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Section A: Population and Migration

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K.G. Basavarajappa and Bali Ram, Statistics Canada

Population (Series A1-247)
Household and Family Statistics (Series A248-259)
Interprovincial and International Migration (Series A260-349)
Immigration (Series A350-416)

The statistics in this section are mainly from two sources. Series Al-349 are from censuses, or derived from censuses, published by Statistics Canada or its predecessors. Series A350-416 are from the official records of the Department of Employment and Immigration or its predecessors.

The statistics are presented in four main divisions: population (series A1-247), from censuses of Canada; household and family statistics (series A248-259), from censuses of Canada; interprovincial and international migration (series A260-349), derived from censuses of Canada; and immigration (series A350-416), from annual immigration statistics.

Except for series A15-66, A185-259 and A385-416, which have been newly introduced, all other series are updates of those presented by Kenneth Buckley in the first edition of Historical Statistics of Canada. Many of the series presented by Buckley could not be updated in this section because the necessary data have not been available during more recent years.

The discussions of concepts, definitions and limitations of some of the series presented by Buckley have not been repeated here. The reader is referred to them in appropriate notes accompanying the following series.

It should be noted that the references and the notes provided for each series are integral parts of the series themselves. More details about the differences in concepts and definitions which affect the comparability of the series can only be obtained from the original sources. The main purpose here is to present some selected series and their sources. It should also be mentioned that, because of space limitations in many cases, data are available in greater detail in the original sources.

The tables are available as comma separated value files (csv). They may be viewed using a variety of software. You may have to create an association between your software application and the csv files. The pdf files should be used to verify table formats. For example, footnotes appear in a column to the right of the cell they reference in the csv files; while in the pdf files footnotes appear as superscript numbers.

Population (Series A1-247)

Table A1 Estimated population of Canada, 1867 to 1977. Opens a new browser window.

Table A1
Estimated population of Canada, 1867 to 1977

Source: for 1867 to 1920, first edition of Historical Statistics of Canada, (for details of methods used and their limitations see p. 3); for 1921 to 1971, Statistics Canada, Population by Sex and Age, 1921-1971, revised annual estimates of population, Canada and the provinces, (Catalogue 91-512); for 1972 to 1977, Statistics Canada, Estimates of Population for Canada and the Provinces, June 1, 1977, (Catalogue 91-201). (Note that the 1977 figure is a revised intercensal estimate.)

Table A2-14 Population of Canada, by province, census dates, 1851 to 1976. Opens a new browser window.

Table A2-14
Population of Canada, by province, census dates, 1851 to 1976

Source: for 1851 to 1951, Statistics Canada (formerly Dominion Bureau of Statistics), Census of Canada, 1951, vol. X, table 1; for 1956, Census of Canada, 1956, vol. I, table 1; for 1961 Census of Canada, 1961, Vol. I, part 1, table 12, (Catalogue 92-536); for 1966, Census of Canada, 1966, vol. I, table 14, (Catalogue 92-608); for 1971, Census of Canada, 1971, vol. I, part 2, table 14, (Catalogue 92-716); for 1976, Census of Canada, 1976, vol. II, table 11, (Catalogue 92-824).

For a brief discussion of possible under-enumeration in earlier censuses, 1851, 1861 and 1871, see first edition of this volume, pp. 3-4. For completeness of enumeration in censuses of 1961 to 1976, see series A15-53 below.

Table A15-53 Estimates of undercoverage of population by selected characteristics, Canada, 1961 to 1976. Opens a new browser window.

Table A15-53
Estimates of undercoverage of population by selected characteristics, Canada, 1961 to 1976

Source: for 1961, I.P. Fellegi, 'Coverage Check of the 1961 Census of Population', Technical Memorandum (Census Evaluation Series) No. 2, Ottawa, Statistics Canada, 1968 (Mimeographed); for 1966, R.C. Muirhead, 'Reverse Record Check', Census Evaluation Program 1966, Ottawa, Statistics Canada, 1969 (Mimeographed); for 1971, G.J. Brackstone and J.F. Gosselin, '1971 Evaluation Project, MP-1: 1971 Reverse Record Check' and Result Memorandum CDN 71E-23E (Parts 1 and 2), Ottawa, Statistics Canada, 1974 (Mimeographed); for 1976, G. Th‚roux and J.F. Gosselin, '1976 Census Parametric Evaluation Project, Reverse Record Check', Ottawa, Statistics Canada, CSMD, 1978 (Mimeographed).

