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All (1,585) (25 of 1,585 results)

  • Articles and reports: 13-605-X201700114840
    Description:

    Statistics Canada is presently preparing the statistical system to be able to gauge the impact of the transition from illegal to legal non-medical cannabis use and to shed light on the social and economic activities related to the use of cannabis thereafter. While the system of social statistics captures some information on the use of cannabis, updates will be required to more accurately measure health effects and the impact on the judicial system. Current statistical infrastructure used to more comprehensively measure the use and impacts of substances such as tobacco and alcohol could be adapted to do the same for cannabis. However, available economic statistics are largely silent on the role illegal drugs play in the economy. Both social and economic statistics will need to be updated to reflect the legalization of cannabis and the challenge is especially great for economic statistics This paper provides a summary of the work that is now under way toward these ends.

    Release date: 2017-09-28

  • Index and guides: 12-606-X
    Description:

    This is a toolkit intended to aid data producers and data users external to Statistics Canada.

    Release date: 2017-09-27

  • Articles and reports: 11-633-X2017009
    Description:

    This document describes the procedures for using linked administrative data sources to estimate paid parental leave rates in Canada and the issues surrounding this use.

    Release date: 2017-08-29

  • The Daily
    Description: Release published in The Daily – Statistics Canada’s official release bulletin
    Release date: 2017-07-28

  • Articles and reports: 11-633-X2017008
    Description:

    The DYSEM microsimulation modelling platform provides a demographic and socioeconomic core that can be readily built upon to develop custom dynamic microsimulation models or applications. This paper describes DYSEM and provides an overview of its intended uses, as well as the methods and data used in its development.

    Release date: 2017-07-28

  • Articles and reports: 12-001-X201700114822
    Description:

    We use a Bayesian method to infer about a finite population proportion when binary data are collected using a two-fold sample design from small areas. The two-fold sample design has a two-stage cluster sample design within each area. A former hierarchical Bayesian model assumes that for each area the first stage binary responses are independent Bernoulli distributions, and the probabilities have beta distributions which are parameterized by a mean and a correlation coefficient. The means vary with areas but the correlation is the same over areas. However, to gain some flexibility we have now extended this model to accommodate different correlations. The means and the correlations have independent beta distributions. We call the former model a homogeneous model and the new model a heterogeneous model. All hyperparameters have proper noninformative priors. An additional complexity is that some of the parameters are weakly identified making it difficult to use a standard Gibbs sampler for computation. So we have used unimodal constraints for the beta prior distributions and a blocked Gibbs sampler to perform the computation. We have compared the heterogeneous and homogeneous models using an illustrative example and simulation study. As expected, the two-fold model with heterogeneous correlations is preferred.

    Release date: 2017-06-22

  • Articles and reports: 12-001-X201700114819
    Description:

    Structural time series models are a powerful technique for variance reduction in the framework of small area estimation (SAE) based on repeatedly conducted surveys. Statistics Netherlands implemented a structural time series model to produce monthly figures about the labour force with the Dutch Labour Force Survey (DLFS). Such models, however, contain unknown hyperparameters that have to be estimated before the Kalman filter can be launched to estimate state variables of the model. This paper describes a simulation aimed at studying the properties of hyperparameter estimators in the model. Simulating distributions of the hyperparameter estimators under different model specifications complements standard model diagnostics for state space models. Uncertainty around the model hyperparameters is another major issue. To account for hyperparameter uncertainty in the mean squared errors (MSE) estimates of the DLFS, several estimation approaches known in the literature are considered in a simulation. Apart from the MSE bias comparison, this paper also provides insight into the variances and MSEs of the MSE estimators considered.

    Release date: 2017-06-22

  • Articles and reports: 12-001-X201700114820
    Description:

    Measurement errors can induce bias in the estimation of transitions, leading to erroneous conclusions about labour market dynamics. Traditional literature on gross flows estimation is based on the assumption that measurement errors are uncorrelated over time. This assumption is not realistic in many contexts, because of survey design and data collection strategies. In this work, we use a model-based approach to correct observed gross flows from classification errors with latent class Markov models. We refer to data collected with the Italian Continuous Labour Force Survey, which is cross-sectional, quarterly, with a 2-2-2 rotating design. The questionnaire allows us to use multiple indicators of labour force conditions for each quarter: two collected in the first interview, and a third collected one year later. Our approach provides a method to estimate labour market mobility, taking into account correlated errors and the rotating design of the survey. The best-fitting model is a mixed latent class Markov model with covariates affecting latent transitions and correlated errors among indicators; the mixture components are of mover-stayer type. The better fit of the mixture specification is due to more accurately estimated latent transitions.

    Release date: 2017-06-22

  • Articles and reports: 12-001-X201700114823
    Description:

    The derivation of estimators in a multi-phase calibration process requires a sequential computation of estimators and calibrated weights of previous phases in order to obtain those of later ones. Already after two phases of calibration the estimators and their variances involve calibration factors from both phases and the formulae become cumbersome and uninformative. As a consequence the literature so far deals mainly with two phases while three phases or more are rarely being considered. The analysis in some cases is ad-hoc for a specific design and no comprehensive methodology for constructing calibrated estimators, and more challengingly, estimating their variances in three or more phases was formed. We provide a closed form formula for the variance of multi-phase calibrated estimators that holds for any number of phases. By specifying a new presentation of multi-phase calibrated weights it is possible to construct calibrated estimators that have the form of multi-variate regression estimators which enables a computation of a consistent estimator for their variance. This new variance estimator is not only general for any number of phases but also has some favorable characteristics. A comparison to other estimators in the special case of two-phase calibration and another independent study for three phases are presented.

