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All (1,586) (25 of 1,586 results)

  • Articles and reports: 11-633-X2017005
    Description:

    Hospitalization rates are among commonly reported statistics related to health-care service use. The variety of methods for calculating confidence intervals for these and other health-related rates suggests a need to classify, compare and evaluate these methods. Zeno is a tool developed to calculate confidence intervals of rates based on several formulas available in the literature. This report describes the contents of the main sheet of the Zeno Tool and indicates which formulas are appropriate, based on users’ assumptions and scope of analysis.

    Release date: 2017-01-19

  • The Daily
    Description: Release published in The Daily – Statistics Canada’s official release bulletin
    Release date: 2016-12-23

  • Articles and reports: 82-003-X201601214687
    Description:

    This study describes record linkage of the Canadian Community Health Survey and the Canadian Mortality Database. The article explains the record linkage process and presents results about associations between health behaviours and mortality among a representative sample of Canadians.

    Release date: 2016-12-21

  • Articles and reports: 12-001-X201600214660
    Description:

    In an economic survey of a sample of enterprises, occupations are randomly selected from a list until a number r of occupations in a local unit has been identified. This is an inverse sampling problem for which we are proposing a few solutions. Simple designs with and without replacement are processed using negative binomial distributions and negative hypergeometric distributions. We also propose estimators for when the units are selected with unequal probabilities, with or without replacement.

    Release date: 2016-12-20

  • Articles and reports: 12-001-X201600214663
    Description:

    We present theoretical evidence that efforts during data collection to balance the survey response with respect to selected auxiliary variables will improve the chances for low nonresponse bias in the estimates that are ultimately produced by calibrated weighting. One of our results shows that the variance of the bias – measured here as the deviation of the calibration estimator from the (unrealized) full-sample unbiased estimator – decreases linearly as a function of the response imbalance that we assume measured and controlled continuously over the data collection period. An attractive prospect is thus a lower risk of bias if one can manage the data collection to get low imbalance. The theoretical results are validated in a simulation study with real data from an Estonian household survey.

    Release date: 2016-12-20

  • Articles and reports: 12-001-X201600214684
    Description:

    This paper introduces an incomplete adaptive cluster sampling design that is easy to implement, controls the sample size well, and does not need to follow the neighbourhood. In this design, an initial sample is first selected, using one of the conventional designs. If a cell satisfies a prespecified condition, a specified radius around the cell is sampled completely. The population mean is estimated using the \pi-estimator. If all the inclusion probabilities are known, then an unbiased \pi estimator is available; if, depending on the situation, the inclusion probabilities are not known for some of the final sample units, then they are estimated. To estimate the inclusion probabilities, a biased estimator is constructed. However, the simulations show that if the sample size is large enough, the error of the inclusion probabilities is negligible, and the relative \pi-estimator is almost unbiased. This design rivals adaptive cluster sampling because it controls the final sample size and is easy to manage. It rivals adaptive two-stage sequential sampling because it considers the cluster form of the population and reduces the cost of moving across the area. Using real data on a bird population and simulations, the paper compares the design with adaptive two-stage sequential sampling. The simulations show that the design has significant efficiency in comparison with its rival.

    Release date: 2016-12-20

  • Articles and reports: 12-001-X201600214676
    Description:

    Winsorization procedures replace extreme values with less extreme values, effectively moving the original extreme values toward the center of the distribution. Winsorization therefore both detects and treats influential values. Mulry, Oliver and Kaputa (2014) compare the performance of the one-sided Winsorization method developed by Clark (1995) and described by Chambers, Kokic, Smith and Cruddas (2000) to the performance of M-estimation (Beaumont and Alavi 2004) in highly skewed business population data. One aspect of particular interest for methods that detect and treat influential values is the range of values designated as influential, called the detection region. The Clark Winsorization algorithm is easy to implement and can be extremely effective. However, the resultant detection region is highly dependent on the number of influential values in the sample, especially when the survey totals are expected to vary greatly by collection period. In this note, we examine the effect of the number and magnitude of influential values on the detection regions from Clark Winsorization using data simulated to realistically reflect the properties of the population for the Monthly Retail Trade Survey (MRTS) conducted by the U.S. Census Bureau. Estimates from the MRTS and other economic surveys are used in economic indicators, such as the Gross Domestic Product (GDP).

    Release date: 2016-12-20

  • Articles and reports: 12-001-X201600214661
    Description:

    An example presented by Jean-Claude Deville in 2005 is subjected to three estimation methods: the method of moments, the maximum likelihood method, and generalized calibration. The three methods yield exactly the same results for the two non-response models. A discussion follows on how to choose the most appropriate model.

    Release date: 2016-12-20

  • Articles and reports: 12-001-X201600214662
    Description:

    Two-phase sampling designs are often used in surveys when the sampling frame contains little or no auxiliary information. In this note, we shed some light on the concept of invariance, which is often mentioned in the context of two-phase sampling designs. We define two types of invariant two-phase designs: strongly invariant and weakly invariant two-phase designs. Some examples are given. Finally, we describe the implications of strong and weak invariance from an inference point of view.

