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Section V: Internal Trade

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Mel. S. Moyer, York University

Retail Trade (Series V1-331)


Wholesale Trade (Series V332-409)


Service Establishments (Series V410-448)


The data of this section are in three parts. Series Vl-331 contain statistics on retail trade, series V332-409 on wholesale trade and series V410-448 on service establishments.

The published sources of data in this section are all publications of Statistics Canada. Accordingly, in the following list of published sources the name of the author, Statistics Canada or its predecessor, the Dominion Bureau of Statistics, is not repeated with each publication. The name of the printer is also omitted except on decennial census publications.

The tables are available as comma separated value files (csv). They may be viewed using a variety of software. You may have to create an association between your software application and the csv files. The pdf files should be used to verify table formats. For example, footnotes appear in a column to the right of the cell they reference in the csv files; while in the pdf files footnotes appear as superscript numbers.

General historical note on Internal Trade

The collection of data on internal merchandising and services in Canada, in common with many countries, began at a relatively late date. A first attempt at obtaining such data was made by the Dominion Bureau of Statistics in 1924 to cover retail and wholesale trade in 1923. The list of establishments to whom questionnaires were mailed was based upon information collected in the decennial census of 1921 and enlarged from other sources (see the note for the decennial census of merchandising and services below). The number of returns received, however, was not large enough to provide reliable results for the whole of retail and wholesale trade. No further attempt was made to collect internal trade data until the decennial census of 1931, though estimates of retail trade were later made for the period back to 1923.

Regular collection of data on wholesale and retail trade and on some services began for 1930.

In the past, the decennial census of merchandising and services was taken in two parts. At the time of the decennial population census enumeration, at the beginning of June in the census year, the census enumerators compiled lists of wholesale, retail and service establishments in their census areas with relevant information for a later questionnaire survey. The lists prepared by census enumerators were supplemented by information from trade associations, trade directories, and other such sources. When the lists were complete, questionnaires were mailed to the businesses listed. The usual procedure of checking with delinquents by correspondence and, if necessary, through regional offices of Statistics Canada was followed in order to obtain as complete a coverage as possible. The tabulations based on the returned questionnaires formed benchmark data for the annual and monthly series. The years covered by the complete censuses are 1930, 1941, 1951, 1961, 1966 and 1971.

Annual figures on wholesale and retail sales have been prepared from data collected annually and/or monthly from samples, in the main, of wholesalers, independent retailers, most of the large department stores and chain stores. For chain stores the annual survey has been based on complete coverage from the beginning.

The annual surveys were first taken for wholesale and retail trade and retail chain stores for 1933. At the same time, data for 1931 and 1932 were obtained from the same respondents. Thereafter until 1939 such surveys were taken yearly.

Monthly surveys on a sample basis of retail trade began in the early 1930s. Their coverage included department stores, chain stores and some independents.

For wholesale trade, the monthly sample survey of wholesalers began in late 1934. The annual survey was distinct from the monthly survey, covered a larger sample, and in the case of retail trade obtained more information than gathered in the monthly reports, which were confined to sales.

With the outbreak of war the annual surveys of both wholesale and retail trade were discontinued (except the complete annual survey of retail chain stores, which was continued). Annual data were compiled from the monthly trade reports. Special efforts were made after the end of each year to complete the returns of all businesses in the monthly sample for that year, checking being done by correspondence and through the regional offices.

The system of obtaining annual intercensal sales data from monthly returns for both wholesale and retail trade was continued until 1957 for retail trade and until 1960 for wholesale trade.

In 1957, an annual survey of retail trade, as distinct from the monthly surveys, was begun again.

The size of the sample of independent retail stores was 3,000 for the monthly in 1935, 7,200 in 1945, 9,000 in 1955, 10,000 in 1960 and 16,000 in 1975. The sample of department stores has always included the larger department stores. It has always had a high proportion of coverage, and in recent years that coverage has been 100 per cent of known department stores. Annual retail chain store sales are based on complete annual coverage though monthly sales are obtained for a sample. The total number of retail stores in 1930 was 125,000; in 1941 it was 137,000; in 1951 it was 152,000; in 1961 it was 153,000; in 1966 it was 154,000; and in 1971 it was 157,000.

