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Rail Transport (Series T1-82)
Water Transport and Canal Statistics (Series T83-141)
Roads and Road Transport (Series T142-194)
Civil Aviation (Series T195-246)
Oil and Gas Pipelines (Series T247-250)
Transportation Accident Victims (Series T251-292)
Post Office Statistics (Series T293-314)
Telecommunications Carrier Industry (Series 315-352)
There was no section chief for this chapter. The work of preparing text and tables was done in the Transportation and Communications Division of Statistics Canada, under the Director, G.E. Clarey. The officers principally responsible for both text and tables were Miss June Forgie and Mr. Murray McRae of that division. Advice in the early stages of the work was given by John Baldwin, Department of Economics, Queen's Univeristy.
The data of this section are in nine subsections as follows: rail transport, (series T1-82); water transport and canal statistics, (series T83-141); roads and road transport, (series T142-194); civil aviation, (series T195-246); oil and gas pipelines, (series T247-250); transportation accident victims (series T251-292); post office statistics, (series T293-314); telecommunications carrier industry, (series T315-352) and radio and television, (series T353-359).
Published sources of data are mainly Statistics Canada publications (formerly Dominion Bureau of Statistics). The following publications are given in the order in which they appear. For rail transport: Statistics Canada, Railway Transport: Parts I to VI, (Catalogues 52-207 to 52-212), issues for 1952 to 1975; and its predecessor, Steam Railways, for 1946 to 1951; Canada Year Book, (Catalogue 11-202), various issues, 1946 to 1975. For water transport: Shipping seagoing and inland vessels arrived at and departed from Canadian ports, Water Transport Section, Transportation and Communication Division, Statistics Canada, for 1960 to 1975; for 1971 to 1975, the Saint Lawrence Seaway Development Corporation, Traffic Report for the St. Lawrence Seaway, annual issues for 1946 to 1970; Statistics Canada, Canal Statistics, (Catalogue 54-201) annual issues, for 1960 to 1969; Saint Lawrence Seaway Development Corporation, 1959 to 1969 Annual Reports; Statistics Canada, Shipping Report, Parts I to V, (Catalogues 54-202 to 54-207. For road transport: Statistics Canada, Road and Street Mileage and Expenditure, (Catalogue 53-201), and its predecessors, Highway and the Motor Vehicle in Canada and Highway Statistics; The Motor Vehicle: Parts I to IV, (Catalogues 53-217 to 53-220); Statistics Canada, Passenger Bus and Urban Transit, and its predecessors, (Catalogue 53-215); Statistics Canada, Motor Carriers - Freight and Household Goods Movers, (Catalogue 53-222); Statistics Canada, For-hire Trucking Survey, (Catalogue 53-224). For Canadian commercial aviation: for 1970 to 1975, Statistics Canada, Air Carrier Operations in Canada, (Catalogue 51-002), October-December issues; for 1960 to 1969, Civil Aviation, (Catalogue 51-202), annual issues; Canadian Civil Aircraft Register, for 1961 to 1975, annual March 31 issues; 'Licensed Civil Airports' from the Canada Year Book, various issues 1961 to 1974; Arriving and Departing Civil Flights at Selected International Airports, Transport Canada, annual issues from 1960 to 1975; Statistics Canada, Aircraft Activity Statistics, formerly Aircraft Movement Statistics, (Catalogue 51-203), annual issues. For oil and gas pipelines, for 1969 to 1975, Statistics Canada, Oil Pipe Line Transport, (Catalogue 55-201), annual issues; for 1958 to 1968, Statistics Canada, Manufacturing and Primary Industries Division; for 1969 to 1975, Statistics Canada, Gas Utilities, (Catalogue 55-002), December issue each year; Statistics Canada, Gas Utilities: Transport and Distribution Systems, (Catalogue 57-205), annual issues; for 1960 to 1968, Statistics Canada, Manufacturing and Primary Industries Division; for 1938 to 1967, Statistics Canada, Railway Transport, Part IV: Operating and Traffic Statistics, for 1950 to 1967, Statistics Canada, special release of April 1969, "Pipeline Statistics"; for 1938 to 1967, Statistics Canada, Railway Transport: Part IV, Operating and Traffic Statistics, (Catalogue 52-210). For transportation accident victims: for 1973 to 1975, Water Transport Accident Victims, from Transport Canada, Marine Casualty Investigations, Canadian Coast Guard; for 1946 to 1972, Statistics Canada, Water Transportation, (Catalogue 54-205), annual issues; Statistics Canada, Motor Vehicle Traffic Accidents, (Catalogue 53-306), annual issues; Statistics Canada, Civil Aviation, (Catalogue 51-202), annual issues; for 1970 to 1975, Transport Canada, Aviation Safety Investigation; for 1946 to 1947, the publication, Transport Canada. The Post Office series: for 1961 to 1975, were provided by R.W. Jones, Comptroller, Post Office Department, and are based upon the material collected in the department and presented in the Annual Report of the Canada Post Office. For telecommunications carrier industry: Statistics Canada, Telephone Statistics, (Catalogue 56-203), issues for the years 1961 to 1975; long distance rates based on records of Bell Canada; Statistics Canada, Telecommunications Statistics, formerly Telegraph and Cable Statistics, (Catalogue 56-201), annual, from 1961 to 1975. For radio and television: Statistics Canada, Radio and Television Broadcasting, (Catalogue 56-204), annual issues.
The tables are available as comma separated value files (csv). They may be viewed using a variety of software. You may have to create an association between your software application and the csv files. The pdf files should be used to verify table formats. For example, footnotes appear in a column to the right of the cell they reference in the csv files; while in the pdf files footnotes appear as superscript numbers.
The systematic collection of railway statistics began in Canada for the year ending 30 June 1875, following the enactment of the Railway Statistics Act in 1875 which required all railways to furnish annual statements to the Department of Railways and Canals. Annual collection of data has continued to the present.
J.L. McDougall, the author of the chapter on Transportation and Communication in the first edition of Historical Statistics of Canada, (HSC I) provided a superlative treatment of the statistics for the earlier years of rail transport and the reader is referred to page 516-7 of the first edition.
Since World War II, rail transport has lost its absolute dominance of internal transport in Canada, with the development of other modes of transport and the infrastructures necessary to support them.