    Release date: 2016-12-20

  • Articles and reports: 12-001-X201600214664
    Description:

    This paper draws statistical inference for finite population mean based on judgment post stratified (JPS) samples. The JPS sample first selects a simple random sample and then stratifies the selected units into H judgment classes based on their relative positions (ranks) in a small set of size H. This leads to a sample with random sample sizes in judgment classes. Ranking process can be performed either using auxiliary variables or visual inspection to identify the ranks of the measured observations. The paper develops unbiased estimator and constructs confidence interval for population mean. Since judgment ranks are random variables, by conditioning on the measured observations we construct Rao-Blackwellized estimators for the population mean. The paper shows that Rao-Blackwellized estimators perform better than usual JPS estimators. The proposed estimators are applied to 2012 United States Department of Agriculture Census Data.

    Release date: 2016-12-20

  • Articles and reports: 12-001-X201600214677
    Description:

    How do we tell whether weighting adjustments reduce nonresponse bias? If a variable is measured for everyone in the selected sample, then the design weights can be used to calculate an approximately unbiased estimate of the population mean or total for that variable. A second estimate of the population mean or total can be calculated using the survey respondents only, with weights that have been adjusted for nonresponse. If the two estimates disagree, then there is evidence that the weight adjustments may not have removed the nonresponse bias for that variable. In this paper we develop the theoretical properties of linearization and jackknife variance estimators for evaluating the bias of an estimated population mean or total by comparing estimates calculated from overlapping subsets of the same data with different sets of weights, when poststratification or inverse propensity weighting is used for the nonresponse adjustments to the weights. We provide sufficient conditions on the population, sample, and response mechanism for the variance estimators to be consistent, and demonstrate their small-sample properties through a simulation study.

    Release date: 2016-12-20

  • The Daily
    Description: Release published in The Daily – Statistics Canada’s official release bulletin
    Release date: 2016-12-05

  • The Daily
    Description: Release published in The Daily – Statistics Canada’s official release bulletin
    Release date: 2016-11-10

  • Articles and reports: 11-633-X2016004
    Description:

    Understanding the importance of the dynamic entry process in the Canadian economy involves measuring the amount and size of firm entry. The paper presents estimates of the importance of firm entry in Canada. It uses the database underlying the Longitudinal Employment Analysis Program (LEAP), which has produced measures of firm entry and exit since 1988. This paper discusses the methodology used to estimate entry and exit, the issues that had to be resolved and the reasons for choosing the particular solutions that were adopted. It then presents measures that are derived from LEAP. Finally, it analyzes the sensitivity of the estimates associated with LEAP to alternative methods of estimating entry and exit.

    Release date: 2016-11-10

  • Articles and reports: 18-001-X2016001
    Description:

    Although the record linkage of business data is not a completely new topic, the fact remains that the public and many data users are unaware of the programs and practices commonly used by statistical agencies across the world.

    This report is a brief overview of the main practices, programs and challenges of record linkage of statistical agencies across the world who answered a short survey on this subject supplemented by publically available documentation produced by these agencies. The document shows that the linkage practices are similar between these statistical agencies; however the main differences are in the procedures in place to access to data along with regulatory policies that govern the record linkage permissions and the dissemination of data.

    Release date: 2016-10-27

  • The Daily
    Description: Release published in The Daily – Statistics Canada’s official release bulletin
    Release date: 2016-10-26

  • Articles and reports: 11-633-X2016003
    Description:

    Large national mortality cohorts are used to estimate mortality rates for different socioeconomic and population groups, and to conduct research on environmental health. In 2008, Statistics Canada created a cohort linking the 1991 Census to mortality. The present study describes a linkage of the 2001 Census long-form questionnaire respondents aged 19 years and older to the T1 Personal Master File and the Amalgamated Mortality Database. The linkage tracks all deaths over a 10.6-year period (until the end of 2011, to date).

    Release date: 2016-10-26

  • Articles and reports: 82-003-X201601014665
    Description:

    The purpose of this analysis was to use data from the 2007-to-2013 Canadian Health Measures Survey to develop reference equations for maximum, right-hand and left-hand grip strength for Canadians aged 6 to79, based on a healthy, nationally representative population. These equations can be used to determine reference values against which to assess an individual’s grip strength.

    Release date: 2016-10-19

  • Articles and reports: 11-630-X2016007
    Description:

    This edition of Canadian Megatrends looks at the changes of the Canadian stay-at-home parents since 1976.

    Release date: 2016-09-28

  • Journals and periodicals: 89-648-X
    Description:

    The documents in this collection are based on data from the Longitudinal and International Study of Adults, a survey that examines a variety of topics on the well-being of Canadians and measures the effect of changes in certain areas on people's lives. The survey covers several topics, such as jobs, health, adult education and training, income and earnings, as well as the family dynamic. Reports on the survey content, concepts, methodology and data quality are also available.

    Release date: 2016-08-18

  • Articles and reports: 89-648-X2016001
    Description:

    Linkages between survey and administrative data are an increasingly common practice, due in part to the reduced burden to respondents, and to the data that can be obtained at a relatively low cost. Historical linkage, or the linkage of administrative data from previous years to the year of the survey, compounds these benefits by providing additional years of data. This paper examines the Longitudinal and International Study of Adults (LISA), which was linked to historical tax data on personal income tax returns (T1) and those collected from employers’ files (T4), among others not mentioned in this paper. It presents trends in historical linkage rates, compares the coherence of administrative data between the T1 and T4, presents the ability to use the data to create balanced panels, and uses the T1 data to produce age-earnings profiles by sex. The results show that the historical linkage rate is high (over 90% in most cases) and stable over time for respondents who are likely to file a tax return, and that the T1 and T4 administrative sources show similar earnings. Moreover, long balanced panels of up to 30 years in length (at the time of writing) can be created using LISA administrative linkage data.