    Release date: 2017-06-22

  • Articles and reports: 12-001-X201700114818
    Description:

    The protection of data confidentiality in tables of magnitude can become extremely difficult when working in a custom tabulation environment. A relatively simple solution consists of perturbing the underlying microdata beforehand, but the negative impact on the accuracy of aggregates can be too high. A perturbative method is proposed that aims to better balance the needs of data protection and data accuracy in such an environment. The method works by processing the data in each cell in layers, applying higher levels of perturbation for the largest values and little or no perturbation for the smallest ones. The method is primarily aimed at protecting personal data, which tend to be less skewed than business data.

    Release date: 2017-06-22

  • Articles and reports: 12-001-X201700114817
    Description:

    We present research results on sample allocations for efficient model-based small area estimation in cases where the areas of interest coincide with the strata. Although model-assisted and model-based estimation methods are common in the production of small area statistics, utilization of the underlying model and estimation method are rarely included in the sample area allocation scheme. Therefore, we have developed a new model-based allocation named g1-allocation. For comparison, one recently developed model-assisted allocation is presented. These two allocations are based on an adjusted measure of homogeneity which is computed using an auxiliary variable and is an approximation of the intra-class correlation within areas. Five model-free area allocation solutions presented in the past are selected from the literature as reference allocations. Equal and proportional allocations need the number of areas and area-specific numbers of basic statistical units. The Neyman, Bankier and NLP (Non-Linear Programming) allocation need values for the study variable concerning area level parameters such as standard deviation, coefficient of variation or totals. In general, allocation methods can be classified according to the optimization criteria and use of auxiliary data. Statistical properties of the various methods are assessed through sample simulation experiments using real population register data. It can be concluded from simulation results that inclusion of the model and estimation method into the allocation method improves estimation results.

    Release date: 2017-06-22

  • Articles and reports: 12-001-X201700114836
    Description:

    Web-push survey data collection that uses mail contact to request responses over the Internet, while withholding alternative answering modes until later in the implementation process, has developed rapidly over the past decade. This paper describes the reasons this innovative mixing of survey contact and response modes was needed, the primary ones being the declining effectiveness of voice telephone and slower than expected development of email/web only data collection methods. Historical and institutional barriers to mixing survey modes in this manner are also discussed. Essential research on the use of U.S. Postal address lists and the effects of aural and visual communication on survey measurement are then described followed by discussion of experimental efforts to create a viable web-push methodology as an alternative to voice telephone and mail response surveys. Multiple examples of current and anticipated web-push data collection uses are provided. This paper ends with a discussion of both the great promise and significant challenge presented by greater reliance on web-push survey methods.

    Release date: 2017-06-22

  • Articles and reports: 82-003-X201700614829
    Description:

    POHEM-BMI is a microsimulation tool that includes a model of adult body mass index (BMI) and a model of childhood BMI history. This overview describes the development of BMI prediction models for adults and of childhood BMI history, and compares projected BMI estimates with those from nationally representative survey data to establish validity.

    Release date: 2017-06-21

  • Articles and reports: 11-633-X2017007
    Description:

    The Longitudinal Immigration Database (IMDB) is a comprehensive source of data that plays a key role in the understanding of the economic behaviour of immigrants. It is the only annual Canadian dataset that allows users to study the characteristics of immigrants to Canada at the time of admission and their economic outcomes and regional (inter-provincial) mobility over a time span of more than 30 years. The IMDB combines administrative files on immigrant admissions and non-permanent resident permits from Immigration, Refugees and Citizenship Canada (IRCC) with tax files from the Canadian Revenue Agency (CRA). Information is available for immigrant taxfilers admitted since 1980. Tax records for 1982 and subsequent years are available for immigrant taxfilers.

    This report will discuss the IMDB data sources, concepts and variables, record linkage, data processing, dissemination, data evaluation and quality indicators, comparability with other immigration datasets, and the analyses possible with the IMDB.

    Release date: 2017-06-16

  • Journals and periodicals: 12-605-X
    Description:

    The Record Linkage Project Process Model (RLPPM) was developed by Statistics Canada to identify the processes and activities involved in record linkage. The RLPPM applies to linkage projects conducted at the individual and enterprise level using diverse data sources to create new data sources to meet analytical and operational needs.

    Release date: 2017-06-05

  • The Daily
    Description: Release published in The Daily – Statistics Canada’s official release bulletin
    Release date: 2017-05-12

  • Articles and reports: 18-001-X2017002
    Description:

    This working paper presents a methodology to measure remoteness at the community level. The method takes into account some of the recent literature on the subject, as well as new computational opportunities provided by the integration of official statistics with data from non-official statistical sources. The approach that was used in the computations accounts for multiple points of access to services; it also establishes a continuum between communities with different transportation infrastructures and connectivity while at the same time retaining the information on the community transportation infrastructures in the database. In addition, a method to implement accessibility measures to selected services is also outlined and a sample of accessibility measures are computed.

