aiming to provide advice on best practice with regard to data collection in this field, and to examine the feasibility of providing data that will satisfy user needs. The project contains qualitative and quantitative research methodologies in relation to question development and survey operational issues. This includes:A review of UK and international surveys already collecting data on sexual orientation/identityA series of focus groups exploring conceptual issues surrounding "sexual identity" including related terms and the acceptability of questioning on multi-purpose household surveysA series of quantitative trials with particular attention to item non-response; question administration; and data collectionCognitively testing to ensure questioning was interpreted as intended.Quantitative research on potential bias issues in relation to proxy responsesFuture analysis and reporting issues are being considered alongside question development e.g. accurately capturing statistics on populations with low prevalence

    The presentation also discusses the practical survey administration issues relating to ensuring privacy in a concurrent interview situation, both face to face and over the telephone

    Release date: 2009-12-03

  • Technical products: 11-522-X200800010956
    Description:

    The use of Computer Audio-Recorded Interviewing (CARI) as a tool to identify interview falsification is quickly growing in survey research (Biemer, 2000, 2003; Thissen, 2007). Similarly, survey researchers are starting to expand the usefulness of CARI by combining recordings with coding to address data quality (Herget, 2001; Hansen, 2005; McGee, 2007). This paper presents results from a study included as part of the establishment-based National Center for Health Statistics' National Home and Hospice Care Survey (NHHCS) which used CARI behavior coding and CARI-specific paradata to: 1) identify and correct problematic interviewer behavior or question issues early in the data collection period before either negatively impact data quality, and; 2) identify ways to diminish measurement error in future implementations of the NHHCS. During the first 9 weeks of the 30-week field period, CARI recorded a subset of questions from the NHHCS application for all interviewers. Recordings were linked with the interview application and output and then coded in one of two modes: Code by Interviewer or Code by Question. The Code by Interviewer method provided visibility into problems specific to an interviewer as well as more generalized problems potentially applicable to all interviewers. The Code by Question method yielded data that spoke to understandability of the questions and other response problems. In this mode, coders coded multiple implementations of the same question across multiple interviewers. Using the Code by Question approach, researchers identified issues with three key survey questions in the first few weeks of data collection and provided guidance to interviewers in how to handle those questions as data collection continued. Results from coding the audio recordings (which were linked with the survey application and output) will inform question wording and interviewer training in the next implementation of the NHHCS, and guide future enhancement of CARI and the coding system.

    Release date: 2009-12-03

  • Technical products: 11-522-X200800011013
    Description:

    Collecting data using audio recordings for interviewing can be an effective and versatile data collection tool. These recordings however can lead to large files which are cumbersome to manage. Technological developments including better audio software development tools and increased adoption of broadband connections has eased the burden in the collection of audio data. This paper focuses on technologies and techniques used to record and manage audio collected surveys using laptops, telephones and internet connections. The process outlined involves devices connecting directly to the phone receiver which streams conversations directly to the laptop for storage and transmission.

    Release date: 2009-12-03

  • Technical products: 11-522-X200800010937
    Description:

    The context of the discussion is the increasing incidence of international surveys, of which one is the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Policy Evaluation Project, which began in 2002. The ITC country surveys are longitudinal, and their aim is to evaluate the effects of policy measures being introduced in various countries under the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control. The challenges of organization, data collection and analysis in international surveys are reviewed and illustrated. Analysis is an increasingly important part of the motivation for large scale cross-cultural surveys. The fundamental challenge for analysis is to discern the real response (or lack of response) to policy change, separating it from the effects of data collection mode, differential non-response, external events, time-in-sample, culture, and language. Two problems relevant to statistical analysis are discussed. The first problem is the question of when and how to analyze pooled data from several countries, in order to strengthen conclusions which might be generally valid. While in some cases this seems to be straightforward, there are differing opinions on the extent to which pooling is possible and reasonable. It is suggested that for formal comparisons, random effects models are of conceptual use. The second problem is to find models of measurement across cultures and data collection modes which will enable calibration of continuous, binary and ordinal responses, and produce comparisons from which extraneous effects have been removed. It is noted that hierarchical models provide a natural way of relaxing requirements of model invariance across groups.

    Release date: 2009-12-03

  • Technical products: 11-522-X200800011002
    Description:

    Based on a representative sample of the Canadian population, this article quantifies the bias resulting from the use of self-reported rather than directly measured height, weight and body mass index (BMI). Associations between BMI categories and selected health conditions are compared to see if the misclassification resulting from the use of self-reported data alters associations between obesity and obesity-related health conditions. The analysis is based on 4,567 respondents to the 2005 Canadian Community Health Survey (CCHS) who, during a face-to-face interview, provided self-reported values for height and weight and were then measured by trained interviewers. Based on self-reported data, a substantial proportion of individuals with excess body weight were erroneously placed in lower BMI categories. This misclassification resulted in elevated associations between overweight/obesity and morbidity.

    Release date: 2009-12-03

  • Technical products: 11-522-X200800010990
    Description:

    The purpose of the Quebec Health and Social Services User Satisfaction Survey was to provide estimates of user satisfaction for three types of health care institutions (hospitals, medical clinics and CLSCs). Since a user could have visited one, two or all three types, and since the questionnaire could cover only one type, a procedure was established to select the type of institution at random. The selection procedure, which required variable selection probabilities, was unusual in that it was adjusted during the collection process to adapt increasingly to regional disparities in the use of health and social services.