There have been great changes in the railway industry itself. Steam engines have gone and unit trains have arrived. Piggyback, containers and all manner of specialized equipment for the transport of freight have been developed, whereas intercity passenger traffic has undergone a steady decline.
These new trends in rail transport began around 1946 and the following statistical series in general cover the period 1946 to 1975. The exception is the series Railway Accident Victims, T251-260, which begins in 1907 and is included in the new section on Transportation Accidents T251-292. For earlier years, as noted above, the reader is referred to HSC I.
Source: for 1948 to 1975, Statistics Canada, Railway Transport: Part I, issues from 1952 to 1975; for 1946 to 1947, Steam Railways: Part III, 1951 issue, page 143.
Statistics show railway capital at 31 December.
Under the terms of the Canadian National Railways Capital Revision Act the 'Government of Canada - Shareholders' Account' formerly called 'Dominion Government - Proprietors' Equity' was increased by $736,385,405 of the Canadian National Railways (CN) 4 per cent non-cumulative preferred stock and the 'Government of Canada - Loans and Debentures' account was reduced by a similar amount. These changes took effect 1 January 1952.
During 1963 there was a decrease in capital stock and in the funded debt of Canadian railways. Capital stock declined 0.8 per cent to $4,975 million while funded debt guaranteed by the federal government dropped $252 million.
Railways, miles of line in operation, rolling stock, locomotives, cars in passenger and company service, 1946 to 1975
Source: for 1948 to 1975, Statistics Canada, Railway Transport: Part I, issues from 1952 to 1975; for 1946 to 1947, Statistics of Steam Railways, annual issues for 1946 and 1947.
In series T11, the 1948 figure includes 84 diesel locomotives formerly included in switching, and therefore under steam (series T10) in 1947. By 1956, when diesels were first differentiated by purpose, there were 850 road-switcher units and 516 yard-switcher units included in the diesel total of 1,895.
The CN completed their dieselization program during 1960, retiring all remaining steam locomotives from service, while the Canadian Pacific Limited (CP) had only 364 steam units to retire at the end of the year. Steam locomotives in Canadian service at the close of 1960 numbered 403 units, down from 1,514 units in 1959 and 2,849 units in 1956. Diesel units, on the other hand, totalled 3,308 in 1960, up from 3,155 a year previous and 1,895 in 1956.
By 1961, steam locomotives declined to 197 units; diesels remained virtually unchanged at 3,309.
A year later, the conversion from steam locomotives to diesel locomotives in the transportation service of Canadian railways was completed. Some steam locomotives remained in existence but were used only in work train or yard service with the last remaining coal burning steam locomotive retired in 1965.
In 1952 freight cars were reclassified, the number of classes was enlarged, and the new classification was extended back to 1948. The old classes 'flat', 'stock', 'tank' and 'refrigerator' remained unchanged. 'Box' cars were separated into 'automobile' and 'box'. 'Coal' cars were separated into 'ballast', 'gondola', 'hopper' and 'ore' cars, and most of the 'other' cars were distributed over the same four classes.
To economize in space here, the old classes were continued after 1948, though there remain few cars in the 'other' group; but the numbers in the new classes are shown below. From the data of the new classification, series T21 was obtained by adding box and automobile cars together and series T24 by adding ballast, gondola, hopper and ore cars. The new figure published for box cars can be found by subtracting the number of automobile cars from the box car total as shown in series T21.
|Number of freight cars in service in new classes, on 31 December, 1948 to 1975|
Source: Railway Transport part I, 1960-1975 annual issues and similar tables in Railway Transport for earlier years.
Source: for 1957 to 1975, Statistics Canada, Railway Transport: Part I, issues for 1960 to 1975; for 1952 to 1956, Railway Transport: Part I and Part II, issues for 1952 to 1956; for 1946 to 1951, Statistics of Steam Railways, each annual issue.
T28-32 and T36-38. Revenue train mileage and freight car mileage do not include work train service. Motor unit cars are those cars which have space for the carrying of any one or all of passengers, baggage, express and mail and which also carry their own power unit.
With the 1971 issues of Railway Transport, the results of an extensive review of the railway surveys affected many of the series. In particular, a new concept, 'locomotive unit-miles' replaced the 'locomotive' or 'engine' mileage data of previous years. Series T33 and T35 therefore terminate in 1970. The table below shows the new series, which counts mileage for each locomotive, rather than that of the first engine only.
|Locomotive unit-miles 1971-1975
(millions of miles)
Railways, freight tonnage and mileage, passenger traffic and passenger mileage, 1946 to 1975
Source: for 1956 to 1975, Statistics Canada, Railway Transport: Part I, issues for 1956 to 1975; for 1952 to 1955, Railway Transport: Part I and Part II, individual issues for each year; for 1946 to 1951, Statistics of Steam Railways, each annual issue.
T40. Revenue freight ton-miles is the mathematical product of tons carried times distance hauled; for example, 1,000 tons hauled 1,000 miles or 10,000 tons hauled 100 miles each produce 1,000,000 ton-miles.
T41. Revenue and non-revenue freight ton-miles differs from series T40 only in that it includes freight hauled on company service as well as revenue freight.
T42. Average load per loaded car-mile shows increasing values over the years partly because of a rise in the carrying capacity of the equipment, partly because of a change in the nature of the traffic handled. A loss of less than carload freight or a gain in ore traffic would tend to raise it even if there were no change in uniformly weighted series.
T43. Average length of freight haul is affected by changes in the nature of the traffic carried (see the note to series T42). It is calculated by taking the ratio of series T40, 'Revenue freight ton-miles', divided by the sum of series T47, 'Freight originating in Canada' and T48, 'Freight received from U.S. roads'. As it does not include the U.S. portion of an international freight haul, the series is biased downward by this omission.
T44. In 1970, the passenger details of 'GO Transit' were added to the series. 'GO Transit' is an expanded rail commuter service inaugurated 23 May 1967 by the province of Ontario and operating between Hamilton and Pickering under an agreement with Canadian National. There were 4.8 million passengers in 1969, 4.7 million in 1968 and 2.2 million in 1967.
T46. The average revenue passenger journey is the ratio of T45, 'Revenue passenger-miles', divided by T44, 'Revenue passengers'. The decline in the average passenger journey since 1969 is largely due to the addition of 'GO Transit' passenger detail to the series since 1970 (see the note to series T44).