Completeness of enumeration

Although the extent of coverage at earlier censuses is not known with any precision, since 1961 it has been studied by a procedure termed 'reverse record check'. The method essentially consists of taking a sample of persons from a complete list of all persons living in Canada on the census day, and verifying whether they had been enumerated at the census. Based on the results of this verification, the estimates of net under- or over-enumeration have been derived. Although a complete list of persons has never been available in Canada, an approximation to it has been constructed. For instance, in 1966, the approximate list was constructed as follows: all persons enumerated in the 1961 Census; immigrants during 1 June 1961 to 31 May 1966; registered births during 1 June 1961 to 31 May 1966; and all persons missed by the 1961 Census but detected by the 1961 Census Evaluation Program.

A sample of persons was then selected from each of the above frames for verification of enumeration. A tracing operation was then mounted and eventually all the selected persons in the sample were classified as belonging to one of the following five mutually exclusive categories: (i) enumerated in 1966; (ii) missed; (iii) dead; (iv) emigrated; and (v) tracing failed.

The dead and emigrated do not constitute the population that should have been enumerated in 1966. By assuming that the tracing failed category is not a special group but is distributed according to (i) to (iv) categories in the same way as those traced (an assumption which is most probably incorrect), the percentage of under-enumeration was calculated as 100 [ii/(ii+i)]. Although the assumption that the tracing failed category is not a special group is most probably incorrect, the percentage of undercoverage obtained may not be significantly affected because the tracing failed group amounted to only about 3 per cent in 1961, 2.8 per cent in 1966, 4.4 per cent in 1971 and 4.8 per cent in 1976.

Following the procedure described above, the completeness of enumeration has been examined in Canadian censuses since 1961. Estimates of net under-enumeration thus obtained are presented according to selected characteristics in series A15-53.

Table A54-66 Population density per square mile, Canada and provinces, 1871 to 1976. Opens a new browser window.

Table A54-66
Population density per square mile, Canada and provinces, 1871 to 1976

Source: for 1871 to 1941, Census of Canada, 1941, vol. II, table 5; for 1951, Census of Canada, 1951, vol. I, table 2; for 1956, Census of Canada, 1956, vol. I, table 2; for 1961, Census of Canada, 1961, vol. I, part 1, table 2, (Catalogue 92-540); for 1966, Census of Canada, 1966, vol. I, table 2, (Catalogue 92-601); for 1971, Census of Canada, 1971, special bulletin, table 1, (Catalogue 98-701; for 1976, Census of Canada, 1976, vol. VIII, table 1, (Catalogue 92-831).

Table A67-69 Population, rural and urban, census dates, 1871 to 1976. Opens a new browser window.

Table A67-69
Population, rural and urban, census dates, 1871 to 1976

Source: (basis 1941 rural and urban definition) for 1871 to 1956, Census of Canada, 1951, vol. I, table 13 and first edition of this volume, p. 14; for 1961, Census of Canada, 1961, vol. I, part 1, Introduction, (Catalogue 92-535); for 1966, Census of Canada, 1966, vol. I, Introduction, (Catalogue 92-607); for 1971, Census of Canada, 1971, (unpublished tabulation produced by Census Characteristics Division of Statistics Canada) (Basis 1976 rural and urban definition); for 1976, Census of Canada, 1976, vol. I, table 7, (Catalogue 92-807).

Definitions of rural and urban used in Canadian censuses are:

1871 to 1941


Urban: population living in incorporated villages, towns and cities regardless of size.


Rural: includes all the remaining population.



1951


Urban: all persons living in cities, towns and villages of 1,000 and over whether incorporated or not, plus the urban fringes of census metropolitan areas.


Rural: includes all the remaining population.



1956


Urban: population living in cities, towns and villages of 1,000 and over whether incorporated or not, plus the urban fringe of census metropolitan areas, plus the urban fringe of major urban areas (cities with a population of 25,000 to 50,000).


