Statistics by subject – Statistical methods

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All (13)

All (13) (13 of 13 results)

  • Articles and reports: 12-001-X198400214358
    Description:

    In response to a need for data on disabled persons in Canada, Statistics Canada undertook a program to create a disability database. This includes using supplements to the Canadian Labour Force Survey in the Fall of 1983 and the Spring of 1984, as well as including questions on the 1986 Census of Population. A general discussion of the background and content of the survey is presented. A comparison of screening methodologies conducted by Statistics Canada in November 1982 and January 1983 is presented and the results are compared.

    Release date: 1984-12-14

  • Articles and reports: 12-001-X198400214357
    Description:

    A finite population of size N is supposed to contain M (unknown) units of a specified category A (say) constituting a domain with mean \mu. A procedure which involves drawing units using simple random sampling without replacement till a preassigned number of members of the domain is reached is proposed. An unbiased estimator of \mu is also derived. This is seen to be superior to the corresponding possibly biased estimator based on a comparable SRSWOR scheme with a fixed number of draws. The proposed scheme is also shown to admit unbiased estimators of M and the domain total T.

    Release date: 1984-12-14

  • Articles and reports: 12-001-X198400214356
    Description:

    This paper discusses the use of matching between files of comparable data in the evaluation of non-sampling error. As an example of the technique, the data quality evaluation of the 1981 Canadian Census of Agriculture is described and some results presented.

    Release date: 1984-12-14

  • Articles and reports: 12-001-X198400214354
    Description:

    Goodness of fit tests, tests for independence in a two-way contingency table, log-linear models and logistic regression models are investigated in the context of samples which are obtained from complex survey designs. Suggested approximations to the null distributions are reviewed and some examples from the Canada Health Survey and Canadian Labour Force Survey are given. Software implementation for using these methods is briefly discussed.

    Release date: 1984-12-14

  • Articles and reports: 12-001-X198400214353
    Description:

    Following each decennial population census, the Canadian Labour Force Survey (CLFS) has undergone a sample redesign to reflect changes in population characteristics and to respond to changes in information needs. The current redesign program which culminated with introduction of a new sample at the beginning of 1985 included extensive research into improved sample design, data collection and estimation methodologies, highlights of which are described.

    Release date: 1984-12-14

  • Articles and reports: 12-001-X198400214355
    Description:

    This paper presents a moving average which estimates the trend-cycle while eliminating seasonality from semi-annual series (observed twice yearly). The proposed average retains the power of all cycles which last three years or more; 90% of those of two years; and 55% of cycles of one year and a half. By comparison, the two by two moving average retains the power of respectively 75%, 50% and 25% of the same cycles.

    Release date: 1984-12-14

  • Articles and reports: 12-001-X198400114352
    Description:

    The paper shows different estimation methods for complex survey designs. Among others, estimation of mean, ratio and regression coefficient is presented. The standard errors are estimated by different methods: the ordinary least squares procedure, the stratified weighted sample procedure, the stratified unit weight procedure, etc. Theory of large samples and conditions to apply it are also presented.

    Release date: 1984-06-15

  • Articles and reports: 12-001-X198400114348
    Description:

    This paper proposes a modification to the method of Denton (1971) for adjusting sub-annual series to yearly totals. These totals originate from more reliable sources and constitute annual benchmarks. The benchmarked series derived according to the modified method is more parallel to the unbenchmarked series than this is the case with the original method. An additive and a proportional variant of the method are presented. These can easily be adapted for flow, stock and index series. Also presented are a few recommendations about the preliminary benchmarking of current data and the management of “historical” estimates of the series.

    Release date: 1984-06-15

  • Articles and reports: 12-001-X198400114351
    Description:

    Most sample surveys conducted by organizations such as Statistics Canada or the U.S. Bureau of the Census employ complex designs. The design-based approach to statistical inference, typically the institutional standard of inference for simple population statistics such as means and totals, may be extended to parameters of analytic models as well. Most of this paper focuses on application of design-based inferences to such models, but rationales are offered for use of model-based alternatives in some instances, by way of explanation for the author’s observation that both modes of inference are used in practice at his own institution.