Source: for 1956 to 1975, Statistics Canada, Railway Transport: Part I individual issues; for 1952 to 1955, Railway Transport: Part I and Part II individual issues for each year; for 1946 to 1951, Statistics of Steam Railways, each annual issue.
During the period from 1946 to 1975, a number of changes have occurred in the reporting of freight traffic statistics which have directly affected the commodity series. Until 1969, it was possible to provide series which were consistent, albeit with some perturbations. The break came in 1970 and since that time, the commodity series have been structured on Statistics Canada's Standard Commodity Classification (S.C.C.) requiring a somewhat different presentation.
The major changes in this period begin with 1 January 1954 when freight traffic statistics were reported on a 90-code Freight Commodity Statistics Classification, a change from the previous 78-code system. As of 1 January 1957 freight traffic statistics were reported on the 262-class Freight Commodity Statistics Classification of the Association of American Railroads. Minor modifications for the purposes of its application within Canada resulted in a 266-code classification.
This classification was used from 1957 through 1969. Then, as noted above, revenue freight traffic was compiled on the basis of a new 320-commodity breakdown based on Statistics Canada's S.C.C.
Express-rated traffic was included under non-carload freight.
A bridge between the old 266-commodity series and the new 320-commodity series provides the 1969 data in both series. The difference in total carload traffic is due to a switch from a 'received' to a 'forward' basis of reporting by certain railways. The total is, however, over a million tons higher because of the inclusion of the aforementioned express-rated traffic in the non-carload category.
T47-48. Freight originating in Canada and freight received from U.S. roads are not homogeneous series. The heading of T48 in the source is 'received from U.S. roads' in 1956 to 1975. It is 'received from foreign connections' in 1946 to 1955. The result is that traffic received at Canadian ports for furtherance by rail appears in series T47 from 1956 to 1975; it is in series T48 in the years 1946 to 1955 inclusive.
Source: for 1956 to 1975, Statistics Canada, Railway Transport, issues from 1956 to 1975; for 1952 to 1955, Railway Transport: Part I and Part II, individual issues for each year; for 1946 to 1951, Statistics of Steam Railways, each annual issue.
On 1 January 1956 CN and CP commenced reporting on the basis of the Uniform Classification of Accounts for Class I, Common Carriers by Railway. This method of reporting was also adopted by six other railways and was effective for all railways 1 January 1957.
T59. Total gross earnings include all rail line, water line and incidental earnings. (The last year for inclusion of the water line was 1956. See the previous edition of HSC I for details.)
T60. Total rail revenue includes, in addition to the items in series T61-65, revenue from baggage, sleeping parlour and chair cars, milk hauling, switching and water transfers.
T61. Freight receipts are for road haul service. They do not include switching or water transfers.
Railway freight operating revenues in 1961 were augmented by $50.0 million in interim payments from the federal government following recommendations of the MacPherson Royal Commission on Transportation.
Included in freight revenue for 1963 was federal government compensatory payments of approximately $22.0 million related to the Freight Rates Reduction Act and $50.0 million related to recommendations of the MacPherson Royal Commission on Transportation. Of these amounts some $6.0 million was referable to 1962.
T62. Passenger revenue is revenue from road transportation of passengers only. It does not include revenue from the sale of space or any other auxiliary activity.
T64. Express revenue is not a homogeneous series. From 1946 to 1955 the series includes the gross express revenues from CN; other roads reported only the rail portion of express revenues. In and after 1956, all roads conformed to the latter practice.
T65. Under the National Transportation Act of 1967 a number of specific subsidies for services provided in the national interest were replaced by payments to the railways of transitional subsidies or 'normal payments' beginning in 1967. Such payments in 1967 aggregated $108.9 million while in 1968 they were reduced to $95.1 million, in 1969 to $81.3 million and in 1970 to $67.4 million.
T66. Incidental revenue is a sum of a number of minor items such as revenue from dining and buffet cars, news and restaurant service, demurrage, grain elevators, rent of buildings and sundry other. The drop in this item after 1955 is the result of a reclassification in the source of 'telegraphs and telephones', later described as 'commercial communications', from series T66, 'incidental', to 'other income, rail, and not rail'. The latter is, in the main, income from outside interests of railways and is not included in series T59.
T67-73. Operating expenses are given by the familiar functional groups. The growth in general expenses, series T73, is due largely to the rise of the custom of paying pensions to all retired employees and to the custom of funding the accrued liability by annual charges to expense during the working life of the employee. In 1926 the charge to expenses for pensions was $1.5 million; in 1938, $6.6 million; in 1948, $18.9 million; in 1959, $59.5 million.
T71. For the period 1946 to 1956 inclusive, Water Line expenses have been included with the series. (For further information see HSC I.)
Source: For series T74 and T76-78, for 1959 to 1975, Statistics Canada, Railway Transport; Part I annual issues 1960 to 1975; for 1955 to 1958, Canada Year Book, 1960, pp. 814-15; for 1946 to 1954, Canada Year Book, 1948-49, pp. 689-90. For series T75, freight revenue per revenue freight ton-mile is available for the CPR back to 1885 (see HSC I) and this series is provided for purposes of continuation.
Source: for 1960 to 1975, Statistics Canada, Railway Transport: Part VI, annual issues 1960 to 1975; for years before 1960, Railway Transport, and its predecessor, Statistics of Steam Railways in Canada, annual issues.
The employment statistics effective 1 January 1964 report in accordance with the Uniform Canadian Classification of Railway Employees. From 1956 to 1963 inclusive, the Canadian Classification of Railway Employees was used.
The Canada Labour Standards Code which became effective 1 July 1965 set minimum wages, working hours, vacations and general holidays for employees. The code provides for: a minimum wage of $1.25 per hour for all employees; two weeks vacation after one year; and eight hours work per day, 40 hours per week, with overtime for service beyond these hours.
In 1966, labour negotiations involving unions representing non-operating and train service employees and the railways reached an impasse and a seven-day suspension of railway operations resulted from 26 August to 2 September. On 1 September, Parliament met in an emergency session to deal with the situation and enacted legislation (Maintenance of Railway Operation Act, 1966) which called for a return to work by employees and provided for an 18 per cent wage increase phased over a two-year period.