For retail trade, the data obtained in the annual and monthly surveys have been used to estimate total retail sales by the application of the annual results to the data of census benchmark years. The method used was to 'chain' from year to year using a link-relative approach. During the later 1940s, 1950s and 1960s, adjustments were made to the annual sales to take account of births and deaths of retail stores. The deaths were obtained from a continuing group carried through from sample surveys in particular areas taken in connection with the Labour Force Survey.

In 1958, a complete census of wholesale trade proper was taken based on lists in the employers' index of the Unemployment Insurance Commission.

The total number of wholesale locations in 1930 was 13,000; in 1941 it was 25,000; in 1951 it was 26,000; and in 1961 it was 31,000. The total number of wholesale establishments in 1966 was 31,000.

The wholesale series were not adjusted for births and deaths before 1951. However, the sample was adjusted at times to take account of changes in the size of wholesalers' scale of operations. An estimate of total annual wholesale sales, apart from the complete census, has been available only for 1930 to 1939 and from 1951 onward. For 1939 to 1951 the annual series on wholesale sales are in the form of indexes. These indexes cover only some categories of wholesale trade. They are formed by linking each year to the preceding year. These indexes are available back to 1935. Revisions have been made in intercensal data, based on new data of the latest census.

The foregoing data relate mainly to sales. In addition, since 1938, Statistics Canada has collected periodically on a sample basis data on operating statistics and financial structure of retail concerns. The 1938 survey was taken with the regular annual census of retail trade. Since the end of the war these surveys have generally been taken biennially. This program was discontinued in the mid-1960s and begun again in the mid-1970s. The surveys have dealt with employment, payrolls, costs of materials, trade margins, inventories, and the like. The sample sizes are given in the reports.

Retail sales include, in addition to the sales of retailers proper, sales of retail units, if a distinct entity, of businesses engaged in other activities. Thus retail sales branches of manufacturers are included, as are sales units of electrical utilities selling electrical appliances. The statistics do not include: door-to-door sales of any kind; retail sales of wholesalers and service establishments; retail sales by manufacturing bakeries, manufacturing dairies and purchasing co-operatives; sales of meals, beverages and tobacco by hotels; line elevator sales; retail sales of manufacturers other than through separate retail units; nor sales of businesses with more than 50 per cent of their receipts coming from repair work.

Trading concerns engaged in both wholesale and retail trade are classified to the sector which makes the greatest contribution to total gross profit. For example, a hardware store may sell $50,000 of merchandise, 60 per cent wholesale and 40 per cent retail. Assume the gross margin in selling hardware at wholesale is 18.1 per cent and at retail 28.9 per cent. The hardware store would be classified as a retail establishment even though more than half of its total sales were made at wholesale.

Annual wholesale sales are, in the main, for wholesalers proper. However, sales of petroleum products bulk tank stations and packing houses were included in the annual survey for 1930 to 1939. Beginning in the census year 1961, trade by commission agents, brokers, assemblers, manufacturers' sales branches and the like are excluded.

In 1947, Statistics Canada began a series showing operating statistics and financial structure of wholesale concerns. Its history has parallelled that of the retail trade series.

Descriptions of the collection of data on service trades are given in the notes on individual tables in the remainder of the text, since methods differ somewhat among the service trades.

Retail Trade (Series V1-331)

Table V1-24a Retail sales, by kind of business, 1930 to 1975. Opens a new browser window.

Table V1-24a
Retail sales, by kind of business, 1930 to 1975

Table V1-24b Retail sales, by kind of business, 1930 to 1975 CONCLUDED. Opens a new browser window.