    Release date: 2016-08-18

  • Articles and reports: 11-633-X2016002
    Description:

    Immigrants comprise an ever-increasing percentage of the Canadian population—at more than 20%, which is the highest percentage among the G8 countries (Statistics Canada 2013a). This figure is expected to rise to 25% to 28% by 2031, when at least one in four people living in Canada will be foreign-born (Statistics Canada 2010).

    This report summarizes the linkage of the Immigrant Landing File (ILF) for all provinces and territories, excluding Quebec, to hospital data from the Discharge Abstract Database (DAD), a national database containing information about hospital inpatient and day-surgery events. A deterministic exact-matching approach was used to link data from the 1980-to-2006 ILF and from the DAD (2006/2007, 2007/2008 and 2008/2009) with the 2006 Census, which served as a “bridge” file. This was a secondary linkage in that it used linkage keys created in two previous projects (primary linkages) that separately linked the ILF and the DAD to the 2006 Census. The ILF–DAD linked data were validated by means of a representative sample of 2006 Census records containing immigrant information previously linked to the DAD.

    Release date: 2016-08-17

  • Technical products: 75F0002M
    Description:

    This series provides detailed documentation on income developments, including survey design issues, data quality evaluation and exploratory research.

    Release date: 2016-07-08

  • Technical products: 75F0002M2016003
    Description:

    Periodically, income statistics are updated to reflect the most recent population estimates from the Census. Accordingly, with the release of the 2014 data from the Canadian Income Survey, Statistics Canada has revised estimates for 2006 to 2013 using new population totals from the 2011 Census. This paper provides unrevised estimates alongside revised estimates for key income series, indicating where the revisions were significant.

    Release date: 2016-07-08

  • Articles and reports: 11-630-X2016006
    Description:

    This edition of Canadian Megatrends looks at immigration to Canada since Canada's Confederation.

    Release date: 2016-06-29

Data (8)

Data (8) (8 of 8 results)

  • Public use microdata: 89F0002X
    Description:

    The SPSD/M is a static microsimulation model designed to analyse financial interactions between governments and individuals in Canada. It can compute taxes paid to and cash transfers received from government. It is comprised of a database, a series of tax/transfer algorithms and models, analytical software and user documentation.

    Release date: 2018-01-08

  • Table: 53-500-X
    Description:

    This report presents the results of a pilot survey conducted by Statistics Canada to measure the fuel consumption of on-road motor vehicles registered in Canada. This study was carried out in connection with the Canadian Vehicle Survey (CVS) which collects information on road activity such as distance traveled, number of passengers and trip purpose.

    Release date: 2004-10-21

  • Table: 95F0495X2001012
    Description:

    This table contains information from the 2001 Census, presented according to the statistical area classification (SAC). The SAC groups census subdivisions according to whether they are a component of a census metropolitan area, a census agglomeration, a census metropolitan area and census agglomeration influenced zone (strong MIZ, moderate MIZ, weak MIZ or no MIZ) or of the territories (Northwest Territories, Nunavut and Yukon Territory). The SAC is used for data dissemination purposes.

    Data characteristics presented according to the SAC include age, visible minority groups, immigration, mother tongue, education, income, work and dwellings. Data are presented for Canada, provinces and territories. The data characteristics presented within this table may differ from those of other products in the "Profiles" series.

    Release date: 2004-02-27

  • Table: 53-222-X19980006587
    Description:

    The primary purpose of this article is to present a new time series data and to demonstrate its analytical potential and not to provide a detailed analysis of these data. The analysis in section 5.2.4 will deal primarily with the trends of major variables dealing with domestic and transborder traffic.

    Release date: 2000-03-07

  • Table: 75M0007X
    Description:

    The Absence from Work Survey was designed primarily to fulfill the objectives of Human Resources Development Canada. They sponsor the qualified wage loss replacement plan which applies to employers who have their own private plans to cover employee wages lost due to sickness, accident, etc. Employers who fall under the plan are granted a reduction in their quotas payable to the Unemployment Insurance Commission. The data generated from the responses to the supplement will provide input to determine the rates for quota reductions for qualified employers.

    Although the Absence from Work Survey collects information on absences from work due to illness, accident or pregnancy, it does not provide a complete picture of people who have been absent from work for these reasons because the concepts and definitions have been developed specifically for the needs of the client. Absences in this survey are defined as being at least two weeks in length, and respondents are only asked the three reasons for their most recent absence and the one preceding it.

    Release date: 1999-06-29

  • Table: 82-567-X
    Description:

    The National Population Health Survey (NPHS) is designed to enhance the understanding of the processes affecting health. The survey collects cross-sectional as well as longitudinal data. In 1994/95 the survey interviewed a panel of 17,276 individuals, then returned to interview them a second time in 1996/97. The response rate for these individuals was 96% in 1996/97. Data collection from the panel will continue for up to two decades. For cross-sectional purposes, data were collected for a total of 81,000 household residents in all provinces (except people on Indian reserves or on Canadian Forces bases) in 1996/97.

    This overview illustrates the variety of information available by presenting data on perceived health, chronic conditions, injuries, repetitive strains, depression, smoking, alcohol consumption, physical activity, consultations with medical professionals, use of medications and use of alternative medicine.

    Release date: 1998-07-29

  • Table: 62-010-X19970023422
    Description:

    The current official time base of the Consumer Price Index (CPI) is 1986=100. This time base was first used when the CPI for June 1990 was released. Statistics Canada is about to convert all price index series to the time base 1992=100. As a result, all constant dollar series will be converted to 1992 dollars. The CPI will shift to the new time base when the CPI for January 1998 is released on February 27th, 1998.