    Release date: 2017-05-09

  • The Daily
    Description: Release published in The Daily – Statistics Canada’s official release bulletin
    Release date: 2017-04-21

  • Technical products: 12-586-X
    Description:

    The Quality Assurance Framework (QAF) serves as the highest-level governance tool for quality management at Statistics Canada. The QAF gives an overview of the quality management and risk mitigation strategies used by the Agency’s program areas. The QAF is used in conjunction with Statistics Canada management practices, such as those described in the Quality Guidelines.

    Release date: 2017-04-21

  • The Daily
    Description: Release published in The Daily – Statistics Canada’s official release bulletin
    Release date: 2017-03-16

  • Articles and reports: 11-633-X2017006
    Description:

    This paper describes a method of imputing missing postal codes in a longitudinal database. The 1991 Canadian Census Health and Environment Cohort (CanCHEC), which contains information on individuals from the 1991 Census long-form questionnaire linked with T1 tax return files for the 1984-to-2011 period, is used to illustrate and validate the method. The cohort contains up to 28 consecutive fields for postal code of residence, but because of frequent gaps in postal code history, missing postal codes must be imputed. To validate the imputation method, two experiments were devised where 5% and 10% of all postal codes from a subset with full history were randomly removed and imputed.

    Release date: 2017-03-13

  • The Daily
    Description: Release published in The Daily – Statistics Canada’s official release bulletin
    Release date: 2017-03-09

  • The Daily
    Description: Release published in The Daily – Statistics Canada’s official release bulletin
    Release date: 2017-01-30

  • Technical products: 91-621-X2017001
    Release date: 2017-01-25

  • Articles and reports: 11-633-X2017005
    Description:

    Hospitalization rates are among commonly reported statistics related to health-care service use. The variety of methods for calculating confidence intervals for these and other health-related rates suggests a need to classify, compare and evaluate these methods. Zeno is a tool developed to calculate confidence intervals of rates based on several formulas available in the literature. This report describes the contents of the main sheet of the Zeno Tool and indicates which formulas are appropriate, based on users’ assumptions and scope of analysis.

    Release date: 2017-01-19

Data (8)

Data (8) (8 of 8 results)

  • Public use microdata: 89F0002X
    Description:

    The SPSD/M is a static microsimulation model designed to analyse financial interactions between governments and individuals in Canada. It can compute taxes paid to and cash transfers received from government. It is comprised of a database, a series of tax/transfer algorithms and models, analytical software and user documentation.

    Release date: 2018-01-08

  • Table: 53-500-X
    Description:

    This report presents the results of a pilot survey conducted by Statistics Canada to measure the fuel consumption of on-road motor vehicles registered in Canada. This study was carried out in connection with the Canadian Vehicle Survey (CVS) which collects information on road activity such as distance traveled, number of passengers and trip purpose.

    Release date: 2004-10-21

  • Table: 95F0495X2001012
    Description:

    This table contains information from the 2001 Census, presented according to the statistical area classification (SAC). The SAC groups census subdivisions according to whether they are a component of a census metropolitan area, a census agglomeration, a census metropolitan area and census agglomeration influenced zone (strong MIZ, moderate MIZ, weak MIZ or no MIZ) or of the territories (Northwest Territories, Nunavut and Yukon Territory). The SAC is used for data dissemination purposes.

    Data characteristics presented according to the SAC include age, visible minority groups, immigration, mother tongue, education, income, work and dwellings. Data are presented for Canada, provinces and territories. The data characteristics presented within this table may differ from those of other products in the "Profiles" series.

    Release date: 2004-02-27

  • Table: 53-222-X19980006587
    Description:

    The primary purpose of this article is to present a new time series data and to demonstrate its analytical potential and not to provide a detailed analysis of these data. The analysis in section 5.2.4 will deal primarily with the trends of major variables dealing with domestic and transborder traffic.

    Release date: 2000-03-07

  • Table: 75M0007X
    Description:

    The Absence from Work Survey was designed primarily to fulfill the objectives of Human Resources Development Canada. They sponsor the qualified wage loss replacement plan which applies to employers who have their own private plans to cover employee wages lost due to sickness, accident, etc. Employers who fall under the plan are granted a reduction in their quotas payable to the Unemployment Insurance Commission. The data generated from the responses to the supplement will provide input to determine the rates for quota reductions for qualified employers.

    Although the Absence from Work Survey collects information on absences from work due to illness, accident or pregnancy, it does not provide a complete picture of people who have been absent from work for these reasons because the concepts and definitions have been developed specifically for the needs of the client. Absences in this survey are defined as being at least two weeks in length, and respondents are only asked the three reasons for their most recent absence and the one preceding it.

    Release date: 1999-06-29

  • Table: 82-567-X
    Description:

    The National Population Health Survey (NPHS) is designed to enhance the understanding of the processes affecting health. The survey collects cross-sectional as well as longitudinal data. In 1994/95 the survey interviewed a panel of 17,276 individuals, then returned to interview them a second time in 1996/97. The response rate for these individuals was 96% in 1996/97. Data collection from the panel will continue for up to two decades. For cross-sectional purposes, data were collected for a total of 81,000 household residents in all provinces (except people on Indian reserves or on Canadian Forces bases) in 1996/97.

    This overview illustrates the variety of information available by presenting data on perceived health, chronic conditions, injuries, repetitive strains, depression, smoking, alcohol consumption, physical activity, consultations with medical professionals, use of medications and use of alternative medicine.