    Within the design-based approach to inference, the paper briefly describes experience with linear regression analysis. Recently, variance computations for a number of surveys of the Census Bureau have been implemented through “replicate weighting”; the principal application has been for variances of simple statistics, but this technique also facilitates variance computation for virtually any complex analytic model. Finally, approaches and experience with log-linear models are reported.

    Release date: 1984-06-15

  • Articles and reports: 12-001-X198400114350
    Description:

    Standard chisquared (X^2) or likelihood ratio (G^2) tests for logistic regression analysis, involving a binary response variable, are adjusted to take account of the survey design. The adjustments are based on certain generalized design effects. The adjusted statistics are utilized to analyse some data from the October 1980 Canadian Labour Force Survey (LFS). The Wald statistic, which also takes the survey design into account, is also examined for goodness-of-fit of the model and for testing hypotheses on the parameters of the assumed model. Logistic regression diagnostics to detect any outlying cell proportions in the table and influential points in the factor space are applied to the LFS data, after making necessary adjustments to account for the survey design.

    Release date: 1984-06-15

  • Articles and reports: 12-001-X198400114346
    Description:

    This presentation describes the important and urgent task of providing useful expressions for analytical statistics for complex sample designs. The following topics are discussed: effects of complex designs, sampling error for analytical statistics, subclasses involved in analytical statistics, comparisons of paired means, computation of analytical statistics and categorical data analysis.

    Release date: 1984-06-15

  • Articles and reports: 12-001-X198400114349
    Description:

    Using data from the Family Expenditures Surveys over time, consumer expenditures on in-home and transportation energy from 1969 to 1982 are being studied. This article briefly summarizes some of the procedures being used to explore the data, summarize it and develop insights into shifts in consumption for policy implications purposes. With such a complex data set and such a complex, multi-faceted subject for analysis some effort must be made to reduce information flows and at the same time increase the information content of each factor of both input and output in the analyses.

    Release date: 1984-06-15

  • Articles and reports: 12-001-X198400114347
    Description:

    Univariate statistical models, linear regression models and generalized linear models are briefly reviewed. Examples of a two-way analysis of variance, a three-way analysis of variance and logistic regression for a three way layout are given.

    Release date: 1984-06-15

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Analysis (13)

Analysis (13) (13 of 13 results)

  • Articles and reports: 12-001-X198400214358
    Description:

    In response to a need for data on disabled persons in Canada, Statistics Canada undertook a program to create a disability database. This includes using supplements to the Canadian Labour Force Survey in the Fall of 1983 and the Spring of 1984, as well as including questions on the 1986 Census of Population. A general discussion of the background and content of the survey is presented. A comparison of screening methodologies conducted by Statistics Canada in November 1982 and January 1983 is presented and the results are compared.

    Release date: 1984-12-14

  • Articles and reports: 12-001-X198400214357
    Description:

    A finite population of size N is supposed to contain M (unknown) units of a specified category A (say) constituting a domain with mean \mu. A procedure which involves drawing units using simple random sampling without replacement till a preassigned number of members of the domain is reached is proposed. An unbiased estimator of \mu is also derived. This is seen to be superior to the corresponding possibly biased estimator based on a comparable SRSWOR scheme with a fixed number of draws. The proposed scheme is also shown to admit unbiased estimators of M and the domain total T.

    Release date: 1984-12-14

  • Articles and reports: 12-001-X198400214356
    Description:

    This paper discusses the use of matching between files of comparable data in the evaluation of non-sampling error. As an example of the technique, the data quality evaluation of the 1981 Canadian Census of Agriculture is described and some results presented.

    Release date: 1984-12-14

  • Articles and reports: 12-001-X198400214354
    Description:

    Goodness of fit tests, tests for independence in a two-way contingency table, log-linear models and logistic regression models are investigated in the context of samples which are obtained from complex survey designs. Suggested approximations to the null distributions are reviewed and some examples from the Canada Health Survey and Canadian Labour Force Survey are given. Software implementation for using these methods is briefly discussed.

    Release date: 1984-12-14

  • Articles and reports: 12-001-X198400214353
    Description:

    Following each decennial population census, the Canadian Labour Force Survey (CLFS) has undergone a sample redesign to reflect changes in population characteristics and to respond to changes in information needs. The current redesign program which culminated with introduction of a new sample at the beginning of 1985 included extensive research into improved sample design, data collection and estimation methodologies, highlights of which are described.