    Release date: 1997-11-17

  • Public use microdata: 89M0005X
    Description:

    The objective of this survey was to collect attitudinal, cognitive and behavioral information regarding drinking and driving.

    Release date: 1996-10-21

Analysis (880)

Analysis (880) (25 of 880 results)

  • Journals and periodicals: 11-633-X
    Description:

    Papers in this series provide background discussions of the methods used to develop data for economic, health, and social analytical studies at Statistics Canada. They are intended to provide readers with information on the statistical methods, standards and definitions used to develop databases for research purposes. All papers in this series have undergone peer and institutional review to ensure that they conform to Statistics Canada's mandate and adhere to generally accepted standards of good professional practice.

    Release date: 2018-01-22

  • Articles and reports: 11-633-X2018013
    Description:

    Since 2008, a number of population censuses have been linked to administrative health data and to financial data. These linked datasets have been instrumental in examining health inequalities and have been used in environmental health research. This paper describes the creation of the 1996 Canadian Census Health and Environment Cohort (CanCHEC)—3.57 million respondents to the census long-form questionnaire who were retrospectively followed for mortality and mobility for 16.6 years from 1996 to 2012. The 1996 CanCHEC was limited to census respondents who were aged 19 or older on Census Day (May 14, 1996), were residents of Canada, were not residents of institutions, and had filed an income tax return. These respondents were linked to death records from the Canadian Mortality Database or to the T1 Personal Master File, and to a postal code history from a variety of sources. This is the third in a set of CanCHECs that, when combined, make it possible to examine mortality trends and environmental exposures by socioeconomic characteristics over three census cycles and 21 years of census, tax, and mortality data. This report describes linkage methodologies, validation and bias assessment, and the characteristics of the 1996 CanCHEC. Representativeness of the 1996 CanCHEC relative to the adult population of Canada is also assessed.

    Release date: 2018-01-22

  • Articles and reports: 11-633-X2018012
    Description:

    This study investigates the extent to which income tax reassessments and delayed tax filing affect the reliability of Canadian administrative tax datasets used for economic analysis. The study is based on individual income tax records from the T1 Personal Master File and Historical Personal Master File for selected years from 1990 to 2010. These datasets contain tax records for approximately 100% of initial and all income tax filers, who submitted returns to the Canada Revenue Agency (CRA) before specific processing cut-off dates.

    Release date: 2018-01-11

  • The Daily
    Description: Release published in The Daily – Statistics Canada’s official release bulletin
    Release date: 2018-01-08

  • Articles and reports: 11-633-X2018011
    Description:

    The Longitudinal Immigration Database (IMDB) is a comprehensive source of data that plays a key role in the understanding of the economic behaviour of immigrants. It is the only annual Canadian dataset that allows users to study the characteristics of immigrants to Canada at the time of admission and their economic outcomes and regional (inter-provincial) mobility over a time span of more than 30 years. The IMDB combines administrative files on immigrant admissions and non-permanent resident permits from Immigration, Refugees and Citizenship Canada (IRCC) with tax files from the Canadian Revenue Agency (CRA). Information is available for immigrant taxfilers admitted since 1980. Tax records for 1982 and subsequent years are available for immigrant taxfilers.

    This report will discuss the IMDB data sources, concepts and variables, record linkage, data processing, dissemination, data evaluation and quality indicators, comparability with other immigration datasets, and the analyses possible with the IMDB.

    Release date: 2018-01-08

  • The Daily
    Description: Release published in The Daily – Statistics Canada’s official release bulletin
    Release date: 2018-01-05

  • Articles and reports: 18-001-X2017001
    Description:

    This working paper profiles Canadian firms involved in the development and production of Bioproducts. It provides data on the number and types of Bioproducts firms in 2015, covering bioproducts revenues, research and development, use of biomass, patents, products, business practices and the impact of government regulations on the sector.

    Release date: 2017-12-22

  • The Daily
    Description: Release published in The Daily – Statistics Canada’s official release bulletin
    Release date: 2017-12-21

  • Journals and periodicals: 12-001-X
    Description:

    The journal publishes articles dealing with various aspects of statistical development relevant to a statistical agency, such as design issues in the context of practical constraints, use of different data sources and collection techniques, total survey error, survey evaluation, research in survey methodology, time series analysis, seasonal adjustment, demographic studies, data integration, estimation and data analysis methods, and general survey systems development. The emphasis is placed on the development and evaluation of specific methodologies as applied to data collection or the data themselves.

    Release date: 2017-12-21

  • Articles and reports: 12-001-X201700254871
    Description:

    In this paper the question is addressed how alternative data sources, such as administrative and social media data, can be used in the production of official statistics. Since most surveys at national statistical institutes are conducted repeatedly over time, a multivariate structural time series modelling approach is proposed to model the series observed by a repeated surveys with related series obtained from such alternative data sources. Generally, this improves the precision of the direct survey estimates by using sample information observed in preceding periods and information from related auxiliary series. This model also makes it possible to utilize the higher frequency of the social media to produce more precise estimates for the sample survey in real time at the moment that statistics for the social media become available but the sample data are not yet available. The concept of cointegration is applied to address the question to which extent the alternative series represent the same phenomena as the series observed with the repeated survey. The methodology is applied to the Dutch Consumer Confidence Survey and a sentiment index derived from social media.