Table V1-24b
Retail sales, by kind of business, 1930 to 1975 CONCLUDED

Source: for 1969 to 1971, 1972 to 1974, and 1975, Retail Trade, January 1972, June 1975, and March 1976, respectively, (Catalogue 63-005); for 1966 to 1968, Retail Trade, Revisions to 1966-1970 Postcensal Estimates, (Catalogue 63-519); for 1961 to 1965, Retail Trade, Revisions to 1961-1966 Intercensal Estimates, (Catalogue 63-517); for 1931 to 1960 (excluding census years), Retail Trade, 1930-1961, Revisions to 1951-61 Intercensal Estimates, (Catalogue 63-510); for 1951, Census of Canada, 1952, vol. VII, Distribution, Retail Trade; for 1941, Census of Canada, 1941, vol. X, Merchandising and Services, part 1; for 1930, Census of Canada, 1931, vol. X, Merchandising and Services, part 1. For alcoholic beverage data, Retail Chain Stores, (Catalogue 63-210), various issues; for 1931 to 1950, excluding census years, estimates derived from Retail Trade, for series V3, 4, 5 and 23.

For the general method of obtaining these data see the general note to Section V.

'Retail Trade', is currently defined as 'the aggregate sales made through retail locations (outlets)'.

A 'retail location', as defined by Statistics Canada, is a 'business location (usually a store) in which the principal activity is the sale of merchandise and related services to the general public, for household or personal consumption'.

Retail trade estimates do not include any form of direct selling which bypasses the retail store. Excluded, therefore, are direct door-to-door selling; sales made through automatic vending machines; sales of newspapers or magazines sold directly by printers or publishers; and sales made by book and record clubs. The only exception is the mail-order and catalogue sales activities of department store businesses; they have been classified to the 'general merchandise store' category. In addition, retail trade excludes: retail sales through ancillary units, e.g., warehouses, head offices, etc.; sales of contractors whose major activity is not retailing; and retail transactions between individuals.

'Total net sales' include sales of merchandise and receipts from related services, such as repairs, equipment rental, and food serving, less returns, adjustments and discounts. Total net sales also include: trade-in allowances; withdrawals of goods for personal use (at retail); and commissions earned from sales of goods owned by others. Non-trading revenues, bad debts recovered and sales taxes are excluded. For further information on this subject, see the general historical note on Internal Trade.

Classification

Kind of Business

Estimates of retail trade are stratified by geographical area and by kind of business. These groupings are based on the Standard Industrial Classifications and the retail kind-of-business categories employed in the 1971 Census of Merchandising and Services.

The monthly retail trade survey is a 'location' survey. Therefore, each individual retail location of a firm is assigned a kind-of-business code based on its major activity or on the type of commodities sold.

For 1931 to 1940, sales of meat markets (series V4), garages and filling stations (series V10) and all other retail (series V24) were not given in Retail Trade, 1930-1961, (Catalogue 63-510). Further, alcoholic beverage outlets (series V3) and other food stores (series V5) were included in all other retail (series V24). They were estimated as follows:

To obtain meat market sales, 1931 to 1940, the ratio of meat store sales to sales of grocery and combination stores was calculated for each of the complete census years 1930 and 1941 and the arithmetic average taken. This average was then applied to the annual sales of grocery and combination stores, 1931 to 1940, to estimate meat store sales.

For garages and filling stations, the ratios of their sales to new motor vehicle sales were calculated for each of 1930 and 1941, and the arithmetic average taken. This average was then applied to new motor vehicle sales 1931 to 1940 to estimate garage and filling station sales for these years.

With calculation of the above two series for 1931 to 1941, and with the total of retail sales being given, the figures for all other retail were calculated as a residual to fill in these years in the source table.

Sales of alcoholic beverage outlets were estimated by taking the ratio of sales of these outlets, as shown in the complete censuses, to the sales of outlets reporting annually to the bureau in these census years. Intercensal estimates were made by applying the average ratio of the terminal years in each of the intercensal periods to the annual sales of alcoholic beverage outlets reporting to the bureau. (These outlets do not include taverns, lounges and bars.)