Negotiations which followed the 1966 railway strike resulted in agreements signed early in 1967 with most of the non-operating unions. These agreements provided for basic wage increases totalling 24 per cent spread over a three-year period from 1 January 1966 to 31 December 1968 plus fringe benefits.
In 1969, the major railways concluded settlements with the United Transportation Union, which represents trainmen, providing for a 13 per cent increase over two years plus fringe benefits.
Series T79 shows the average number of railway employees. It does not include express, communications and other outside operations employees. Two methods of counting are permissable under the Uniform Canadian Classification of Railway Employees. These are based on (a) mid-month count of employees on payroll, or (b) a more complicated calculation described as follows: to one-half of the sum of the total number of employees who work a specified number of days in the first semi-monthly pay period and the total number of employees working the same number of days in the second semi-monthly pay period, add the total number of employees paid once a month.
Since 1963, CN has used the second method. The CP uses both methods. Prior to 1964, the count was taken at a fixed date each month.
Monthly and annual comparisons of CN counts, taken both ways, have indicated that method (b) tends to reduce the average number of employees by about 3 per cent.
T80 and 81. Hours worked and total compensation exclude express, communications and outside operations employees.
Where figures of days worked are given in the source for daily rated employees they are converted on the basis of one day equals eight hours.
In series T81, 'Total compensation' is the gross amount paid to employees and charged to operating, capital and other company accounts as well as to 'outside parties'. This includes pay for vacations, holidays and leaves of absence; it is calculated before deductions for income tax, unemployment insurance contributions and other purposes; it excludes fringe benefits and retroactive wage payments.
The movements through each of the canals of the St. Lawrence River system are so various that the published aggregate data can be taken as indicative only of broad trends. The limitations are still greater for totals through all the canals. A further difficulty is that the classifications in the canal statistics are not the same as in the railway statistics so that only occasionally can one make meaningful cross comparisons.
The major water movements have always been of bulk cargo carrying the freight of one consignor to one destination, with mechanical loading and unloading. The contract of carriage may be for a single cargo or for the movement of an agreed tonnage within the navigation season at the convenience of the carrier. The freight to be paid is negotiated as between shipper and the carrier.
The carriage of general merchandise upon the Great Lakes, in which the carrier holds itself out to accept the goods of many shippers, is usually done at differentials under the rails rates. This has normally been a minor part of the total tonnage handled, but a more important part of the total revenue earned.
The rise of import and export traffic through the lake ports from 1959 onward with the opening of the St. Lawrence Seaway has added a new dimension to what had been, until then, a relatively simple operation.
The basic source of data on canals and canal traffic is Canal Statistics, which appeared as a supplement to the report of the Department of Railways and Canals from 1886 to 1918 and which was published by Statistics Canada until 1970. The Statistics Canada Shipping Report, which begins with 1938, continues statistics of foreign shipping formerly published by the Department of National Revenue. In this form it was of limited value; but beginning with the year 1952 the report was greatly expanded to cover a wider list of countries of origin and destination in foreign trade, and the coasting trade was reported fully for the first time. The list of commodities was also revised to follow more closely the S.I.C. of 1948.
The publication Canal Statistics terminated in 1970 as the principal data were a duplication of the series available from the Saint Lawrence Seaway Development Corporation.
Shipping, seagoing and inland vessels arrived at and departed from Canadian ports, 1946 to 1975
Source: Statistics Canada: for 1960 to 1975, data supplied by the Water Transport Section, Transportation and Communications Division; for 1946 to 1959, data supplied by the Transportation Section, Public Finance and Transportation Division as recorded in HSC I.
Canals,. total traffic through Canadian canals by nationality of vessel and origin of freight, navigation seasons, 1946 to 1970
Source: Statistics Canada: for 1959 to 1970, Canal Statistics, annual issues from 1960 to 1970; for 1949 to 1958 Canada Year Book, 1960, p. 849; for 1946 to 1948, Canada Year Book, 1951, p. 760.
These series terminate with the final issue of Canal Statistics in 1970.
T90-91. Number and registered tonnage of Canadian and British vessels are mainly Canadian registered vessels. The British vessels were unimportant until the opening of the St. Lawrence Seaway in 1959. In 1960 there were transits of 1,303 British vessels with net registered tonnage of 3,971,587 tons. By 1969, there were 1,170 transits with 4,962,991 net registered tonnage.
T92-93. Number and registered tonnage of United States and other foreign vessels were mainly United States vessels to 1950. Thereafter other foreign shipping increased steadily though still much less than United States shipping until 1959. From 1959 onward other foreign tonnage was much greater than United States tonnage.
Canals, cargo tonnage through St. Lawrence canals, 1946 to 1975 and associated toll revenues, 1959 to 1975
Source: For series T97-105: for 1971 to 1975, Saint Lawrence Seaway Development Corporation, Traffic Report of the St. Lawrence Seaway, annual issues; for 1946 to 1970, Statistics Canada Canal Statistics, each issue from 1946 to 1970. For series T106: for 1970 to 1975, Saint Lawrence Seaway Development Corporation, Annual Report, each issue from 1970 to 1975; for 1960 to 1969, Saint Lawrence Seaway Development Corporation, 1969 Annual Report, Tenth Anniversary, p. 18; for 1959, Saint Lawrence Seaway Development Corporation, Annual Report, French edition, p. 19.
Series T97-103 cover tonnage of the named class in both directions.
T106. The administration of the canals at Cornwall and Lachine as well as the Welland and Sault Ste Marie canals was turned over to the Saint Lawrence Seaway Development Corporation on 1 April 1959. The St. Lawrence Seaway was opened to commercial traffic on 25 April 1959. The toll revenues in the series are those collected in Canada and do not include United States tolls.
Canals, tonnage through Welland Canal, 1946 to 1975, and associated toll or lockage revenue, 1959 to 1975
Source: For series T107-115: for 1971 to 1975, Saint Lawrence Seaway Development Corporation, Traffic Report of the St. Lawrence Seaway, annual issues; for 1946 to 1970, Statistics Canada, Canal Statistics, each issue from 1946 to 1970. For series T116: for 1970 to 1975, Saint Lawrence Seaway Development Corporation, Annual Report, each issue from 1970 to 1975; for 1960 to 1969, Saint Lawrence Seaway Development Corporation, 1969 Annual Report, Tenth Anniversary p. 18; for 1959, Saint Lawrence Seaway Development Corporation, Annual Report, French edition, p. 19.