    Release date: 2017-12-21

  • Articles and reports: 12-001-X201700254872
    Description:

    This note discusses the theoretical foundations for the extension of the Wilson two-sided coverage interval to an estimated proportion computed from complex survey data. The interval is shown to be asymptotically equivalent to an interval derived from a logistic transformation. A mildly better version is discussed, but users may prefer constructing a one-sided interval already in the literature.

    Release date: 2017-12-21

  • Articles and reports: 12-001-X201700254888
    Description:

    We discuss developments in sample survey theory and methods covering the past 100 years. Neyman’s 1934 landmark paper laid the theoretical foundations for the probability sampling approach to inference from survey samples. Classical sampling books by Cochran, Deming, Hansen, Hurwitz and Madow, Sukhatme, and Yates, which appeared in the early 1950s, expanded and elaborated the theory of probability sampling, emphasizing unbiasedness, model free features, and designs that minimize variance for a fixed cost. During the period 1960-1970, theoretical foundations of inference from survey data received attention, with the model-dependent approach generating considerable discussion. Introduction of general purpose statistical software led to the use of such software with survey data, which led to the design of methods specifically for complex survey data. At the same time, weighting methods, such as regression estimation and calibration, became practical and design consistency replaced unbiasedness as the requirement for standard estimators. A bit later, computer-intensive resampling methods also became practical for large scale survey samples. Improved computer power led to more sophisticated imputation for missing data, use of more auxiliary data, some treatment of measurement errors in estimation, and more complex estimation procedures. A notable use of models was in the expanded use of small area estimation. Future directions in research and methods will be influenced by budgets, response rates, timeliness, improved data collection devices, and availability of auxiliary data, some of which will come from “Big Data”. Survey taking will be impacted by changing cultural behavior and by a changing physical-technical environment.

    Release date: 2017-12-21

  • Articles and reports: 12-001-X201700254887
    Description:

    This paper proposes a new approach to decompose the wage difference between men and women that is based on a calibration procedure. This approach generalizes two current decomposition methods that are re-expressed using survey weights. The first one is the Blinder-Oaxaca method and the second one is a reweighting method proposed by DiNardo, Fortin and Lemieux. The new approach provides a weighting system that enables us to estimate such parameters of interest like quantiles. An application to data from the Swiss Structure of Earnings Survey shows the interest of this method.

    Release date: 2017-12-21

  • Articles and reports: 12-001-X201700254895
    Description:

    This note by Graham Kalton presents a discussion of the paper “Sample survey theory and methods: Past, present, and future directions” where J.N.K. Rao and Wayne A. Fuller share their views regarding the developments in sample survey theory and methods covering the past 100 years.

    Release date: 2017-12-21

  • Articles and reports: 12-001-X201700254896
    Description:

    This note by Sharon L. Lohr presents a discussion of the paper “Sample survey theory and methods: Past, present, and future directions” where J.N.K. Rao and Wayne A. Fuller share their views regarding the developments in sample survey theory and methods covering the past 100 years.

    Release date: 2017-12-21

  • Articles and reports: 12-001-X201700254897
    Description:

    This note by Chris Skinner presents a discussion of the paper “Sample survey theory and methods: Past, present, and future directions” where J.N.K. Rao and Wayne A. Fuller share their views regarding the developments in sample survey theory and methods covering the past 100 years.

    Release date: 2017-12-21

  • Articles and reports: 12-001-X201700254894
    Description:

    This note by Danny Pfeffermann presents a discussion of the paper “Sample survey theory and methods: Past, present, and future directions” where J.N.K. Rao and Wayne A. Fuller share their views regarding the developments in sample survey theory and methods covering the past 100 years.

    Release date: 2017-12-21

  • The Daily
    Description: Release published in The Daily – Statistics Canada’s official release bulletin
    Release date: 2017-12-18

  • Articles and reports: 11-626-X2017077
    Description:

    On April 13, 2017, the Government of Canada tabled legislation to legalize the recreational use of cannabis by adults. This will directly impact Canada’s statistical system. The focus of this Economic Insights article is to provide experimental estimates for the volume of cannabis consumption, based on existing information on the prevalence of cannabis use. The article presents experimental estimates of the number of tonnes of cannabis consumed by age group for the period from 1960 to 2015. The experimental estimates rely on survey data from multiple sources, statistical techniques to link the sources over time, and assumptions about consumption behaviour. They are subject to revision as improved or additional data sources become available.

    Release date: 2017-12-18

  • The Daily
    Description: Release published in The Daily – Statistics Canada’s official release bulletin
    Release date: 2017-10-11

  • Articles and reports: 11F0019M2017399
    Description:

    Canada is a trading nation that produces significant quantities of resource outputs. Consequently, the behaviour of resource prices that are important for Canada is germane to understanding the progress of real income growth and the prosperity of the country and the provinces. Demand and supply shocks or changes in monetary policy in international markets may exert significant influence on resource prices, and their fluctuations constitute an important avenue for the transmission of external shocks into the domestic economy. This paper develops historical estimates of the Bank of Canada commodity price index (BCPI) and links them to modern estimates. Using a collection of historical data sources, it estimates weights and prices sufficiently consistently to merit the construction of long-run estimates that may be linked to the modern Fisher BCPI.