Sales of other food stores (series V5) were calculated in two parts. The sales of other food chains were taken from the annual survey of chain stores. For other independent food stores the ratio of their sales to the entire all other retail item was calculated for the census years. The average of these ratios is applied to the entire all other retail group.

The estimates in series Vl-24 cover sales of independent stores, retail chain stores and department stores. For retail sales not included see the general note to Section V.

Beginning in 1951, scientific and medical instrument dealers, milk dealers, and optometrists are excluded from retail trade.

Beginning in 1961, caterers, bars and night clubs, cocktail lounges, taverns, beverage rooms and public houses, and refreshment booths and stands are excluded from retail trade. Beverage stores were reclassified to the all other stores category.

Beginning in 1961, TV sales and service shops and TV, radio, piano and music stores are excluded from furniture, TV and appliance stores, but are included in the all other category.

Beginning in 1961, other building material dealers, farm implement dealers, feed stores, farm supply stores, harness shops, and heating and plumbing equipment dealers are excluded from retail trade.

Beginning in 1961, bicycle repair shops, previously contained in the service sector, are included with sporting goods stores, in the all other category of retail trade.

Beginning in 1961, garages, previously contained in the service sector, are included in the garages kind of business in the retail sector.

Beginning in 1961, paint and body shops, car washes, other specialty (auto) repair shops, auto establishments n.e.s., previously contained in the service sector, are included in the all other category in the retail sector.

Beginning in 1961, lumber and building material dealers and restaurants were transferred from retail trade to wholesale trade.

Beginning in 1961, restaurants were transferred from retail trade to the service trades.

Beginning in 1966, only sales of actual department store locations are included in the department store kind of business. Excluded from the department store kind of business are sales data on the other kinds of businesses which may be operated by department store organizations. These ancillary businesses, such as general stores, appliance stores, etc., have been classified to the kind of business category that is most appropriate in view of their respective commodity mixes. The mail-order and catalogue sales offices of department stores are included with general merchandise stores, which in table Vl-24 are included under all other category. Sales of concessions are generally included in the total business of department stores in which they are located.

Beginning in 1972, confectionery stores are excluded from other food stores and are included with grocery, confectionery and sundries stores, which are included in column 2 of table V1-24.

Beginning in 1972, electrical supply stores, which were previously classified to the all other category, are included in the furniture, TV, radio and appliance stores kind of business.

Beginning in 1972, patent medicine, cosmetic and perfume stores and proprietory stores, which were previously classified to the all other category, are included in the drug stores kind of business.

Beginning with 1971, fuel dealers were transferred from retail trade to wholesale trade.

For a comparison of the new retail trade survey kinds of business for 1972 and later years, with the old retail trade survey kinds of business for years prior to 1972, consult Retail Trade, June 1975, monthly, (Catalogue 63-005), pages x and xi.

For kind of business composition, refer to the above mentioned publication pages 54 and 55.

Table V25-34 Retail sales, by kind of business, 1923 to 1933. Opens a new browser window.

Table V25-34
Retail sales, by kind of business, 1923 to 1933

Source: for 1931 to 1933, Retail Trade, 1930-1961 Revisions to 1951-1961 Intercensal Estimates, occasional, (Catalogue 63-510); for 1930, Census of Canada, 1941, vol. X, Merchandising and Services, part 1; for 1923 to 1929, A Decade of Retail Trade, 1923 to 1933 (Catalogue 63-D-54).

The data of these series were calculated in Statistics Canada in 1934 and 1935. The figures for 1930 were taken from the complete census for that year. Those for 1931 to 1933 were estimated from the survey of a sample of retail stores for 1933 which also covered sales of these stores for 1931 and 1932 (see the general historical note to Section V) and which was the first of the annual censuses of retail trade. Data for the period 1923 to 1929 were estimated in a variety of ways which are described in the first edition of The Historical Statistics of Canada. See that source for the description methods on which the following notes are based.

The kinds of retail trade covered are the same as for series Vl-24 though the classifications differ (see the notes to series Vl-24 and the general historical note to Section V).