The Welland and the Sault canals are both parts of an international waterway and therefore movements between U.S. ports will be contained in their figures. T116 - (see notes for series T106 and footnote for series T116).
Source: for 1946 to 1970, Statistics Canada, Canal Statistics, various years.
Water freights on grain from Thunder Bay are the result of a bargain between the shipper and the vessel owner for each movement. The series given herein are weighted annual averages of such bargains. These prices include all costs of loading, unloading, handling and other charges. At mid-summer 1955, these charges for movement from the Head of the Lakes to the Georgian Bay ports and Goderich totalled $11.15 per 1,000 bushels, which equalled 37.2 cents per ton, or about 28 per cent of the nominal charge of 4 cents per bushel. This gives a net revenue to the ship of 0.178 cents per ton-mile for a weighted average distance of 537 miles.
At May 1955, the rate on grain from the St. Lawrence to U.K. ports was reported as 74 shillings and sixpence per long ton. Out of this amount the ship was reported as bearing a cost of $2.10 per long ton. This left a net revenue to the ship of 0.211 cents per short ton on an average distance of 3,450 miles.
Until 1959 the freight to Montreal normally included a transfer from a large vessel at Port Colborne up to 1932, and at some port between Port Colborne and Prescott thereafter, to a canal-sized vessel.
These series terminate in 1970 with the final publication of Canal Statistics.
Number and registered net tonnage and tons of cargo loaded, vessels departed from Canadian ports in coastwise shipping, 1946 to 1975
Source: Statistics Canada, Shipping Report: Part III, Coastwise Shipping, 1976. Appendix A, p. 69. For purposes of economy, only the departure data is presented here. The data provided in the source also provides the complementary arrival information which, after the inclusion of data for non-custom ports in 1957, varies less than 1.5 per cent from the departure data.
T125. Prior to 1952, coastwise cargo data is not available.
Cargoes loaded and unloaded at selected ports for and from foreign countries, 1946 to 1975
Source: Statistics Canada, for 1961 to 1975, Shipping Report: Part IV, annual issues; for 1946 to 1960, Shipping Report, each annual issue.
While road transport has had the most vigorous growth of all modes of transportation, the quality of its statistics has been variable to an extreme. The development of this mode has long been in the hands of a large number of entrepreneurs who have been able to start business with a limited initial capital and to grow without large appeals to the capital market. Problems of definition as well as maintaining records of 'births' and 'deaths' of trucking undertakings have been a formidable constraint on the provision of consistent statistical series. In the early 1970s, all surveys in this area were reassessed and reformulated. Those who are interested in recent statistics should consult Statistics Canada reports: Passenger Bus and Urban Transit, Motor Carriers - Freight and Household Goods Movers, For-hire Trucking Survey.
Source: Statistics Canada: for 1974 and 1975, Road and Street Length and Financing, each issue; for 1958 to 1973, Road and Street Mileage and Expenditure, annual issues; for 1946 to 1957, Highway Statistics, annual issues.
The classification used here are too coarse to permit a classification of road mileage other than to give a broad indication of the development of roads. The former breakdown of rural and urban mileage was abandoned in 1969 when it became impossible to apply consistent definitions across Canada. For presentation purposes here, the series includes both rural and urban, federal, provincial and municipal mileage.
While most highways in Canada are two-lane, by 1974, there were 3,332 miles of non-municipal road with four or more lanes, of which 976 miles were reported by Ontario and 1,037 miles were reported by Quebec.
T147-194. Motor vehicle registrations, by province, 1903 to 1975
Source: Statistics Canada: for 1975: Road Motor Vehicles, Registrations; for 1960 to 1974, The Motor Vehicle: Part III, Registrations, annual issues 1960 to 1974; for 1948 to 1959, The Motor Vehicle, each annual issue; for 1945 to 1947, The Motor Vehicle in Canada, annual issues; for 1935 to 1946, The Highway and Motor Vehicle in Canada, annual issues; for 1904 to 1934, The Highway and the Motor Vehicle in Canada, 1934, table 6, pp. 12-17; for 1903, Ontario Ministry of Transportation and Communications.
Motor vehicles were registered for the first time in 1903 by the province of Ontario. New Brunswick followed in 1905, Quebec, Saskatchewan and Alberta in 1906, British Columbia in 1907, Manitoba in 1908, Nova Scotia in 1909 and Prince Edward Island in 1913.
Before reciprocal arrangements were made in regard to the operation of motor vehicles registered in other provinces and in the United States, a large proportion of the cars registered in Ontario were owned outside the province, largely in the United States. In 1906, the first year they were recorded, 659 of these cars, or 56 per cent of the total registered, were outside cars. In 1908 they numbered 1,165 cars or 67 per cent and in 1914, 6,415 cars, or 20 per cent, and by 1917 were reduced to 386 cars, the reciprocal arrangement having become effective in 1916.
Total registrations showed a continuous and rapid growth to 1931 when a decline was recorded. Growth in registrations resumed in 1934, continuing until 1941. A decline in registrations from 1942 to 1945 coincided with the war years. Beginning in 1946, when passenger cars were again produced, registrations have continued to increase each year.
Commercial vehicles include buses and trucks both large and small. In recent years, the use of the term 'commercial' to cover many of the smaller trucks is misleading. These are often used for personal transportation instead of a passenger car.
Motorcycle registrations, which suffered a decline in the 1950s, rose sharply in 1965 with the advent of large importations of motorcycles from Japan. Although for most of Canada the use of a motorcycle for transportation is extremely seasonal, an aggressive sales policy has been a major factor behind a ten-fold increase in registrations from 1962 to 1975. It should be recognized that for most provinces off-road motorcycles do not require registration.
In the 1970s, the use of 'mopeds' became popular particularly in Quebec. For 1975, the total registrations for Canada and for Prince Edward Island, Nova Scotia and Quebec include registered 'mopeds'. The total 1975 registrations for Canada and these three provinces therefore are each larger than the corresponding sums of passenger automobile, commercial vehicle and motorcycle registrations.