    Release date: 2017-10-11

  • Articles and reports: 13-605-X201700114840
    Description:

    Statistics Canada is presently preparing the statistical system to be able to gauge the impact of the transition from illegal to legal non-medical cannabis use and to shed light on the social and economic activities related to the use of cannabis thereafter. While the system of social statistics captures some information on the use of cannabis, updates will be required to more accurately measure health effects and the impact on the judicial system. Current statistical infrastructure used to more comprehensively measure the use and impacts of substances such as tobacco and alcohol could be adapted to do the same for cannabis. However, available economic statistics are largely silent on the role illegal drugs play in the economy. Both social and economic statistics will need to be updated to reflect the legalization of cannabis and the challenge is especially great for economic statistics This paper provides a summary of the work that is now under way toward these ends.

    Release date: 2017-09-28

  • Articles and reports: 11-633-X2017009
    Description:

    This document describes the procedures for using linked administrative data sources to estimate paid parental leave rates in Canada and the issues surrounding this use.

    Release date: 2017-08-29

  • The Daily
    Description: Release published in The Daily – Statistics Canada’s official release bulletin
    Release date: 2017-07-28

  • Articles and reports: 11-633-X2017008
    Description:

    The DYSEM microsimulation modelling platform provides a demographic and socioeconomic core that can be readily built upon to develop custom dynamic microsimulation models or applications. This paper describes DYSEM and provides an overview of its intended uses, as well as the methods and data used in its development.

    Release date: 2017-07-28

Reference (698)

Reference (698) (25 of 698 results)

  • Surveys and statistical programs – Documentation: 71-526-X
    Description:

    The Canadian Labour Force Survey (LFS) is the official source of monthly estimates of total employment and unemployment. Following the 2011 census, the LFS underwent a sample redesign to account for the evolution of the population and labour market characteristics, to adjust to changes in the information needs and to update the geographical information used to carry out the survey. The redesign program following the 2011 census culminated with the introduction of a new sample at the beginning of 2015. This report is a reference on the methodological aspects of the LFS, covering stratification, sampling, collection, processing, weighting, estimation, variance estimation and data quality.

    Release date: 2017-12-21

  • Index and guides: 98-500-X
    Description:

    Provides information that enables users to effectively use, apply and interpret data from the Census of Population. Each guide contains definitions and explanations on census concepts as well as a data quality and historical comparability section. Additional information will be included for specific variables to help users better understand the concepts and questions used in the census.

    Release date: 2017-11-29

  • Technical products: 84-538-X
    Description:

    This document presents the methodology underlying the production of the life tables for Canada, provinces and territories, from reference period 1980/1982 and onward.

    Release date: 2017-11-16

  • Technical products: 12-206-X
    Description:

    This report summarizes the achievements program sponsored by the three methodology divisions of Statistics Canada. This program covers research and development activities in statistical methods with potentially broad application in the Agency's survey programs, which would not otherwise have been carried out during the provision of methodology services to those survey programs. They also include tasks that provided client support in the application of past successful developments in order to promote the utilization of the results of research and development work.

    Release date: 2017-11-03

  • Index and guides: 12-606-X
    Description:

    This is a toolkit intended to aid data producers and data users external to Statistics Canada.

    Release date: 2017-09-27

  • Technical products: 12-586-X
    Description:

    The Quality Assurance Framework (QAF) serves as the highest-level governance tool for quality management at Statistics Canada. The QAF gives an overview of the quality management and risk mitigation strategies used by the Agency’s program areas. The QAF is used in conjunction with Statistics Canada management practices, such as those described in the Quality Guidelines.

    Release date: 2017-04-21

  • Technical products: 91-621-X2017001
    Release date: 2017-01-25

  • Technical products: 75F0002M
    Description:

    This series provides detailed documentation on income developments, including survey design issues, data quality evaluation and exploratory research.

    Release date: 2016-07-08

  • Technical products: 75F0002M2016003
    Description:

    Periodically, income statistics are updated to reflect the most recent population estimates from the Census. Accordingly, with the release of the 2014 data from the Canadian Income Survey, Statistics Canada has revised estimates for 2006 to 2013 using new population totals from the 2011 Census. This paper provides unrevised estimates alongside revised estimates for key income series, indicating where the revisions were significant.

    Release date: 2016-07-08

  • Technical products: 11-522-X
    Description:

    Since 1984, an annual international symposium on methodological issues has been sponsored by Statistics Canada. Proceedings have been available since 1987.

    Release date: 2016-03-24

  • Technical products: 11-522-X201700014718
    Description:

    This study assessed whether starting participation in Employment Assistance Services (EAS) earlier after initiating an Employment Insurance (EI) claim leads to better impacts for unemployed individuals than participating later during the EI benefit period. As in Sianesi (2004) and Hujer and Thomsen (2010), the analysis relied on a stratified propensity score matching approach conditional on the discretized duration of unemployment until the program starts. The results showed that individuals who participated in EAS within the first four weeks after initiating an EI claim had the best impacts on earnings and incidence of employment while also experiencing reduced use of EI starting the second year post-program.

    Release date: 2016-03-24

  • Technical products: 11-522-X201700014750
    Description:

    The Educational Master File (EMF) system was built to allow the analysis of educational programs in Canada. At the core of the system are administrative files that record all of the registrations to post-secondary and apprenticeship programs in Canada. New administrative files become available on an annual basis. Once a new file becomes available, a first round of processing is performed, which includes linkage to other administrative records. This linkage yields information that can improve the quality of the file, it allows further linkages to other data describing labour market outcomes, and it’s the first step in adding the file to the EMF. Once part of the EMF, information from the file can be included in cross-sectional and longitudinal projects, to study academic pathways and labour market outcomes after graduation. The EMF currently consists of data from 2005 to 2013, but it evolves as new data become available. This paper gives an overview of the mechanisms used to build the EMF, with focus on the structure of the final system and some of its analytical potential.