Table V35-52 Retail sales, by kind of business, and number of chains and stores, chain stores, 1930 to 1975. Opens a new browser window.

Table V35-52
Retail sales, by kind of business, and number of chains and stores, chain stores, 1930 to 1975

Source: same as series V1-24. Also, for number of chains and average number of stores and kind of business data, for 1931 to 1960, excluding census years, Retail Chain Stores, annual, (Catalogue 63-210), various issues.

Beginning in 1966, series V48 excludes all other home furnishing stores.

The average number of chains are not available by province for any year.

A chain organization is currently defined as an organization operating four or more retail outlets in the same kind of business under the same legal ownership. Exceptions to this definition are department stores, which are treated statistically as chains even though they may fail to meet the criteria of operating four retail outlets. By implication, this definition excludes franchise operations. On the other hand, because of the use of the term 'legal ownership', this definition of a chain organization has tended to include as more than one chain those organizations which operate retail outlets in two or more provinces, are provincially incorporated and meet the chain definition in each province in which they operate stores.

The classifications are the same as those used for total retail trade, series V1-24.

In addition to sales figures given here the source reports include data on numbers employed (in earlier years), salaries and wages, inventories and accounts outstanding at year end. These data are given for various classes of chain stores.

V53-88. Retail sales and number of chains and stores, chain stores, by province, 1930 to 1975

Table V53-88a Canada, Newfoundland, Prince Edward Island, Nova Scotia. Opens a new browser window.

Table V53-88a
Canada, Newfoundland, Prince Edward Island, Nova Scotia

Table V53-88b New Brunswick, Quebec, Ontario, Manitoba. Opens a new browser window.

Table V53-88b
New Brunswick, Quebec, Ontario, Manitoba

Table V53-88c Saskatchewan, Alberta, British Columbia, Yukon and Northwest Territories. Opens a new browser window.

Table V53-88c
Saskatchewan, Alberta, British Columbia, Yukon and Northwest Territories

Source: Retail Chain Stores, annual, (Catalogue 63-210), various issues; for 1951, Census of Canada, 1951, vol. VII, Distribution, Retail Trade; for 1941, Census of Canada, 1941, vol. X, Merchandising and Services, part 1; for 1930, Census of Canada, 1931, vol. X, Merchandising and Services, part 1.

Table V89-99 Retail sales, by province, 1923 to 1975. Opens a new browser window.

Table V89-99
Retail sales, by province, 1923 to 1975

Source: same as V1-24. Also, for 1923 to 1933, A Decade of Retail Trade, 1923 to 1933, (Catalogue 63-D-54).

Movements of sales within provinces are based upon data in the decennial censuses and the annual sample returns from each province. Adjustments to intercensal and postcensal estimates were made whenever a new census appeared. However, this was not done for the 1967 to 1970 period using the 1971 Census data. Sales of mail-order houses in 1930 were attributed to the province in which the store was located. In 1941, 1961, 1966 and 1971, mail-order sales made through local ordering offices were attributed to the province in which the office was located, but mail-order sales arising from orders sent in directly by customers were attributed to the province in which the store was located. In 1951 all mail-order sales were allocated to the province of the customer. In the revision of intercensal data from 1941 to 1951 adjustments were made to put the data on the 1951 basis (see, Retail Trade, 1930-1951, p. 11) but apparently no adjustment was made for 1930 to 1941. The provincial data are carried forward from 1951 on the 1951 Census basis.

For methods of allocating sales to provinces in 1923 to 1929 see, A Decade of Retail Trade, 1923-1933. The division of sales among provinces in 1930 provided the main basis for the division in earlier years.

See the general note to series Vl-24 for kinds of retail sales included and excluded.

Table V100-129a Retail trade, gross profit margins by kind of business, 1938 to 1960. Opens a new browser window.

Table V100-129a
Retail trade, gross profit margins by kind of business, 1938 to 1960

Table V100-129b Retail trade, gross profit margins by kind of business, 1938 to 1960 CONCLUDED. Opens a new browser window.