Rural: includes all the remaining population.



1961 to 1971


Urban: (1) population of incorporated cities, towns and villages with a population of 1,000 and over, plus (2) unincorporated places of 1,000 and over having a population density of at least 1,000 per square mile, plus (3) built-up fringes of (1) and (2) having a minimum population of 1,000 and a density of at least 1,000 per square mile.


Rural: includes all the remaining population.



1976


Urban: population living in an area having a populationconcentration of 1,000 or more and a population density of at least 1,000 per square mile.


Rural: includes all the remaining population.


Table A70-74 Population in incorporated centres of 1,000 persons and over, by size groups, census dates, 1871 to 1976. Opens a new browser window.

Table A70-74
Population in incorporated centres of 1,000 persons and over, by size groups, census dates, 1871 to 1976

Source: for places 5,000 and over in 1871 and 1881, Census of Canada, 1921, vol. I, table 12; for 1891, Census of Canada, 1951, vol. X, table 4; for 1901 to 1956, Census of Canada, 1956, Bulletin 3-2, table 2, and Census of Canada, 1941, vol. I, table 7; for 1961, Census of Canada, 1961, vol. I, part 1, (Catalogue 92-535); for 1966, Census of Canada, 1966, vol. I, (Catalogue 92-607); for 1971 and 1976 Census of Canada, 1971, and Census of Canada, 1976, (unpublished tabulations by Census Characteristics Division of Statistics Canada).

Table A75-77 Rural population, farm and non-farm, census dates, 1931 to 1976. Opens a new browser window.

Table A75-77
Rural population, farm and non-farm, census dates, 1931 to 1976

Source: for figures based upon the 1941 definition, Census of Canada, 1951, vol. X, table 9; for 1951 definition, Census of Canada, 1951, vol. X, table 8; for 1956 definition, Census of Canada, 1956, Bulletin 3-2, table 11; for 1961 and 1966, Census of Canada, 1966, vol. I, table 13, (Catalogue 92-608); for 1971, Census of Canada, 1971, vol. I, part 2, table 18 (Catalogue 92-717) Census of Canada, 1976, vol. I, table 7, (Catalogue 92-807).

Definitions of rural farm and non-farm populations are as follows: population living in dwellings located on a census-farm in areas designated as rural are termed 'rural farm population' and all remaining rural residents as 'rural non-farm population'. For definition of rural see note to series A67-69.

Table A78-93 Population, by age and sex, census dates, 1851 to 1976. Opens a new browser window.

Table A78-93
Population, by age and sex, census dates, 1851 to 1976

Source: for 1851 to 1871, Nathan Keyfitz, The Growth of Canadian Population, table 3, p. 50; for 1881 and 1891, Census of Canada, 1941, vol. I, table 12; for 1901 to 1951, Census of Canada, 1951, vol. I, table 19; for 1956, Census of Canada, 1956, Bulletin 1-9, table 16; for 1961, Census of Canada, 1961, vol. I, part 2, table 20, (Catalogue 92-542); for 1966, Census of Canada, 1966, vol. I, table 20, (Catalogue 92-610); for 1971, Census of Canada, 1971, vol. I, part 2, table 7, (Catalogue 92-715); for 1976, Census of Canada, 1976, vol. VIII, table 1, (Catalogue 92-835).

Persons whose ages were not stated have been assigned to various age groups by two methods. Prior to 1941 the total 'age not stated' in each census was prorated on the basis of the distribution of the remaining population. See Census of Canada, 1931, vol. I, table 8, p. 387, for the numbers so distributed from 1851 to 1931 and pp. 197-198 for a discussion of some of their attributes. Beginning with the 1941 Census the method used to distribute 'age not stated' has been much more precise. The unstated ages were assigned before any tabulations were made on the basis of all other relevant information available in the census schedules. During 1971 and 1976, such assignment was made by the computer.

For a discussion of accuracy of reporting age in 1941 and in previous censuses, and for totals of 'age not stated' in each census from 1881 to 1941, see Census of Canada, 1941, vol. I, pp. 120-127.