The series of registrations of motor vehicles over the years contain a number of individual provincial changes in concept and often reflect a change in the provincial administration procedures. While attempts have been made to avoid duplicate registrations of the same vehicle within each province, it has not been possible to remove duplicate registrations between provinces. Such duplication will occur when a commercial vehicle is registered in more than one province or when an owner changes his province of residence and re-registers his vehicle(s). Occasionally, with the development of computer systems, it has required heroic efforts to provide an annual breakdown of registrations and ensure that registrations for vehicles no longer registered are removed from the total counts. While some station wagons prior to 1960 were included with commercial vehicles for British Columbia, the distinction between passenger and commercial vehicles is based more on the nature of the vehicle than the uses to which it is put. Taxi cabs are therefore included with passenger vehicles and small trucks used principally for personal transport are included under 'commercial vehicles'. In addition to trucks, 'commercial vehicles' includes buses, road tractors, ambulances, etc. but generally excludes non-powered vehicles such as trailers.
Registrations for the Northwest Territories were included with those of the Yukon Territory from 1947 onward. Beginning in 1972, they were published separately. For economies of space, their registrations are combined in series T191-194. Shown here separately, their registrations are as follows:
|Registrations of motor vehicles|
The drop in the 1975 commercial vehicle registrations for the Northwest Territories is due to the removal of 1,048 registered vehicles largely involved in construction.
T167 and 169. In Quebec, the practice in registration has been to register every motor vehicle in the province. The drop in commercial vehicles in 1972 reflects the removal of farm tractors, construction vehicles and snowmobiles from the count.
The term 'civil aviation' is often used to refer to that part of civil aviation which more properly should be called 'commercial aviation'. While the commercial aspects of civil aviation are of great interest, there are data available concerning non-commercial aviation as well. In the following series, therefore, the term 'civil aviation' is reserved for those cases where the data refers to both commercial and private aircraft or activity, otherwise the term 'commercial aviation' is used.
With the immense changes in aviation since 1946, there have been parallel changes in the collecting of statistics. In 1960, a major revision of the statistical program was required to reflect the revised licence classification of the former Air Transport Board (now the Air Transport Committee of the Canadian Transportation Commission). In 1970, a major revision of the operating and financial statistics was related to the development of computer programs designed to handle the statistical reports of the air transport industry. Each of these changes has had a profound effect on the statistics gathered as some information has been dropped and other items added. In several cases, revisions have been made to the civil aviation data presented in the previous edition of HSC I. Such revisions are indicated in the individual notes on each series.
In the following tables, the term 'goods' encompasses freight, express and excess baggage. From 1947 onwards, transoceanic services are included in all applicable tables. Data for Canadian carriers such as hours and ton-miles are computed to cover their entire route, while that for foreign carriers are computed on an 'in Canada only' basis.
From 1951 onward, transborder traffic has been traffic between Canada and the United States, although services to Florida and Hawaii were not included under this designation until 1970. Until 1949, Canada-Newfoundland traffic was also included under transborder traffic.
From 1947 to 1950, series T206-208 include a small volume of transoceanic traffic, not reported separately until 1951. From 1951 only scheduled (unit toll) traffic is included.
Source: Statistics Canada: for 1970 to 1975: Air Carrier Operations in Canada, October - December annual issues; for 1960 to 1969, Civil Aviation, annual issues; for 1946 to 1959, HSC I.
Data for 1960, as included in HSC I, were revised to include the activity of group V carriers (gross annual flying revenues of less than $60,000). Series T195 and T196 include revenue and non-revenue passengers and goods until 1959. From 1960 onward, non-revenue passengers and goods are excluded. Series T198, hours flown, includes both revenue and non-revenue hours flown.
Canadian commercial aviation, domestic revenue traffic, scheduled services, 1946 to 1975
Source: Statistics Canada: for 1970 to 1975, Air Carrier Operations in Canada, October - December annual issues; for 1961 to 1969, Civil Aviation, annual issues; for 1946 to 1960, HSC I. See the general note to series T195-246 for the interpretation of the series headings.
Source: Statistics Canada: for 1970 to 1975, Air Carrier Operations in Canada, annual October - December issues; for 1960 to 1969, unavailable; for 1946 to 1959, HSC I.
Transborder traffic is traffic between Canada and the United States. See the general note to series T195-246 for the interpretation of the series headings.
Commercial aviation, transborder traffic via Canadian carriers, scheduled revenue traffic, 1946 to 1975
Source: Statistics Canada: for 1970 to 1975, Air Carrier Operations in Canada, October - December annual issues; for 1961 to 1969, Civil Aviation, annual issues; for 1946 to 1960, HSC I.
See the note to series T206-208 and the general note to series T195-246.
Commercial aviation, Atlantic and Pacific scheduled revenue traffic via Air Canada (Trans-Canada Air Lines) and CP Air Canadian Pacific Air Lines), 1947 to 1975
Source: same as for series T209-215.
Starting in 1970, flights to and from Hawaii are classified as transborder. Prior to 1970, these flights were included in the totals for 'Pacific services'. See the general note to series T195-246 for the interpretation of series headings.
Source: Statistics Canada: for 1970 to 1975, Air Carrier Operations in Canada, October - December annual issues; for 1960 to 1969, Civil Aviation, annual issues; for 1946 to 1959, HSC I.
Data for 1960 series T223 and T224, as included in HSC I, were revised to include the activity of group V of carriers (gross annual flying revenues of less than $60,000). Series T225, revenue miles flown, excluded group V carriers for the years 1960 to 1969.
Commercial aviation, operating revenues, passenger fares per unit of traffic and employment, Canadian carriers, 1946 to 1975
Source: Statistics Canada: for 1970 to 1975, Air Carrier Operations in Canada, October - December annual issues; for 1960 to 1969, Civil Aviation, annual issues; for 1946 to 1959, HSC I.
Series T226 has required complete revision to include the data for series T232, Non-flying services. In addition revisions have been made to the 1960 data as published in HSC I for series T230, Charter services, and series T231, Other flying revenues.
T233 and T234. Scheduled passenger revenue per passenger-miles is strictly not comparable before and after 1960, when reporting concepts were revised. For 1946 to 1960, series T279 refers to Air Canada (TCA) only. For 1946 to 1959, series T234 refers to the large independents (see HSC I).