    Release date: 1998-07-29

  • Table: 62-010-X19970023422
    Description:

    The current official time base of the Consumer Price Index (CPI) is 1986=100. This time base was first used when the CPI for June 1990 was released. Statistics Canada is about to convert all price index series to the time base 1992=100. As a result, all constant dollar series will be converted to 1992 dollars. The CPI will shift to the new time base when the CPI for January 1998 is released on February 27th, 1998.

    Release date: 1997-11-17

  • Public use microdata: 89M0005X
    Description:

    The objective of this survey was to collect attitudinal, cognitive and behavioral information regarding drinking and driving.

    Release date: 1996-10-21

Analysis (879)

Analysis (879) (25 of 879 results)

  • Articles and reports: 11-633-X2018012
    Description:

    This study investigates the extent to which income tax reassessments and delayed tax filing affect the reliability of Canadian administrative tax datasets used for economic analysis. The study is based on individual income tax records from the T1 Personal Master File and Historical Personal Master File for selected years from 1990 to 2010. These datasets contain tax records for approximately 100% of initial and all income tax filers, who submitted returns to the Canada Revenue Agency (CRA) before specific processing cut-off dates.

    Release date: 2018-01-11

  • Journals and periodicals: 11-633-X
    Description:

    Papers in this series provide background discussions of the methods used to develop data for economic, health, and social analytical studies at Statistics Canada. They are intended to provide readers with information on the statistical methods, standards and definitions used to develop databases for research purposes. All papers in this series have undergone peer and institutional review to ensure that they conform to Statistics Canada's mandate and adhere to generally accepted standards of good professional practice.

    Release date: 2018-01-11

  • The Daily
    Description: Release published in The Daily – Statistics Canada’s official release bulletin
    Release date: 2018-01-08

  • Articles and reports: 11-633-X2018011
    Description:

    The Longitudinal Immigration Database (IMDB) is a comprehensive source of data that plays a key role in the understanding of the economic behaviour of immigrants. It is the only annual Canadian dataset that allows users to study the characteristics of immigrants to Canada at the time of admission and their economic outcomes and regional (inter-provincial) mobility over a time span of more than 30 years. The IMDB combines administrative files on immigrant admissions and non-permanent resident permits from Immigration, Refugees and Citizenship Canada (IRCC) with tax files from the Canadian Revenue Agency (CRA). Information is available for immigrant taxfilers admitted since 1980. Tax records for 1982 and subsequent years are available for immigrant taxfilers.

    This report will discuss the IMDB data sources, concepts and variables, record linkage, data processing, dissemination, data evaluation and quality indicators, comparability with other immigration datasets, and the analyses possible with the IMDB.

    Release date: 2018-01-08

  • The Daily
    Description: Release published in The Daily – Statistics Canada’s official release bulletin
    Release date: 2018-01-05

  • Articles and reports: 18-001-X2017001
    Description:

    This working paper profiles Canadian firms involved in the development and production of Bioproducts. It provides data on the number and types of Bioproducts firms in 2015, covering bioproducts revenues, research and development, use of biomass, patents, products, business practices and the impact of government regulations on the sector.

    Release date: 2017-12-22

  • Articles and reports: 12-001-X201700254872
    Description:

    This note discusses the theoretical foundations for the extension of the Wilson two-sided coverage interval to an estimated proportion computed from complex survey data. The interval is shown to be asymptotically equivalent to an interval derived from a logistic transformation. A mildly better version is discussed, but users may prefer constructing a one-sided interval already in the literature.

    Release date: 2017-12-21

  • The Daily
    Description: Release published in The Daily – Statistics Canada’s official release bulletin
    Release date: 2017-12-21

  • Journals and periodicals: 12-001-X
    Description:

    The journal publishes articles dealing with various aspects of statistical development relevant to a statistical agency, such as design issues in the context of practical constraints, use of different data sources and collection techniques, total survey error, survey evaluation, research in survey methodology, time series analysis, seasonal adjustment, demographic studies, data integration, estimation and data analysis methods, and general survey systems development. The emphasis is placed on the development and evaluation of specific methodologies as applied to data collection or the data themselves.

    Release date: 2017-12-21

  • Articles and reports: 12-001-X201700254888
    Description:

    We discuss developments in sample survey theory and methods covering the past 100 years. Neyman’s 1934 landmark paper laid the theoretical foundations for the probability sampling approach to inference from survey samples. Classical sampling books by Cochran, Deming, Hansen, Hurwitz and Madow, Sukhatme, and Yates, which appeared in the early 1950s, expanded and elaborated the theory of probability sampling, emphasizing unbiasedness, model free features, and designs that minimize variance for a fixed cost. During the period 1960-1970, theoretical foundations of inference from survey data received attention, with the model-dependent approach generating considerable discussion. Introduction of general purpose statistical software led to the use of such software with survey data, which led to the design of methods specifically for complex survey data. At the same time, weighting methods, such as regression estimation and calibration, became practical and design consistency replaced unbiasedness as the requirement for standard estimators. A bit later, computer-intensive resampling methods also became practical for large scale survey samples. Improved computer power led to more sophisticated imputation for missing data, use of more auxiliary data, some treatment of measurement errors in estimation, and more complex estimation procedures. A notable use of models was in the expanded use of small area estimation. Future directions in research and methods will be influenced by budgets, response rates, timeliness, improved data collection devices, and availability of auxiliary data, some of which will come from “Big Data”. Survey taking will be impacted by changing cultural behavior and by a changing physical-technical environment.