Table V100-129b
Retail trade, gross profit margins by kind of business, 1938 to 1960 CONCLUDED

Source: series V100-104, for 1954 to 1960, Operating Results and Financial Structure, Retail Food Stores, 1960, tables 1, 6, 11, 16 and 21; for 1938 to 1952, same title but for the year 1952, p. K-8; series V105-112, for 1954 to 1960, Operating Results and Financial Structure, Retail Clothing Stores, 1960, tables 1, 9, 16 and 23; for 1941 to 1950, same title but for the year 1952, p. L-8; for 1938, Operating Results of Independent Clothing and Shoe Stores in Canada, 1938, pp. 2-3; series V113-118, for 1952 to 1959, Operating Results and Financial Structure, Retail Hardware, Furniture, Appliance, Radio and Television Stores, 1959, tables 1, 9 and 15; for 1948 and 1950, same title (word 'television' omitted), but for year 1950, pp. M10, M15 and M17; for 1938 to 1948, same title but for 1948, p. 11, series V119-120, for 1952 to 1959, Operating Results and Financial Structure of Filling Stations and Garages, 1959, tables 1 and 6; for 1938 to 1950, individual reports of the same title but for the particular year for which the data apply; series V121, for 1954 to 1960, Operating Results and Financial Structure, Independent General Stores, 1960, table 1, p. 4; for 1950 to 1952, same title but for 1952, pp. 1-9; for 1945 to 1948, Operating Results and Financial Structure, Miscellaneous Retail Stores, 1948, table 1, p. 12; for earlier years, Operating Results of Country General and Dry Goods Stores; series V122-129, for 1952 and later years, separately published reports for each category under the general title Operating Results and Financial Structure, with the following subtitles: Independent Restaurants, 1959; Independent Fuel Dealers, 1959; Independent Drug Stores, 1959; Independent Jewellery Stores, 1959; and Independent Tobacco Stores, 1956; for 1938 to 1950, Operating Results and Financial Structure, Miscellaneous Retail Stores, reports for the years to which the data apply, for chain stores, series V100-102, Operating Results of Chain Food Stores, 1959, table 3, p. 7, table 5, p. 9; same title for 1957, table 8, p. H-14; same title for 1947, table 1, p. 12; series V106-112, Operating Results of Chain Clothing Stores, 1959; series V116, Operating Results of Chain Furniture Stores, 1959, table 1, p. 4; series V126, Operating Results of Chain Drug Stores, 1959, table 1, p. 4.

See the general historical note to Section V for a description of the manner in which these data are obtained.

In 1952 a sample of 17,000 independent stores (originally selected in 1944) was canvassed and about 10,000 usable returns were obtained (see DBS, History, Function, Organization, 1952, pp. 76-7, (Catalogue 12-D-52)). The numbers reporting in the various categories are given in the reports.

The data on retail chain stores, for the years covered, were obtained at the same time that the annual survey was taken.

Gross profit margin is the ratio of the difference between net sales and cost of goods sold to net sales. Cost of goods sold is obtained by adding the beginning inventory to net purchases of goods and deducting the ending inventory.

The gross profit margins of chain variety stores (which did not fit in with any category of independent stores) as a percentage of net sales from 1947 to 1959 were as follows: 1947 (37.7), 1949 (37.5), 1951 (37.8), 1953 (37.8), 1955 (38.3), 1957 (38.6) and 1959 (38.7). See Operating Results of Chain Variety Stores, 1959, table 1, p. 4.

The reports also give details of operating costs and balance sheet data by size classes for the various categories of stores.

Table V130-131 Retail sales, by commodity, 1968 and 1974. Opens a new browser window.

Table V130-131
Retail sales, by commodity, 1968 and 1974

Source: for 1974, Retail Commodity Survey, 1974, (Catalogue 63-526); for 1968, Retail Commodity Survey, 1968, (Catalogue 63-518).