    Release date: 2009-12-03

  • Technical products: 11-522-X200800010995
    Description:

    In 1992, a paper entitled "The Optimum Time at which to Conduct Survey Interviews" sought to illustrate the economic benefits to market research organisations in structuring the calling pattern of interviewers in household surveys. The findings were based on the Welsh Inter Censal Survey in 1986. This paper now brings additional information on the calling patterns of interviewers from similar surveys in 1997 and 2006 to ascertain whether the calling patterns of interviewers have changed. The results also examine the importance of having a survey response that is representative of the population, and how efficient calling strategies can help achieve this.

    Release date: 2009-12-03

  • Technical products: 11-522-X200600110424
    Description:

    The International Tobacco Control (ITC) Policy Evaluation China Survey uses a multi-stage unequal probability sampling design with upper level clusters selected by the randomized systematic PPS sampling method. A difficulty arises in the execution of the survey: several selected upper level clusters refuse to participate in the survey and have to be replaced by substitute units, selected from units not included in the initial sample and once again using the randomized systematic PPS sampling method. Under such a scenario the first order inclusion probabilities of the final selected units are very difficult to calculate and the second order inclusion probabilities become virtually intractable. In this paper we develop a simulation-based approach for computing the first and the second order inclusion probabilities when direct calculation is prohibitive or impossible. The efficiency and feasibility of the proposed approach are demonstrated through both theoretical considerations and numerical examples. Several R/S-PLUS functions and codes for the proposed procedure are included. The approach can be extended to handle more complex refusal/substitution scenarios one may encounter in practice.

    Release date: 2008-06-26

  • Technical products: 11-522-X200600110411
    Description:

    The Canadian Community Health Survey consists of two cross-sectional surveys conducted on an alternating annual cycle. Both surveys collect general health information, while the second smaller survey collects additional information on survey specific health issues. Even with the large sample sizes, users are interested in combining the cycles of the CCHS to improve the quality of the estimates, create estimates for small geographical domains, or to estimate for rare characteristics or populations. This paper will focus on some of the issues related to combining cycles of the CCHS including some possible interpretations of the combined result. Possible methods to combine cycles will also be outlined.

    Release date: 2008-03-17

  • Technical products: 11-522-X200600110450
    Description:

    Using survey and contact attempt history data collected with the 2005 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS), a multi-purpose health survey conducted by the National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS), Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), we set out to explore the impact of participant concerns/reluctance on data quality, as measured by rates of partially complete interviews and item nonresponse. Overall, results show that respondents from households where some type of concern or reluctance (e.g., "too busy," "not interested") was expressed produced higher rates of partially complete interviews and item nonresponse than respondents from households where concern/reluctance was not expressed. Differences by type of concern were also identified.

    Release date: 2008-03-17

  • Technical products: 11-522-X200600110412
    Description:

    The Canadian Health Measures Survey (CHMS) represents Statistics Canada's first health survey employing a comprehensive battery of direct physical measurements of health. The CHMS will be collecting directly measured health data on a representative sample of 5000 Canadians aged 6 to 79 in 2007 to 2009. After a comprehensive in-home health interview, respondents report to a mobile examination centre where direct health measures are performed. Measures include fitness tests, anthropometry, objective physical activity monitoring, spirometry, blood pressure measurements, oral health measures and blood and urine sampling. Blood and urine are analyzed for measures of chronic disease, infectious disease, nutritional indicators and environmental biomarkers. This survey has many unique and peculiar challenges rarely experienced by most Statistics Canada surveys; some of these challenges are described in this paper. The data collected through the CHMS is unique and represents a valuable health surveillance and research resource for Canada.

    Release date: 2008-03-17

  • Technical products: 11-522-X200600110524
    Description:

    Growth curves are used by health professionals to determine whether the growth of a child or a foetus, for example, is within normal limits. The growth charts currently used in Canada for height, weight and body mass index (BMI) are based on US data. Child growth curves can now be generated from the latest available data in Canada. One way of estimating and drawing growth curves is the Lambda-Mu-Sigma (LMS) method. The method has been used in various studies by the World Health Organization, the United Kingdom and the United States to generate reference growth curves for children. In this article, the LMS method is used to estimate growth curves in BMI percentiles from weighted cross-sectional data provided by cycle 2.2 of the Canadian Community Health Survey. This article is about the child BMI, one of the anthropometric measures most commonly used to assess growth and obesity.

    Release date: 2008-03-17

  • Technical products: 11-522-X20050019446
    Description:

    One method used to examine the effect of nonresponse involves comparing survey participants who require less effort on the part of the interviewer with those who require more effort. A persistent problem for researchers involves the criteria to use in determining membership in high effort groups.

    Release date: 2007-03-02

  • Technical products: 11-522-X20050019465
    Description:

    A recent development at Statistics Canada is the availability of monthly calendarized revenue data available from its Tax Data Division (TDD) through an agreement with Canadian Revenue Agency (CRA). This information has been shown to have a strong relationship with the revenue information collected by Statistics Canada's Monthly Survey of Manufacturing (MSM). This presentation will give a brief overview of the GST and the MSM and will concentrate on how the GST data were integrated into the survey process.

    Release date: 2007-03-02

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