Source: For series T236-238: for 1961 to 1975, Transport Canada, Civil Aircraft Register, annual March 31st issues; for 1946 to 1960, HSC I. For series T239: for 1961 to 1973, Canada Year Book, various issues 1961-1974; for 1946 to 1960, HSC I.
Arriving and departing civil flights at selected Canadian international airports, 1960 to 1975
Source: for 1960 to 1975, Transport Canada, Aircraft Movement Statistics, each annual issue.
These series generally exclude military arriving and departing flights and all flights designated local such as flying training flights which remain at all times under airport tower control.
During the period 1960 to 1970, the mix of private and commercial aircraft has changed considerably at most of these airports. The development of satellite airports at some cities has removed a major portion of private aircraft activity from the international airports. While Toronto International airport in 1975 was the busiest airport for itinerant movements, the total activity at such airports as St. Hubert, Pitt Meadows and Edmonton Municipal was actually greater than that of Toronto. Each of these airports has a large component of activity involving local movements of small private aircraft.
The transportation implications of oil and gas pipelines are sometimes overlooked in the presentation of statistical series. The four series presented here refer to transportation only and the user should refer to the source material for broader and more detailed information on pipelines.
Source: For series T247: for 1969 to 1975, Statistics Canada, Oil Pipe Line Transport, annual issues; for 1958 to 1968, Statistics Canada, Manufacturing and Primary Industries Division. For series T248: for 1969 to 1975, Statistics Canada, Gas Utilities, Transport and Distribution Systems, annual issues; for 1960 to 1968, Statistics Canada, Manufacturing and Primary Industries Division. For series T249: Statistics Canada, for 1968 to 1975, Oil Transport, annual issues 1969 to 1975; for 1950 to 1967, DBS Special Release, April 1969, Freight Ton-Miles in Canada, 1938-1967. For series T250: Statistics Canada, for 1968 to 1975, Gas Utilities, Transport and Distribution Systems, annual issues 1969 to 1975; for 1957 to 1967, DBS Special Release, April 1969, Freight Ton-Miles in Canada, 1938 to 1967.
T248. This series is an approximation to the transport revenue as it is derived from the total operating revenues of the natural gas transport systems less the value of the total gas supply (gas purchases, exchange gas, gas delivered to or withdrawn from underground storage and gas used) for the same gas transport systems.
The series presented here for railway transport, water transport, motor vehicle traffic and civil aviation accidents are not strictly comparable because of differing concepts and differing reporting procedures. Nevertheless, they provide important guides to the relative levels of accidents among the several modes of transportation as well as useful trend information.
Of the nearly 13,000 deaths which were due to accidents in Canada during 1975, 6,061 or 47 per cent were due to motor vehicle traffic accidents. While household accidents as well as accidents in the work place or during recreation account for the vast majority of injury accidents, transportation related accidents alone make up more than half of all accidental fatalities. Transportation has indeed left a distressing record.
Source: Statistics Canada: for 1956 to 1975, Railway Transport: Part I, annual issues 1960 to 1975; for 1952 to 1955, Railway Transport: Part I, individual issues for each year; for 1922 to 1951, Statistics of Steam Railways, each annual issue; for 1919 to 1921, Railway Statistics of Canada, each issue; for 1907 to 1918, Annual Report of the Department of Railways and Canals, each issue on railway statistics.
The number of fatal victims is probably a homogeneous series, but the number injured is affected by institutional factors. With the advent of workmen's compensation there was a stronger pressure to report employee injuries. Series T254 and T258, Others, include postal, express and pullman employees, and trespassers and automobile accident victims at level crossings.
Source: for 1973 to 1975, Transport Canada, Marine Casualty Investigations, Canadian Coast Guard; for 1946 to 1972, Statistics Canada: Water Transportation, individual annual issues.
The number of fatal victims is probably a homogeneous series, but a change in reporting procedure in 1973 has reduced the number of injured victims to those seriously injured victims as reported to Transport Canada.
The water transport accident series exclude small pleasure craft accidents and all accidents involving commercial fishing.
Source: Statistics Canada: for 1954 to 1975, Motor Vehicle Traffic Accidents, annual issues; for 1952 to 1954, Motor Vehicle Accidents, each issue; prior to 1952, The Motor Vehicle, annual issues.
Motor vehicle traffic accidents have been obtained by several differing methods, over the years, and with 13 different reporting jurisdictions (the 10 provinces, the two territories and the city of Montreal) there are a number of inconsistencies in concepts and collection procedures. While every attempt has been made to provide usable figures for the earlier years of the series, it is not possible to separate all the totals into their component parts. For careful interpretation, therefore, it is important to use the various footnotes to the series.
Source: for 1970 to 1975, Transport Canada, Aviation Safety Investigation; for 1948 to 1969, Statistics Canada, Civil Aviation, annual issues 1952 to 1969; for 1946 and 1947, Transport Canada; for 1931 to 1945, Transportation Accidents, 1946: A Summary of Railway, Motor Vehicle and Aircraft Accidents 1931-1945.
Without a doubt, civil aviation accident data are the most homogeneous and consistent of the several modes. It should be noted, however, that the number of injured victims refers to seriously injured victims only, and does not include more minor injuries which have been reported in the above sources for some of these years. While accidents involving commercial aircraft are included in these series, most of the accidents relate to small private aircraft. It is suggested, therefore, that those persons wishing to obtain information on those accidents involving commercial aircraft only consult the above sources.
The Post Office is both a means of communication and a user of transportation services. During the period covered, it has turned from rail to air for the carriage of most first-class mail. Its dependence on rail, although still substantial, has been supplemented by extensive use of motor vehicles.
Source: for 1961 to 1975, provided by R.W. Jones, Comptroller, Post Office Department, based upon material collected in the department and presented in the Annual Report of the Canada Post Office; for 1946 to 1960, HSC I.
These data include sub post offices as well as post offices. In the fiscal year ending 31 March 1975, there were 2,257 such sub post offices.
Source: same as for series T293-305 and Canada Year Book, various issues.
T306. Total number of land mail services is a total of the number of non-rail land services. It is a sum of the number of rural routes, series T307, and of other land mail services, series T308.