    Release date: 2016-03-24

  • Technical products: 11-522-X201700014727
    Description:

    "Probability samples of near-universal frames of households and persons, administered standardized measures, yielding long multivariate data records, and analyzed with statistical procedures reflecting the design – these have been the cornerstones of the empirical social sciences for 75 years. That measurement structure have given the developed world almost all of what we know about our societies and their economies. The stored survey data form a unique historical record. We live now in a different data world than that in which the leadership of statistical agencies and the social sciences were raised. High-dimensional data are ubiquitously being produced from Internet search activities, mobile Internet devices, social media, sensors, retail store scanners, and other devices. Some estimate that these data sources are increasing in size at the rate of 40% per year. Together their sizes swamp that of the probability-based sample surveys. Further, the state of sample surveys in the developed world is not healthy. Falling rates of survey participation are linked with ever-inflated costs of data collection. Despite growing needs for information, the creation of new survey vehicles is hampered by strained budgets for official statistical agencies and social science funders. These combined observations are unprecedented challenges for the basic paradigm of inference in the social and economic sciences. This paper discusses alternative ways forward at this moment in history. "

    Release date: 2016-03-24

  • Technical products: 11-522-X201700014734
    Description:

    Data protection and privacy are key challenges that need to be tackled with high priority in order to enable the use of Big Data in the production of Official Statistics. This was emphasized in 2013 by the Directors of National Statistical Insitutes (NSIs) of the European Statistical System Committee (ESSC) in the Scheveningen Memorandum. The ESSC requested Eurostat and the NSIs to elaborate an action plan with a roadmap for following up the implementation of the Memorandum. At the Riga meeting on September 26, 2014, the ESSC endorsed the Big Data Action Plan and Roadmap 1.0 (BDAR) presented by the Eurostat Task Force on Big Data (TFBD) and agreed to integrate it into the ESS Vision 2020 portfolio. Eurostat also collaborates in this field with external partners such as the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE). The big data project of the UNECE High-Level Group is an international project on the role of big data in the modernization of statistical production. It comprised four ‘task teams’ addressing different aspects of Big Data issues relevant for official statistics: Privacy, Partnerships, Sandbox, and Quality. The Privacy Task Team finished its work in 2014 and gave an overview of the existing tools for risk management regarding privacy issues, described how risk of identification relates to Big Data characteristics and drafted recommendations for National Statistical Offices (NSOs). It mainly concluded that extensions to existing frameworks, including use of new technologies were needed in order to deal with privacy risks related to the use of Big Data. The BDAR builds on the work achieved by the UNECE task teams. Specifically, it recognizes that a number of big data sources contain sensitive information, that their use for official statistics may induce negative perceptions with the general public and other stakeholders and that this risk should be mitigated in the short to medium term. It proposes to launch multiple actions like e.g., an adequate review on ethical principles governing the roles and activities of the NSIs and a strong communication strategy. The paper presents the different actions undertaken within the ESS and in collaboration with UNECE, as well as potential technical and legal solutions to be put in place in order to address the data protection and privacy risks in the use of Big Data for Official Statistics.

    Release date: 2016-03-24

  • Technical products: 11-522-X201700014747
    Description:

    The Longitudinal Immigration Database (IMDB) combines the Immigrant Landing File (ILF) with annual tax files. This record linkage is performed using a tax filer database. The ILF includes all immigrants who have landed in Canada since 1980. In looking to enhance the IMDB, the possibility of adding temporary residents (TR) and immigrants who landed between 1952 and 1979 (PRE80) was studied. Adding this information would give a more complete picture of the immigrant population living in Canada. To integrate the TR and PRE80 files into the IMDB, record linkages between these two files and the tax filer database, were performed. This exercise was challenging in part due to the presence of duplicates in the files and conflicting links between the different record linkages.

    Release date: 2016-03-24

  • Technical products: 11-522-X201700014709
    Description:

    Traffic congestion is not limited to large cities but is also becoming a problem in medium-size cities and to roads going through cities. Among a large variety of congestion measures, six were selected for the ease of aggregation and their capacity to use the instantaneous information from CVUS-light component in 2014. From the selected measures, the Index of Congestion is potentially the only one not biased. This measure is used to illustrate different dimension of congestion on the road network.

    Release date: 2016-03-24

  • Technical products: 11-522-X201700014711
    Description:

    After the 2010 Census, the U.S. Census Bureau conducted two separate research projects matching survey data to databases. One study matched to the third-party database Accurint, and the other matched to U.S. Postal Service National Change of Address (NCOA) files. In both projects, we evaluated response error in reported move dates by comparing the self-reported move date to records in the database. We encountered similar challenges in the two projects. This paper discusses our experience using “big data” as a comparison source for survey data and our lessons learned for future projects similar to the ones we conducted.

    Release date: 2016-03-24

  • Technical products: 11-522-X201700014757
    Description:

    The Unified Brazilian Health System (SUS) was created in 1988 and, with the aim of organizing the health information systems and databases already in use, a unified databank (DataSUS) was created in 1991. DataSUS files are freely available via Internet. Access and visualization of such data is done through a limited number of customized tables and simple diagrams, which do not entirely meet the needs of health managers and other users for a flexible and easy-to-use tool that can tackle different aspects of health which are relevant to their purposes of knowledge-seeking and decision-making. We propose the interactive monthly generation of synthetic epidemiological reports, which are not only easily accessible but also easy to interpret and understand. Emphasis is put on data visualization through more informative diagrams and maps.