In 1951 and 1956, maximum use was made of other information from the census schedule, as well as the laws of probability, in estimating a value for each 'not given' case. (See Census of Canada, 1951, vol. I, Population: General Characteristics, p. xvii; Census of Canada, 1956, vol. I, Population: General Characteristics, Households and Families, p. xviii.)

Since 1961, the assignment for the unstated ages has been made by the computer. The computer was also programmed to check for internal consistency. The procedure used other relevant data on the person, Census of Canada, 1961, Administrative Report of the 1961 Census of Canada, vol. VII, part 2, pp. 101-102, (Catalogue 99-537).

It should be noted that in the 1971 and 1976 censuses, age was derived from the information on the date (month and year) of birth, whereas in the previous censuses, respondents were asked to state their age in completed years as of their last birthday before the census date. The tendency toward 'age heaping' at certain specific ages may be of far less significance in the 1971 and 1976 censuses than in the earlier censuses.

Table A94-109 Population, by age and sex, urban and rural, census dates, 1921 to 1976. Opens a new browser window.

Table A94-109
Population, by age and sex, urban and rural, census dates, 1921 to 1976

Source: for 1921, Census of Canada, 1921, vol. II, table 7; for 1931, Census of Canada, 1931, vol. III, table 1; for 1941, Census of Canada, 1941, vol. II, table 21; for 1951, Census of Canada, 1951, vol. I, table 21; for 1956, Census of Canada, 1956, Bulletin 1-9, table 17; for 1961, Census of Canada, 1961, vol. I, part 2, table 21, (Catalogue 92-542); for 1966, Census of Canada, 1966, vol. I, table 20, (Catalogue 92-610); for 1971, Census of Canada, 1971, vol. I, part 2, table 8, (Catalogue 92-715); for 1976, Census of Canada, 1976, vol. II, table 12, (Catalogue 92-823).

In 1921 and 1931, persons whose ages were not stated have been distributed by age. For details see p. 6. of the first edition of this volume. For treatment of such persons after 1941, see note to series A78-93.

Table A110-124 Population, by marital status and sex, census dates, 1871 to 1976. Opens a new browser window.

Table A110-124
Population, by marital status and sex, census dates, 1871 to 1976

Source: for population, all ages, Census of Canada, 1941, vol. I, table 18; for population 15 years and over for 1891 to 1931, Census of Canada, 1941, vol. I, table 20; for 1941 and 1951, Census of Canada, 1951, vol. X, table 17; for 1956, Census of Canada, 1956, Bulletin 1-12, table 28; for 1961, Census of Canada, 1961, vol. I, part 2, table 30, (Catalogue 92-514); for 1966, Census of Canada, 1966, vol. I, table 34, (Catalogue 92-613); for 1971, Census of Canada, 1971, vol. I, part 4, table 1, (Catalogue 92-730); for 1976, Census of Canada, 1976, vol. II, table 17, (Catalogue 92-824).

Prior to 1951, with the exception of 1901, persons whose marital status was not stated have been distributed on a pro rata basis. During 1951 to 1956 such persons have been assigned to the various categories on the basis of supplementary information. During 1971 and 1976, for persons who did not report their marital status, this was imputed, by the computer, on the basis of various other relevant supplementary information.

Table A125-163 Origins of the population, census dates, 1871 to 1971. Opens a new browser window.

Table A125-163
Origins of the population, census dates, 1871 to 1971

Source: for 1871 to 1921, Canada Year Book, 1948-49, p. 154; for 1931 to 1951, Canada Year Book, 1957-58, p. 137; for 1961, Census of Canada, 1961, vol. I, part 2, table 34, (Catalogue 92-545); for 1971, Census of Canada, 1971, vol. I, part 3, table 1, (Catalogue 92-723).

For a brief discussion of comparability of concepts, definitions and figures relating to origin and for relevant references see Kenneth Buckley, "Population and Migration", in the Historical Statistics of Canada, first edition, p. 6, and W.B. Hurd, Ethnic Origin and Nativity of the Canadian People, 1941 Census Monograph, Statistics Canada, Ottawa, Queen's Printer (restricted).

Table A164-184 Principal religious denominations of the population, census dates, 1871 to 1971. Opens a new browser window.