    Release date: 2017-12-21

  • Articles and reports: 12-001-X201700254871
    Description:

    In this paper the question is addressed how alternative data sources, such as administrative and social media data, can be used in the production of official statistics. Since most surveys at national statistical institutes are conducted repeatedly over time, a multivariate structural time series modelling approach is proposed to model the series observed by a repeated surveys with related series obtained from such alternative data sources. Generally, this improves the precision of the direct survey estimates by using sample information observed in preceding periods and information from related auxiliary series. This model also makes it possible to utilize the higher frequency of the social media to produce more precise estimates for the sample survey in real time at the moment that statistics for the social media become available but the sample data are not yet available. The concept of cointegration is applied to address the question to which extent the alternative series represent the same phenomena as the series observed with the repeated survey. The methodology is applied to the Dutch Consumer Confidence Survey and a sentiment index derived from social media.

    Release date: 2017-12-21

  • Articles and reports: 12-001-X201700254896
    Description:

    This note by Sharon L. Lohr presents a discussion of the paper “Sample survey theory and methods: Past, present, and future directions” where J.N.K. Rao and Wayne A. Fuller share their views regarding the developments in sample survey theory and methods covering the past 100 years.

    Release date: 2017-12-21

  • Articles and reports: 12-001-X201700254897
    Description:

    This note by Chris Skinner presents a discussion of the paper “Sample survey theory and methods: Past, present, and future directions” where J.N.K. Rao and Wayne A. Fuller share their views regarding the developments in sample survey theory and methods covering the past 100 years.

    Release date: 2017-12-21

  • Articles and reports: 12-001-X201700254894
    Description:

    This note by Danny Pfeffermann presents a discussion of the paper “Sample survey theory and methods: Past, present, and future directions” where J.N.K. Rao and Wayne A. Fuller share their views regarding the developments in sample survey theory and methods covering the past 100 years.

    Release date: 2017-12-21

  • Articles and reports: 12-001-X201700254887
    Description:

    This paper proposes a new approach to decompose the wage difference between men and women that is based on a calibration procedure. This approach generalizes two current decomposition methods that are re-expressed using survey weights. The first one is the Blinder-Oaxaca method and the second one is a reweighting method proposed by DiNardo, Fortin and Lemieux. The new approach provides a weighting system that enables us to estimate such parameters of interest like quantiles. An application to data from the Swiss Structure of Earnings Survey shows the interest of this method.

    Release date: 2017-12-21

  • Articles and reports: 12-001-X201700254895
    Description:

    This note by Graham Kalton presents a discussion of the paper “Sample survey theory and methods: Past, present, and future directions” where J.N.K. Rao and Wayne A. Fuller share their views regarding the developments in sample survey theory and methods covering the past 100 years.

    Release date: 2017-12-21

  • The Daily
    Description: Release published in The Daily – Statistics Canada’s official release bulletin
    Release date: 2017-12-18

  • Articles and reports: 11-626-X2017077
    Description:

    On April 13, 2017, the Government of Canada tabled legislation to legalize the recreational use of cannabis by adults. This will directly impact Canada’s statistical system. The focus of this Economic Insights article is to provide experimental estimates for the volume of cannabis consumption, based on existing information on the prevalence of cannabis use. The article presents experimental estimates of the number of tonnes of cannabis consumed by age group for the period from 1960 to 2015. The experimental estimates rely on survey data from multiple sources, statistical techniques to link the sources over time, and assumptions about consumption behaviour. They are subject to revision as improved or additional data sources become available.

    Release date: 2017-12-18

  • The Daily
    Description: Release published in The Daily – Statistics Canada’s official release bulletin
    Release date: 2017-10-11

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M2017399
    Description:

    Canada is a trading nation that produces significant quantities of resource outputs. Consequently, the behaviour of resource prices that are important for Canada is germane to understanding the progress of real income growth and the prosperity of the country and the provinces. Demand and supply shocks or changes in monetary policy in international markets may exert significant influence on resource prices, and their fluctuations constitute an important avenue for the transmission of external shocks into the domestic economy. This paper develops historical estimates of the Bank of Canada commodity price index (BCPI) and links them to modern estimates. Using a collection of historical data sources, it estimates weights and prices sufficiently consistently to merit the construction of long-run estimates that may be linked to the modern Fisher BCPI.

    Release date: 2017-10-11

  • Articles and reports: 13-605-X201700114840
    Description:

    Statistics Canada is presently preparing the statistical system to be able to gauge the impact of the transition from illegal to legal non-medical cannabis use and to shed light on the social and economic activities related to the use of cannabis thereafter. While the system of social statistics captures some information on the use of cannabis, updates will be required to more accurately measure health effects and the impact on the judicial system. Current statistical infrastructure used to more comprehensively measure the use and impacts of substances such as tobacco and alcohol could be adapted to do the same for cannabis. However, available economic statistics are largely silent on the role illegal drugs play in the economy. Both social and economic statistics will need to be updated to reflect the legalization of cannabis and the challenge is especially great for economic statistics This paper provides a summary of the work that is now under way toward these ends.

    Release date: 2017-09-28

  • Articles and reports: 11-633-X2017009
    Description:

    This document describes the procedures for using linked administrative data sources to estimate paid parental leave rates in Canada and the issues surrounding this use.