    Release date: 2016-03-24

  • Technical products: 11-522-X201700014731
    Description:

    Our study describes various factors that are of concern when evaluating disclosure risk of contextualized microdata and some of the empirical steps that are involved in their assessment. Utilizing synthetic sets of survey respondents, we illustrate how different postulates shape the assessment of risk when considering: (1) estimated probabilities that unidentified geographic areas are represented within a survey; (2) the number of people in the population who share the same personal and contextual identifiers as a respondent; and (3) the anticipated amount of coverage error in census population counts and extant files that provide identifying information (like names and addresses).

    Release date: 2016-03-24

  • Technical products: 11-522-X201700014745
    Description:

    In the design of surveys a number of parameters like contact propensities, participation propensities and costs per sample unit play a decisive role. In on-going surveys, these survey design parameters are usually estimated from previous experience and updated gradually with new experience. In new surveys, these parameters are estimated from expert opinion and experience with similar surveys. Although survey institutes have a fair expertise and experience, the postulation, estimation and updating of survey design parameters is rarely done in a systematic way. This paper presents a Bayesian framework to include and update prior knowledge and expert opinion about the parameters. This framework is set in the context of adaptive survey designs in which different population units may receive different treatment given quality and cost objectives. For this type of survey, the accuracy of design parameters becomes even more crucial to effective design decisions. The framework allows for a Bayesian analysis of the performance of a survey during data collection and in between waves of a survey. We demonstrate the Bayesian analysis using a realistic simulation study.

    Release date: 2016-03-24

  • Technical products: 11-522-X201700014722
    Description:

    The U.S. Census Bureau is researching ways to incorporate administrative data in decennial census and survey operations. Critical to this work is an understanding of the coverage of the population by administrative records. Using federal and third party administrative data linked to the American Community Survey (ACS), we evaluate the extent to which administrative records provide data on foreign-born individuals in the ACS and employ multinomial logistic regression techniques to evaluate characteristics of those who are in administrative records relative to those who are not. We find that overall, administrative records provide high coverage of foreign-born individuals in our sample for whom a match can be determined. The odds of being in administrative records are found to be tied to the processes of immigrant assimilation – naturalization, higher English proficiency, educational attainment, and full-time employment are associated with greater odds of being in administrative records. These findings suggest that as immigrants adapt and integrate into U.S. society, they are more likely to be involved in government and commercial processes and programs for which we are including data. We further explore administrative records coverage for the two largest race/ethnic groups in our sample – Hispanic and non-Hispanic single-race Asian foreign born, finding again that characteristics related to assimilation are associated with administrative records coverage for both groups. However, we observe that neighborhood context impacts Hispanics and Asians differently.

    Release date: 2016-03-24

  • Technical products: 11-522-X201700014735
    Description:

    Microdata dissemination normally requires data reduction and modification methods be applied, and the degree to which these methods are applied depend on the control methods that will be required to access and use the data. An approach that is in some circumstances more suitable for accessing data for statistical purposes is secure computation, which involves computing analytic functions on encrypted data without the need to decrypt the underlying source data to run a statistical analysis. This approach also allows multiple sites to contribute data while providing strong privacy guarantees. This way the data can be pooled and contributors can compute analytic functions without either party knowing their inputs. We explain how secure computation can be applied in practical contexts, with some theoretical results and real healthcare examples.

    Release date: 2016-03-24

  • Technical products: 11-522-X201700014726
    Description:

    Internal migration is one of the components of population growth estimated at Statistics Canada. It is estimated by comparing individuals’ addresses at the beginning and end of a given period. The Canada Child Tax Benefit and T1 Family File are the primary data sources used. Address quality and coverage of more mobile subpopulations are crucial to producing high-quality estimates. The purpose of this article is to present the results of evaluations of these elements using access to more tax data sources at Statistics Canada.

    Release date: 2016-03-24

  • Technical products: 11-522-X201700014751
    Description:

    Practically all major retailers use scanners to record the information on their transactions with clients (consumers). These data normally include the product code, a brief description, the price and the quantity sold. This is an extremely relevant data source for statistical programs such as Statistics Canada’s Consumer Price Index (CPI), one of Canada’s most important economic indicators. Using scanner data could improve the quality of the CPI by increasing the number of prices used in calculations, expanding geographic coverage and including the quantities sold, among other things, while lowering data collection costs. However, using these data presents many challenges. An examination of scanner data from a first retailer revealed a high rate of change in product identification codes over a one-year period. The effects of these changes pose challenges from a product classification and estimate quality perspective. This article focuses on the issues associated with acquiring, classifying and examining these data to assess their quality for use in the CPI.

    Release date: 2016-03-24

  • Technical products: 11-522-X201700014716
    Description:

    Administrative data, depending on its source and original purpose, can be considered a more reliable source of information than survey-collected data. It does not require a respondent to be present and understand question wording, and it is not limited by the respondent’s ability to recall events retrospectively. This paper compares selected survey data, such as demographic variables, from the Longitudinal and International Study of Adults (LISA) to various administrative sources for which LISA has linkage agreements in place. The agreement between data sources, and some factors that might affect it, are analyzed for various aspects of the survey.

    Release date: 2016-03-24

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