Table A164-184
Principal religious denominations of the population, census dates, 1871 to 1971

Source: for 1871 to 1921, Canada Year Book, 1948-49, p. 155; for 1931 to 1951, Canada Year Book, 1957-58, p. 137; for 1961, Census of Canada, 1961, vol. I, part 2, table 41, (Catalogue 92-546); for 1971, Census of Canada, 1971, vol. I, part 3, table 9, (Catalogue 92-724).

Table A185-237 Mother tongues of the population, census years, 1931 to 1976. Opens a new browser window.

Table A185-237
Mother tongues of the population, census years, 1931 to 1976

Source: for 1931, Census of Canada, 1931, vol. I, table 28; for 1941 to 1961, Census of Canada, 1961, vol. I, part 2, table 63, (Catalogue 92-549); for 1971, Census of Canada, 1971, vol. I, part 3, table 17, (Catalogue 92-725); for 1976, Census of Canada, 1976, vol. II, table 1, (Catalogue 92-821).

Table A238-247 Number of children ever born per 1,000 ever married women, 15 years of age and over, total, rural and urban, Canada, 1941, 1961 and 1971. Opens a new browser window.

Table A238-247
Number of children ever born per 1,000 ever married women, 15 years of age and over, total, rural and urban, Canada, 1941, 1961 and 1971

Source: for 1941, Census of Canada, 1941, vol. I, tables 74 and 75; for 1961, Census of Canada, 1961, vol. IV, table H1, (Catalogue 98-508); for 1971, Census of Canada, 1971, vol. I, part 2, table 24, (Catalogue 92-718).

In order to collect data on fertility, a question on the 'number of children ever born' was asked to 'ever married' (currently married, widowed, divorced and separated) women 15 years of age and older in the 1941, 1961 and 1971 censuses. These statistics as shown in these series include children born of the present marriage, previous marriage, or before marriage and children who died after birth, but do not include stillbirths, adopted children and stepchildren.

Household and Family Statistics (Series A248-259)

Table A248-253 Number of households and average number of persons per household, Canada, 1881 to 1976. Opens a new browser window.

Table A248-253
Number of households and average number of persons per household, Canada, 1881 to 1976

Source: for 1881 to 1921, Census of Canada, 1921, vol. III, tables 1 and 2; for 1931, Census of Canada, 1931, vol. V, tables 47 and 48; for 1941, Census of Canada, 1941, vol. V, table 4; for 1951, Census of Canada, 1951, vol. III, table 4; for 1956, Census of Canada, 1956, vol. I, table 34; for 1961 Census of Canada, 1961, vol. II, part 1, table 2, (Catalogue 93-510); for 1966, Census of Canada, 1966, vol. II, table 9, (Catalogue 93-603); for 1971, Census of Canada, 1971, vol. II, part 1, table 1, (Catalogue 93-702); for 1976, Census of Canada, 1976, vol. III, table 16, (Catalogue 93-805).

The changes in definitions of 'household', briefly discussed below, should be taken into account when statistics from one census are compared with those from another. Prior to 1951, a 'household' referred to all persons living together in a housekeeping unit regardless of blood or marriage relationship, and it might consist of one person only. Since 1951, the household was defined as a person or a group of persons who occupy one dwelling. It usually consists of a family group, with or without lodgers, employees, etc. However, it may consist of two or more families sharing a dwelling, of a group of unrelated persons or of one person living alone. A household occupying a 'private dwelling' is termed a 'private household' and that occupying a 'collective dwelling', a 'collective household'. (See Census of Canada, 1951, vol. III, pp. xxii-xxiii; Census of Canada, 1961, vol. II, part 1, pp. xiv-xv; Statistics Canada, Dictionary of the 1971 Census Terms, (Catalogue 12-540), pp. 9-1l.)

A dwelling is a structurally separate set of living quarters with a private entrance from outside the building or from a common hallway or stairway inside the building. A dwelling is either 'private' or 'collective'. A 'private dwelling' refers to a dwelling in which one person, a family, or other small group of individuals may reside, such as a single house or apartment. A 'collective dwelling' refers to a dwelling in which a large number of persons are likely to reside. Included are hotels, motels, hospitals, staff residences, institutions, military camps, work camps, all jails and missions, etc. (See Census of Canada, 1961, vol. II, part 1, pp. xiv-xv; Statistics Canada, Dictionary of the 1971 Census Terms, (Catalogue 12-540), pp. 36-37.)