    Release date: 2017-08-29

  • The Daily
    Description: Release published in The Daily – Statistics Canada’s official release bulletin
    Release date: 2017-07-28

  • Articles and reports: 11-633-X2017008
    Description:

    The DYSEM microsimulation modelling platform provides a demographic and socioeconomic core that can be readily built upon to develop custom dynamic microsimulation models or applications. This paper describes DYSEM and provides an overview of its intended uses, as well as the methods and data used in its development.

    Release date: 2017-07-28

  • Articles and reports: 12-001-X201700114822
    Description:

    We use a Bayesian method to infer about a finite population proportion when binary data are collected using a two-fold sample design from small areas. The two-fold sample design has a two-stage cluster sample design within each area. A former hierarchical Bayesian model assumes that for each area the first stage binary responses are independent Bernoulli distributions, and the probabilities have beta distributions which are parameterized by a mean and a correlation coefficient. The means vary with areas but the correlation is the same over areas. However, to gain some flexibility we have now extended this model to accommodate different correlations. The means and the correlations have independent beta distributions. We call the former model a homogeneous model and the new model a heterogeneous model. All hyperparameters have proper noninformative priors. An additional complexity is that some of the parameters are weakly identified making it difficult to use a standard Gibbs sampler for computation. So we have used unimodal constraints for the beta prior distributions and a blocked Gibbs sampler to perform the computation. We have compared the heterogeneous and homogeneous models using an illustrative example and simulation study. As expected, the two-fold model with heterogeneous correlations is preferred.

    Release date: 2017-06-22

Reference (698)

Reference (698) (25 of 698 results)

  • Surveys and statistical programs – Documentation: 71-526-X
    Description:

    The Canadian Labour Force Survey (LFS) is the official source of monthly estimates of total employment and unemployment. Following the 2011 census, the LFS underwent a sample redesign to account for the evolution of the population and labour market characteristics, to adjust to changes in the information needs and to update the geographical information used to carry out the survey. The redesign program following the 2011 census culminated with the introduction of a new sample at the beginning of 2015. This report is a reference on the methodological aspects of the LFS, covering stratification, sampling, collection, processing, weighting, estimation, variance estimation and data quality.

    Release date: 2017-12-21

  • Index and guides: 98-500-X
    Description:

    Provides information that enables users to effectively use, apply and interpret data from the Census of Population. Each guide contains definitions and explanations on census concepts as well as a data quality and historical comparability section. Additional information will be included for specific variables to help users better understand the concepts and questions used in the census.

    Release date: 2017-11-29

  • Technical products: 84-538-X
    Description:

    This document presents the methodology underlying the production of the life tables for Canada, provinces and territories, from reference period 1980/1982 and onward.

    Release date: 2017-11-16

  • Technical products: 12-206-X
    Description:

    This report summarizes the achievements program sponsored by the three methodology divisions of Statistics Canada. This program covers research and development activities in statistical methods with potentially broad application in the Agency's survey programs, which would not otherwise have been carried out during the provision of methodology services to those survey programs. They also include tasks that provided client support in the application of past successful developments in order to promote the utilization of the results of research and development work.

    Release date: 2017-11-03

  • Index and guides: 12-606-X
    Description:

    This is a toolkit intended to aid data producers and data users external to Statistics Canada.

    Release date: 2017-09-27

  • Technical products: 12-586-X
    Description:

    The Quality Assurance Framework (QAF) serves as the highest-level governance tool for quality management at Statistics Canada. The QAF gives an overview of the quality management and risk mitigation strategies used by the Agency’s program areas. The QAF is used in conjunction with Statistics Canada management practices, such as those described in the Quality Guidelines.

    Release date: 2017-04-21

  • Technical products: 91-621-X2017001
    Release date: 2017-01-25

  • Technical products: 75F0002M2016003
    Description:

    Periodically, income statistics are updated to reflect the most recent population estimates from the Census. Accordingly, with the release of the 2014 data from the Canadian Income Survey, Statistics Canada has revised estimates for 2006 to 2013 using new population totals from the 2011 Census. This paper provides unrevised estimates alongside revised estimates for key income series, indicating where the revisions were significant.

    Release date: 2016-07-08

  • Technical products: 75F0002M
    Description:

    This series provides detailed documentation on income developments, including survey design issues, data quality evaluation and exploratory research.

    Release date: 2016-07-08

  • Technical products: 11-522-X
    Description:

    Since 1984, an annual international symposium on methodological issues has been sponsored by Statistics Canada. Proceedings have been available since 1987.

    Release date: 2016-03-24

  • Technical products: 11-522-X201700014726
    Description:

    Internal migration is one of the components of population growth estimated at Statistics Canada. It is estimated by comparing individuals’ addresses at the beginning and end of a given period. The Canada Child Tax Benefit and T1 Family File are the primary data sources used. Address quality and coverage of more mobile subpopulations are crucial to producing high-quality estimates. The purpose of this article is to present the results of evaluations of these elements using access to more tax data sources at Statistics Canada.