    Release date: 1984-12-14

  • Articles and reports: 12-001-X198400214355
    Description:

    This paper presents a moving average which estimates the trend-cycle while eliminating seasonality from semi-annual series (observed twice yearly). The proposed average retains the power of all cycles which last three years or more; 90% of those of two years; and 55% of cycles of one year and a half. By comparison, the two by two moving average retains the power of respectively 75%, 50% and 25% of the same cycles.

    Release date: 1984-12-14

  • Articles and reports: 12-001-X198400114352
    Description:

    The paper shows different estimation methods for complex survey designs. Among others, estimation of mean, ratio and regression coefficient is presented. The standard errors are estimated by different methods: the ordinary least squares procedure, the stratified weighted sample procedure, the stratified unit weight procedure, etc. Theory of large samples and conditions to apply it are also presented.

    Release date: 1984-06-15

  • Articles and reports: 12-001-X198400114348
    Description:

    This paper proposes a modification to the method of Denton (1971) for adjusting sub-annual series to yearly totals. These totals originate from more reliable sources and constitute annual benchmarks. The benchmarked series derived according to the modified method is more parallel to the unbenchmarked series than this is the case with the original method. An additive and a proportional variant of the method are presented. These can easily be adapted for flow, stock and index series. Also presented are a few recommendations about the preliminary benchmarking of current data and the management of “historical” estimates of the series.

    Release date: 1984-06-15

  • Articles and reports: 12-001-X198400114351
    Description:

    Most sample surveys conducted by organizations such as Statistics Canada or the U.S. Bureau of the Census employ complex designs. The design-based approach to statistical inference, typically the institutional standard of inference for simple population statistics such as means and totals, may be extended to parameters of analytic models as well. Most of this paper focuses on application of design-based inferences to such models, but rationales are offered for use of model-based alternatives in some instances, by way of explanation for the author’s observation that both modes of inference are used in practice at his own institution.

    Within the design-based approach to inference, the paper briefly describes experience with linear regression analysis. Recently, variance computations for a number of surveys of the Census Bureau have been implemented through “replicate weighting”; the principal application has been for variances of simple statistics, but this technique also facilitates variance computation for virtually any complex analytic model. Finally, approaches and experience with log-linear models are reported.

    Release date: 1984-06-15

  • Articles and reports: 12-001-X198400114350
    Description:

    Standard chisquared (X^2) or likelihood ratio (G^2) tests for logistic regression analysis, involving a binary response variable, are adjusted to take account of the survey design. The adjustments are based on certain generalized design effects. The adjusted statistics are utilized to analyse some data from the October 1980 Canadian Labour Force Survey (LFS). The Wald statistic, which also takes the survey design into account, is also examined for goodness-of-fit of the model and for testing hypotheses on the parameters of the assumed model. Logistic regression diagnostics to detect any outlying cell proportions in the table and influential points in the factor space are applied to the LFS data, after making necessary adjustments to account for the survey design.

    Release date: 1984-06-15

  • Articles and reports: 12-001-X198400114346
    Description:

    This presentation describes the important and urgent task of providing useful expressions for analytical statistics for complex sample designs. The following topics are discussed: effects of complex designs, sampling error for analytical statistics, subclasses involved in analytical statistics, comparisons of paired means, computation of analytical statistics and categorical data analysis.

    Release date: 1984-06-15

  • Articles and reports: 12-001-X198400114349
    Description:

    Using data from the Family Expenditures Surveys over time, consumer expenditures on in-home and transportation energy from 1969 to 1982 are being studied. This article briefly summarizes some of the procedures being used to explore the data, summarize it and develop insights into shifts in consumption for policy implications purposes. With such a complex data set and such a complex, multi-faceted subject for analysis some effort must be made to reduce information flows and at the same time increase the information content of each factor of both input and output in the analyses.

    Release date: 1984-06-15

  • Articles and reports: 12-001-X198400114347
    Description:

    Univariate statistical models, linear regression models and generalized linear models are briefly reviewed. Examples of a two-way analysis of variance, a three-way analysis of variance and logistic regression for a three way layout are given.

    Release date: 1984-06-15

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