Table A254-259 Number of families and average number of persons per family, Canada, 1881 to 1976. Opens a new browser window.

Table A254-259
Number of families and average number of persons per family, Canada, 1881 to 1976

Source: for 1881, Census of Canada, 1880-81, vol. I, table 1; for 1891, Census of Canada, 1890-91, vol. I, table 2; for 1901, Census of Canada, 1901, vol. I, table 2; for 1911, Census of Canada, 1911, vol. I, table 2; for 1921, Census of Canada, 1921, vol. III, table 16; for 1931, Census of Canada, 1931, vol. IV, table 86; for 1941, Census of Canada, 1941, vol. V, table 4; for 1951, Census of Canada 1951, vol. III, table 127; for 1956, Census of Canada, 1956, vol. I, table 44; for 1961, Census of Canada, 1961, vol. II, part 1, table 44, (Catalogue 93-514); for 1966, Census of Canada, 1966, vol. II, table 53, (Catalogue 93-609); for 1971, Census of Canada, 1971, vol. II, part 2, table 2, (Catalogue 93-714); for 1976, Census of Canada, 1976, vol. IV, table 7, (Catalogue 93-822), and Census of Canada, 1976, vol. III, table 27, (Catalogue 93-807).

Changes in the definition of family, briefly discussed below, should be taken into account when statistics from one census are compared with those from another.

Prior to the 1921 Census, no distinction was made between the household, indicating a group of people in the same housekeeping unit, and the family. In that year, a distinction was made between the 'census family', which comprised the household, and the 'private family', which was composed of parents, children, and natural dependents (for example, uncles, nieces, mothers-in-law, etc.). In many cases, the census family and the private family represented the same group of persons, just as today the family and the household are frequently one and the same group of persons. In 1921, individuals maintaining their own households were enumerated as one-person families. In 1931, the terms 'census family' and 'private family' were replaced by the simpler terms 'household' and 'family' respectively, but otherwise little change from the 1921 Census was made, and families of one person were still accepted. In 1941, however, the following significant changes were made in the census definitions of 'family' and 'children in families': (a) a one-person household no longer constituted a family; (b) relatives of the head, not part of the immediate family (for example, uncles, nieces, brothers, etc.), were not included as family members, whether or not they were dependent upon the head, in other words, the family was strictly a husband and wife with or without children or a parent-child relationship; and (c) children in the family were restricted to unmarried sons and daughters of the head living at home and the statistics regarding age, schooling, and occupations of children were shown only for children under 25 years of age, whereas in former censuses this information was either not given or was shown for all children living at home. These changes in definition have more sharply delineated the concept of family, so that all families fit into one of several categories, the most important by far being the so-called 'normal family', which consists of husband and wife living together with or without children. (See Statistics Canada, Census of Canada, 1941, vol. I, Ottawa, pp. 430-431.)

The 1941 definition of the 'family' was retained in 1951.

Since 1956, a distinction has been made between the 'census family' and the 'economic family'. A 'census family' consists of a husband and wife (with or without children who have never been married, regardless of age) or a parent with one or more children never married, living in the same dwelling. A family may consist also of a man or woman living with a guardianship child or ward under 21 years for whom no pay was received. In contrast, an 'economic family' is defined as a group of two or more persons living together and related to each other by blood, marriage or adoption. 'Economic family' is a broader concept and includes within its definition a larger group of persons than does the 'census family'. For example, a widowed mother living with her married son and daughter-in-law would be treated as a non-family person under the definition of a census family, but would be counted as a member of the economic family. (See Statistics Canada, Dictionary of the 1971 Census Terms, (Catalogue 12-540), pp. 6-7.)

Interprovincial and International Migration (Series A260-349)

Table A260-269 Population, Canadian, other British and foreign-born, by sex, census dates, 1871 to 1971. Opens a new browser window.