It will be noted that the total retail commodity figure from this table does not always match the total retail trade figure in series V1-24. It is important to realize that the survey from which data for table V130-131 was obtained, represents an activity study of the businesses surveyed. As such, it raised the problem for most businesses of reporting data not readily available under normal accounting practices. Many businesses reviewed purchase invoices or examined inventory movements for the information required; others used their best estimates. Despite these problems of reporting, the overall response rate exceeded 73 per cent of business surveyed. For known chains and department stores which were all surveyed, the response rate was 100 per cent.

A stratified simple random sample of 43,000 retail establishments was selected without replacement from among 115,000 establishments classified to the retail sector on a central file of employers maintained by Statistics Canada.

Statistics on merchandising and services businesses are presented under two concepts, 'location' and 'establishment'. Location statistics show every separate place of business in its own kind of business classification, while establishment statistics comprise the accounting entity, which measures the sales activities in one or more business locations, not necessarily all in the same industrial sector (i.e. retail trade) or kind of business. A retail establishment is classified in total to the kind of business which comprises its major activity. The data reported by establishments having more than one trading location may therefore include business activities in more than one kind of business, possibly in more than one province and in other economic activities as well. Liquor, wine and beer stores were excluded from the retail commodity survey. They accounted for $1.765 billion in 1974. For these reasons, the results of the 1968 and 1974 Retail Commodity Surveys, which are based on the establishment, will not necessarily be comparable, at the kind of business level nor at the provincial level, with the results by location-based surveys of retail trade.

Table V132-142 Number and sales of shopping centres, by province, 1956 to 1973. Opens a new browser window.

Table V132-142
Number and sales of shopping centres, by province, 1956 to 1973

Source: number of shopping centres: for 1966 to 1973, Shopping Centres in Canada, 1973, annual, (Catalogue 63-214); for 1961 to 1965, Shopping Centres in Canada, 1972, annual, (Catalogue 63-214); for 1959 and 1960, Retail Trade, 1960, annual, (Catalogue 63-209); for 1958, Retail Trade, 1959, annual, (Catalogue 63-209); for 1957, Retail Trade, 1958, annual, (Catalogue 63-209); for 1956, Shopping Centres in Canada, 1951-1973, Research Paper No. 1, (Catalogue 63-527), Retail Sales in Shopping Centres: for 1972 and 1973, Shopping Centres in Canada, 1973, annual, (Catalogue 63-214); for 1969 and 1970, Shopping Centres in Canada, 1970, annual, (Catalogue 63-214); for 1961 and 1968, Shopping Centres in Canada, 1968, annual, (Catalogue 63-214); for 1967, Shopping Centres in Canada, 1966-67, annual, (Catalogue 63-214); for 1956, 1959 and 1964, Shopping Centres in Canada, 1951-1973, Research Paper No. 1, (Catalogue 63-527); sales for Canada: for 1956 to 1968, Shopping Centres in Canada, 1968, annual, (Catalogue 63-214).

It is important to note that the addition of a shopping centre in a specific year does not necessarily mean that the centre was newly constructed and began operating during that year. The shopping complex may have been in operation in earlier years but did not meet all the requirements of the definition of a 'shopping centre'. For the purpose of this table a shopping centre is defined as:

"A group of stores which are planned, developed and designed as a unit, containing a minimum of five retail establishments (or four retail establishments and a restaurant) in operation during any part of the current year. The centre must have a minimum of 20,000 square feet of usable parking area adjacent to it, and the parking facilities must be free of charge to customers. For shopping centres with paved parking areas of 20,000-50,000 square feet, the ratio of parking area to gross floor area must be 1.5 to one, or better. The merchandising development must contain either a grocery and combination store (i.e. a grocery store with sales of fresh meat accounting for 20 to 40 per cent of total sales), a department store, or a chain variety store. While a shopping centre is usually designed as a single project, all establishments do not necessarily have to be leased from a single (private or collective) ownership. A retail establishment may own the building and the land on which it is situated and still be fully integrated with the centre. A shopping centre usually bears a name and, as a rule, matters of common interest to the tenants, such as children's playgrounds, community activities, parking, etc., originate from one authority."