    Release date: 2016-03-24

  • Technical products: 11-522-X201700014745
    Description:

    In the design of surveys a number of parameters like contact propensities, participation propensities and costs per sample unit play a decisive role. In on-going surveys, these survey design parameters are usually estimated from previous experience and updated gradually with new experience. In new surveys, these parameters are estimated from expert opinion and experience with similar surveys. Although survey institutes have a fair expertise and experience, the postulation, estimation and updating of survey design parameters is rarely done in a systematic way. This paper presents a Bayesian framework to include and update prior knowledge and expert opinion about the parameters. This framework is set in the context of adaptive survey designs in which different population units may receive different treatment given quality and cost objectives. For this type of survey, the accuracy of design parameters becomes even more crucial to effective design decisions. The framework allows for a Bayesian analysis of the performance of a survey during data collection and in between waves of a survey. We demonstrate the Bayesian analysis using a realistic simulation study.

    Release date: 2016-03-24

  • Technical products: 11-522-X201700014708
    Description:

    Statistics Canada’s Household Survey Frames (HSF) Programme provides various universe files that can be used alone or in combination to improve survey design, sampling, collection, and processing in the traditional “need to contact a household model.” Even as surveys are migrating onto these core suite of products, the HSF is starting to plan the changes to infrastructure, organisation, and linkages with other data assets in Statistics Canada that will help enable a shift to increased use of a wide variety of administrative data as input to the social statistics programme. The presentation will provide an overview of the HSF Programme, foundational concepts that will need to be implemented to expand linkage potential, and will identify strategic research being under-taken toward 2021.

    Release date: 2016-03-24

  • Technical products: 11-522-X201700014722
    Description:

    The U.S. Census Bureau is researching ways to incorporate administrative data in decennial census and survey operations. Critical to this work is an understanding of the coverage of the population by administrative records. Using federal and third party administrative data linked to the American Community Survey (ACS), we evaluate the extent to which administrative records provide data on foreign-born individuals in the ACS and employ multinomial logistic regression techniques to evaluate characteristics of those who are in administrative records relative to those who are not. We find that overall, administrative records provide high coverage of foreign-born individuals in our sample for whom a match can be determined. The odds of being in administrative records are found to be tied to the processes of immigrant assimilation – naturalization, higher English proficiency, educational attainment, and full-time employment are associated with greater odds of being in administrative records. These findings suggest that as immigrants adapt and integrate into U.S. society, they are more likely to be involved in government and commercial processes and programs for which we are including data. We further explore administrative records coverage for the two largest race/ethnic groups in our sample – Hispanic and non-Hispanic single-race Asian foreign born, finding again that characteristics related to assimilation are associated with administrative records coverage for both groups. However, we observe that neighborhood context impacts Hispanics and Asians differently.

    Release date: 2016-03-24

  • Technical products: 11-522-X201700014735
    Description:

    Microdata dissemination normally requires data reduction and modification methods be applied, and the degree to which these methods are applied depend on the control methods that will be required to access and use the data. An approach that is in some circumstances more suitable for accessing data for statistical purposes is secure computation, which involves computing analytic functions on encrypted data without the need to decrypt the underlying source data to run a statistical analysis. This approach also allows multiple sites to contribute data while providing strong privacy guarantees. This way the data can be pooled and contributors can compute analytic functions without either party knowing their inputs. We explain how secure computation can be applied in practical contexts, with some theoretical results and real healthcare examples.

    Release date: 2016-03-24

  • Technical products: 11-522-X201700014719
    Description:

    Open Data initiatives are transforming how governments and other public institutions interact and provide services to their constituents. They increase transparency and value to citizens, reduce inefficiencies and barriers to information, enable data-driven applications that improve public service delivery, and provide public data that can stimulate innovative business opportunities. As one of the first international organizations to adopt an open data policy, the World Bank has been providing guidance and technical expertise to developing countries that are considering or designing their own initiatives. This presentation will give an overview of developments in open data at the international level along with current and future experiences, challenges, and opportunities. Mr. Herzog will discuss the rationales under which governments are embracing open data, demonstrated benefits to both the public and private sectors, the range of different approaches that governments are taking, and the availability of tools for policymakers, with special emphasis on the roles and perspectives of National Statistics Offices within a government-wide initiative.

    Release date: 2016-03-24

  • Technical products: 11-522-X201700014721
    Description:

    Open data is becoming an increasingly important expectation of Canadians, researchers, and developers. Learn how and why the Government of Canada has centralized the distribution of all Government of Canada open data through Open.Canada.ca and how this initiative will continue to support the consumption of statistical information.

    Release date: 2016-03-24

  • Technical products: 11-522-X201700014738
    Description:

    In the standard design approach to missing observations, the construction of weight classes and calibration are used to adjust the design weights for the respondents in the sample. Here we use these adjusted weights to define a Dirichlet distribution which can be used to make inferences about the population. Examples show that the resulting procedures have better performance properties than the standard methods when the population is skewed.

    Release date: 2016-03-24

  • Technical products: 11-522-X201700014723
    Description:

    The U.S. Census Bureau is researching uses of administrative records in survey and decennial operations in order to reduce costs and respondent burden while preserving data quality. One potential use of administrative records is to utilize the data when race and Hispanic origin responses are missing. When federal and third party administrative records are compiled, race and Hispanic origin responses are not always the same for an individual across different administrative records sources. We explore different sets of business rules used to assign one race and one Hispanic response when these responses are discrepant across sources. We also describe the characteristics of individuals with matching, non-matching, and missing race and Hispanic origin data across several demographic, household, and contextual variables. We find that minorities, especially Hispanics, are more likely to have non-matching Hispanic origin and race responses in administrative records than in the 2010 Census. Hispanics are less likely to have missing Hispanic origin data but more likely to have missing race data in administrative records. Non-Hispanic Asians and non-Hispanic Pacific Islanders are more likely to have missing race and Hispanic origin data in administrative records. Younger individuals, renters, individuals living in households with two or more people, individuals who responded to the census in the nonresponse follow-up operation, and individuals residing in urban areas are more likely to have non-matching race and Hispanic origin responses.