Table A260-269
Population, Canadian, other British and foreign-born, by sex, census dates, 1871 to 1971

Source: for totals from 1871 to 1951, Census of Canada, 1951, vol. I, table 44; for sex breakdown in 1911, Statistics Canada, unpublished data, folio CXL; for sex breakdown in 1921, 1931, 1941, Census of Canada, 1941, vol. I, table 7, p. 177; for sex breakdown in 1951, Census of Canada, 1951, vol. I, table 45; for 1961, Census of Canada, 1961, vol. I, part 2, table 50, (Catalogue 92-547); for 1971, Census of Canada, 1971, vol. I, part 4, table 25, (Catalogue 92-737).

The following note on the treatment of 'place of birth not stated' applies to series A133-142 and to the three tables which follow. In 1871, although there were 84,247 persons, mostly Indians in British Columbia and the Northwest Territories for whom the 'place of birth was unknown', they have not been included among 'Canadian-born'. In later censuses, Indians have been included among 'Canadian-born'.

In 1871, 1881 and 1891 there were 1,828, 6,334 and 3,491 persons respectively for whom the 'place of birth' was not known (see Canada Year Book, 1910, p. 2). As the Canadian, other British and foreign-born cannot be distinguished, they have been included in the 'Canadian born' in series A134-136.

Beginning with the 1901 Census, the totals of 'birthplace not stated' have been distinguished according to major components and have been included in Canadian, other British or foreign-born (see Canada Year Book, 1913, p. 73; Canada Year Book, 1943-44, p. 114; Census of Canada, 1931, vol. I, p. 215). The 'not stated' for the foreign-born are included with 'other foreign-born' in the census figures until 1931. In 1941 a small number (945) are not assigned to any category (see footnote 3 to series A260-269).

Since 1951, the 'not stated' have been assigned to countries before tabulation. In 1971, such assignment was made by the computer (see the respective administrative reports of censuses).

Persons who were born at sea have been classified among 'other' under either 'British possessions' or 'British Commonwealth' (see Canada Year Book, 1950, p. 162 and Census of Canada, 1931, vol. I, table 1, p. 214, for the relevant footnotes).

Table A270-281 Population, by birthplace and sex, rural and urban, census dates, 1921 to 1971. Opens a new browser window.

Table A270-281
Population, by birthplace and sex, rural and urban, census dates, 1921 to 1971

Source: for 1921, Census of Canada, 1921, vol. I, table 7, p. 177; for 1931, Census of Canada, 1931, vol. iv, table 5; for 1941, Census of Canada, 1941, vol. II, table 42; for 1951, Census of Canada, 1951, vol. I, table 46; for 1961, Census of Canada, 1961, vol. I, part 2, table 50, (Catalogue 92-547); for 1971, Census of Canada, 1971, vol. I, part 4, table 25, (Catalogue 92-737).

Table A282-296 Population, Canadian, other British and foreign-born, by age and sex, census dates, 1911 to 1971. Opens a new browser window.

Table A282-296
Population, Canadian, other British and foreign-born, by age and sex, census dates, 1911 to 1971

Source: for sex and age distribution in 1911, Statistics Canada, unpublished data, folio CXL; for 1921, Census of Canada, 1921, vol. II, table 10; for 1931, Census of Canada, 1931, vol. III, table 23; for 1941, Census of Canada, 1941, vol. III, table 18; for 1951, Census of Canada, 1951, vol. II, table 10; for 1961, Census of Canada, 1961, vol. I, part 3, table 89, (Catalogue 92-555); for 1971, Census of Canada, 1971, vol. I, part 4, table 25, (Catalogue 92-737).

Table A297-326 Country of birth of the other British-born and the foreign-born population, census dates, 1871 to 1971. Opens a new browser window.

Table A297-326
Country of birth of the other British-born and the foreign-born population, census dates, 1871 to 1971

Source: for 1871 to 1951, Census of Canada, 1951, vol. I, table 44; for 1961, Census of Canada, 1961, vol. I, part 2, table 48, (Catalogue 92-547); for 1971 and for more details, see Census of Canada, 1971, vol. I, part 3, tables 33 and 34, (Catalogue 92-727).

Table A327-338 Province of residence and province of birth of native-born internal migrants in Canada, census dates, 1871 to 1971. Opens a new browser window.