T307. Number of rural routes is the number of separate routes.
T308. Number of other land services includes stage services (post office to post office by land), side services (railway or ship depot to post office), parcel post delivery in cities, street letter-box pick-up service, conveyance of letter carriers, local services (general post office to postal stations) and the like. This series does not include rail services.
Source: same as for series T293-305.
T312. Non-rail land services include rural route services and other land services. See the note to series T308.
Source: same as for series T293-305.
T313. Gross postal revenues are total receipts for post office services before any charges are made against them. Receipts include postage stamps and other postage revenue (by far the largest item), commissions on money orders and postal notes, transit charges on mail from other countries and the like. The figures here exceed those in series G14 in HSC I since there was some netting of expenditure against receipts in obtaining that series. The data in these series are dependable since they are based on a complete accounting as a part of the administrative control of operations.
T314. Prices of first-class mail handled are based on estimates
At the beginning of the period covered, the telephone industry and the telegraph and cable industry were considered distinct. However, developments in transmission technology have been such that large systems in both industries have the capability of providing a wide range of similar services. Depending on the terminal instruments, both can transmit voice, print, electronic data and images in colour. They made possible radio and television networks, cablevision and remote computer terminals. For both, microwave, satellites and cables are transmission alternatives. Because their business reporting systems have developed on diverse lines, their statistics remain separate.
In the statistics for the telephone industry, the revenue from telephone services is not fully identifiable. For the other telecommunications carriers, the revenue from 'commercial telegraph tolls' was $12,709,881 or 53 per cent of total operating revenue in 1950; by 1960 'public and government messages' accounted for revenues of $17,149,202 or 29 per cent; the equivalent figures for 1975 were $11,211,839 and 4 per cent of total operating revenue.
The series updated from those in HSC I reflect the extent of technological and other changes. They are only superficially comparable.
Source: for 1961 to 1975, Statistics Canada, Telephone Statistics, issues for all years; for 1946 to 1960, HSC I.
Series T315-323 cover Canadian telephone systems including those of CN Telecommunications, which provides telephone services in the Yukon Territory and Northwest Territories, and in parts of British Columbia and Newfoundland. Thus from 1962, when CN Telecommunications began to operate telephone services in the Yukon Territory, these series are not fully comparable with the statistics provided in series T327-336.
T316. Business telephones include public pay telephones.
T318. Residence extensions are additional telephones which are or can be connected to the same circuit as the main residence telephone.
T319. Of the telephones connected to automatic central offices in 1975, 87.8 per cent had direct distance dialing capability.
T321-323. Statistics cover completed telephone calls only. Estimates of number of local calls are provided by the larger telephone systems; for each province and territory, Statistics Canada makes estimates for the remaining systems, on the assumption that telephones operated by these systems are used to the same extent as those of the reporting systems.
Long distance calls over the CN Telecommunications system are excluded.
Telecommunications carrier industry, gross capital expenditures on new construction and machinery and equipment, 1946 to 1975
Source: for 1960 to 1975, Statistics Canada and/or Department of Industry, Trade and Commerce, Private and Public Investment in Canada, Outlook, individual years; for 1946 to 1959, HSC I.
Series T324-326 show capitalized costs associated with the procurement, construction and installation of new durable plant and equipment, and include items such as architectural, legal and engineering fees, as well as value of work undertaken by firms with their own labour force. Construction includes not only buildings but also transmission lines and towers. In 1960, coverage was extended to telecommunications carriers other than telephone systems.
Telephone industry, property, revenues, expenses, taxes, interest, employees and wages, 1946 to 1975
Source: same as for series T315-323.
Series T327-335 give selected financial and operational statistics for the telephone industry. Excluded are other telecommunications carriers covered in series T343-352. See also introductory explanatory notes.
T327. Cost of property and equipment is gross property in use valued at cost. It includes land, buildings and other structures considered as outside plant, as well as equipment.
T328-329. Total revenues include revenues from all carriers, including local and toll service revenue for a wide variety of communications services, directory advertising and sales, plant and building rents and investment income.
T331. Comparability of the series has been maintained, although detail available from 1971 onward indicates that some non-operating expenses are included. For 1975 these amounted to $9,468,000.
Telephone industry, long-distance rates between Montreal and selected cities, 1918 to 1975
Source: records of Bell Canada and HSC I.
From 1965 onward the rates shown are for customer-dialed calls.
Source: Statistics Canada: for 1961 to 1975, Telecommunications Statistics, 1972 and later years, and Telegraph and Cable Statistics, various years; for 1946 to 1960, HSC I.
T342. Operating revenue includes both transmission and non-transmission revenue.
T343. Operating expenses are after deduction of expenses applicable to the carriers' rail operations and other departments.
T344. Non-transmission revenues are part of operating revenues, series T343. For 1960 and 1975 these non-transmission revenues were:
|Leased circuit||$ 70,214,651||$18,264,955|
|Other leased plant||44,801,666||6,104,495|
|Money order charges||692,811||230,060|
T345. Cost of property and equipment is the cost of the fixed assets in use before the deduction of accrued depreciation.
T346. Total telegrams transmitted is the sum of series T348 and T349.
T349. Total cablegrams is not the sum of series T351 and T352. Duplications have been removed, but transatlantic telex messages, numbering 4,484,501 in 1975, are included.
Number of private radio and television stations, with operating revenues and expenses, for private stations and Canadian Broadcasting Corporation (CBC), 1959 to 1975
Source: for 1959 to 1975, Statistics Canada, Radio and Television Broadcasting, annual issues from 1960 to 1975.
For additional information on broadcasting, the reader is also referred to the annual Statistics Canada publication, Cable Television.
T352 and T353. Number of radio and television stations, excluding the CBC, refer to the number of private stations for which the operating revenue and expenses are given. Stations operating on a non-commercial basis such as those operated by religious and educational institutes are not included.
T356 and T359. For several reasons, the data in this series for the CBC, while comparable with the data for the private stations, will not coincide with the annual report of the corporation. Since 1968, these series are based on a fiscal year ending 31 August rather than the annual report which covers a fiscal year ending 31 March. Additionally, some conceptual differences will affect the strict comparability. Major changes in reporting occurred in the period 1960-1961 making it impossible to provide comparable data before 1961.
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