    Release date: 2016-03-24

  • Technical products: 11-522-X201700014754
    Description:

    Background: There is increasing interest in measuring and benchmarking health system performance. We compared Canada’s health system with other countries in the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) on both the national and provincial levels, across 50 indicators of health system performance. This analysis can help provinces identify potential areas for improvement, considering an optimal comparator for international comparisons. Methods: OECD Health Data from 2013 was used to compare Canada’s results internationally. We also calculated provincial results for OECD’s indicators on health system performance, using OECD methodology. We normalized the indicator results to present multiple indicators on the same scale and compared them to the OECD average, 25th and 75th percentiles. Results: Presenting normalized values allow Canada’s results to be compared across multiple OECD indicators on the same scale. No country or province consistently has higher results than the others. For most indicators, Canadian results are similar to other countries, but there remain areas where Canada performs particularly well (i.e. smoking rates) or poorly (i.e. patient safety). This data was presented in an interactive eTool. Conclusion: Comparing Canada’s provinces internationally can highlight areas where improvement is needed, and help to identify potential strategies for improvement.

    Release date: 2016-03-24

  • Technical products: 11-522-X201700014706
    Description:

    Over the last decade, Statistics Canada’s Producer Prices Division has expanded its service producer price indexes program and continued to improve its goods and construction producer price indexes program. While the majority of price indexes are based on traditional survey methods, efforts were made to increase the use of administrative data and alternative data sources in order to reduce burden on our respondents. This paper focuses mainly on producer price programs, but also provides information on the growing importance of alternative data sources at Statistics Canada. In addition, it presents the operational challenges and risks that statistical offices could face when relying more and more on third-party outputs. Finally, it presents the tools being developed to integrate alternative data while collecting metadata.

    Release date: 2016-03-24

  • Technical products: 11-522-X201700014741
    Description:

    Statistics Canada’s mandate includes producing statistical data to shed light on current business issues. The linking of business records is an important aspect of the development, production, evaluation and analysis of these statistical data. As record linkage can intrude on one’s privacy, Statistics Canada uses it only when the public good is clear and outweighs the intrusion. Record linkage is experiencing a revival triggered by a greater use of administrative data in many statistical programs. There are many challenges to business record linkage. For example, many administrative files not have common identifiers, information is recorded is in non-standardized formats, information contains typographical errors, administrative data files are usually large in size, and finally the evaluation of multiple record pairings makes absolute comparison impractical and sometimes impossible. Due to the importance and challenges associated with record linkage, Statistics Canada has been developing a record linkage standard to help users optimize their business record linkage process. For example, this process includes building on a record linkage blocking strategy that reduces the amount of record-pairs to compare and match, making use of Statistics Canada’s internal software to conduct deterministic and probabilistic matching, and creating standard business name and address fields on Statistics Canada’s Business Register. This article gives an overview of the business record linkage methodology and looks at various economic projects which use record linkage at Statistics Canada, these include projects in the National Accounts, International Trade, Agriculture and the Business Register.

    Release date: 2016-03-24

  • Technical products: 11-522-X201700014729
    Description:

    The use of administrative datasets as a data source in official statistics has become much more common as there is a drive for more outputs to be produced more efficiently. Many outputs rely on linkage between two or more datasets, and this is often undertaken in a number of phases with different methods and rules. In these situations we would like to be able to assess the quality of the linkage, and this involves some re-assessment of both links and non-links. In this paper we discuss sampling approaches to obtain estimates of false negatives and false positives with reasonable control of both accuracy of estimates and cost. Approaches to stratification of links (non-links) to sample are evaluated using information from the 2011 England and Wales population census.

    Release date: 2016-03-24

  • Technical products: 11-522-X201700014720
    Description:

    This paper is intended to give a brief overview of Statistics Canada’s involvement with open data. It will first discuss how the principles of open data are being adopted in the agency’s ongoing dissemination practices. It will then discuss the agency’s involvement with the whole of government open data initiative. This involvement is twofold: Statistics Canada is the major data contributor to the Government of Canada Open Data portal, but also plays an important behind the scenes role as the service provider responsible for developing and maintaining the Open Data portal (which is now part of the wider Open Government portal.)

    Release date: 2016-03-24

  • Technical products: 11-522-X201700014759
    Description:

    Many of the challenges and opportunities of modern data science have to do with dynamic aspects: evolving populations, the growing volume of administrative and commercial data on individuals and establishments, continuous flows of data and the capacity to analyze and summarize them in real time, and the deterioration of data absent the resources to maintain them. With its emphasis on data quality and supportable results, the domain of Official Statistics is ideal for highlighting statistical and data science issues in a variety of contexts. The messages of the talk include the importance of population frames and their maintenance; the potential for use of multi-frame methods and linkages; how the use of large scale non-survey data as auxiliary information shapes the objects of inference; the complexity of models for large data sets; the importance of recursive methods and regularization; and the benefits of sophisticated data visualization tools in capturing change.

    Release date: 2016-03-24

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