Table A327-338
Province of residence and province of birth of native-born internal migrants in Canada, census dates, 1871 to 1971

Source: for 1871 to 1941, Buckley, "Historical Estimates of Internal Migration", Canadian Political Science Association, Conference on Statistics, 1960, Papers (Toronto, University of Toronto Press, 1962) table 1, pp. 6-7; for 1951, Census of Canada, 1951, vol. II, tables 10 and 11; for 1961, Census of Canada, 1961, vol. I, part 3, tables 89 and 90, (Catalogue 92-555); for 1971, Census of Canada, 1971, vol. I, part 4, table 26, (Catalogue 92-737) and vol. I, part 3, table 34, (Catalogue 92-727).

For treatment of persons whose place of birth is not stated during 1871 to 1941 see Buckley, "Historical Estimates of Internal Migration", pp. 1-17.

For the purpose of series A327-338, any Canadian-born person not living in the province of his or her birth is termed a native-born internal migrant. Panel A shows the number of persons living in each province who were born in another province. Panel B shows the number of persons not living in the province of birth, by the province in which they were born.

Table A339-349 Changes in the population through natural increase and migration, by province, by intercensal intervals, 1931 to 1976. Opens a new browser window.

Table A339-349
Changes in the population through natural increase and migration, by province, by intercensal intervals, 1931 to 1976

Source: for 1931-41 and 1941-51, Canada Year Book, 1957-58, Chapter III, table 3, p. 120; for 1951-56 and 1956-61, Canada Year Book, 1966, Chapter IV, table 3, p. 179; for 1961-66 and 1966-71, Canada Year Book, 1973, Chapter 5, table 5.5, p. 209; for 1971-76, the figures have been calculated using the enumerated populations in the 1971 and 1976 censuses and the unpublished annual reports on vital statistics. The figures are preliminary and are subject to change. For birth statistics, Statistics Canada, Vital Statistics, vol. I, (Catalogue 84-204) ; For death Statistics, Statistics Canada, Vital Statistics, vol. III, (Catalogue 84-206).

Immigration (Series A350-416)

Table A350 Immigrant arrivals in Canada, 1852 to 1977. Opens a new browser window.

Table A350
Immigrant arrivals in Canada, 1852 to 1977

Source: for 1852 to 1976, Department of Manpower and Immigration, 1976 Immigration Statistics, table 2, p. 4, Ottawa, 1977; for 1977, Employment and Immigration Canada, Immigration 1977, Quarterly Statistics, Fourth Quarter, table 2, p. 7.

For a discussion of the history of collection of immigration statistics, their conceptual consistency and their reliability, see Kenneth Buckley, "Population and Migration", in the Historical Statistics of Canada, first edition, pp. 10-11.

Table A351-368 Immigration to Canada by intended occupations and dependents, 1953 to 1976. Opens a new browser window.

Table A351-368
Immigration to Canada by intended occupations and dependents, 1953 to 1976

Source: for 1953 to 1960, first edition of Historical Statistics of Canada p. 23; for 1961 to 1976, Department of Manpower and Immigration, Immigration Statistics, 1961 to 1976.

For distribution of immigration to Canada by intended occupations and dependents for 1932 to 1952, according to an older classification, and for distribution of immigration to Canada by occupational groups, sex of adults, children, from overseas and the U.S., and from overseas, for 1904 to 1951, see first edition of this volume, pp. 11-12 and 23-25.

Table A369-384 Immigration to Canada by age, sex and marital status, 1933 to 1976. Opens a new browser window.

Table A369-384
Immigration to Canada by age, sex and marital status, 1933 to 1976

Source: for 1933 to 1960, first edition of this volume, p. 26; for 1961 to 1976, Department of Manpower and Immigration, Immigration Statistics, 1961 to 1976. Greater details on age and marital status may be found in this annual publication.

Table A385-416 Immigration to Canada by country of last permanent residence, 1956 to 1976. Opens a new browser window.

Table A385-416
Immigration to Canada by country of last permanent residence, 1956 to 1976

Source: for 1956 to 1976, Department of Manpower and Immigration, Immigration Statistics, 1956 to 1976. Only a selected number of countries are presented in this volume. The source publication provides greater detail.


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