This definition excludes most downtown malls and a number of multi-store, multi-level shopping plazas because they do not provide free parking, or fail to meet the requirements of the foregoing definition in some other way.

Table V143-146 Shopping centres in Canada, by type, 1956 to 1973. Opens a new browser window.

Table V143-146
Shopping centres in Canada, by type, 1956 to 1973

Source: number of shopping centres: for 1973, Shopping Centres in Canada, 1973, annual, (Catalogue 63-214); for 1961 to 1972, Shopping Centres in Canada, 1972, annual, (Catalogue 63-214); for 1960, Retail Trade, 1960, annual, (Catalogue 63-209); for 1956 and 1959, Shopping Centres in Canada, 1951-1973, Research Paper No. 1, (Catalogue 63-527); for 1957 and 1958, Retail Trade, 1958, annual, (Catalogue 63-209). Retail sales in shopping centres: for 1964, 1968, 1969, 1970, 1972 and 1973, Shopping Centres in Canada, annual, (Catalogue 63-214), 1965, 1968, 1969, 1970, 1972 and 1973 respectively; for 1966 and 1967, Shopping Centres in Canada, 1966-67, annual, (Catalogue 63-214); for 1961 to 1963, Shopping Centres in Canada, 1961-63, annual, (Catalogue 63-214); for 1959 and 1960, Retail Trade, annual, (Catalogue 63-209), 1959 and 1960 respectively; for 1957 and 1958, Retail Trade, 1958, annual, (Catalogue 63-209); for 1956, Shopping Centres in Canada, 1956, Reference Paper 87, (Catalogue 63-504). Total sales, for 1956 to 1968, Shopping Centres in Canada, 1968, annual, (Catalogue 63-214).

Regular shopping centres are stratified on the basis of the number of retail outlets and/or restaurants (see definition above) operating within the centre: type A, 5 to 15 outlets; type B, 16 to 30 outlets; type C, over 30 outlets.

The number of outlets operating within certain shopping centres may change slightly from year to year. These centres, therefore, may be reclassified to a different type in any one year.

Total retail sales in shopping centres for the years 1956 to 1967 are revised figures which exclude the receipts of restaurants located in shopping centres (see Shopping Centres in Canada, 1968, annual).

For the years 1956 to 1967, retail sales, excluding restaurant receipts, in shopping centres, by type A, B and C have been prorated using the distribution of sales including restaurants, by type A, B and C, given in various annual publications (see sources) 1956 to 1967.

Table V147-162 Shopping centre sales, by kind of business, 1956 to 1973. Opens a new browser window.

Table V147-162
Shopping centre sales, by kind of business, 1956 to 1973

Source: for 1973, Shopping Centres in Canada, 1973, annual, (Catalogue 63-214); for 1967 to 1972, Shopping Centres in Canada, 1972, annual, (Catalogue 63-214); for 1964, 1965 and 1966, Shopping Centres in Canada, annual, (Catalogue 63-214), 1964, 1965 and 1966 respectively; for 1961 to 1963, Shopping Centres in Canada, 1961-63, annual, (Catalogue 63-214); for 1956, 1957, 1958, 1959 and 1960, Retail Trade, annual, (Catalogue 63-209), 1956, 1958, 1959 and 1960 respectively.

See Vl-24 for changes in retail trade kinds of business (these changes also apply to shopping centre kinds of business) and for a description of the old Retail Trade Survey kind-of-business categories shown in this table.

Table V163-177 Receipts of service trades in shopping centres, 1967 to 1973. Opens a new browser window.

Table V163-177
Receipts of service trades in shopping centres, 1967 to 1973

Source: for 1970 to 1973, Shopping Centres in Canada 1973, annual, (Catalogue 63-214); for 1967, 1968 and 1969: Shopping Centres in Canada, annual, (Catalogue 63-214), 1966-67, 1969 and 1970 respectively.

For additional data on service outlets located in shopping centres, see source publications.

Table V178-190 Number and sales of vending machines, by province, 1958 to 1975. Opens a new browser window.

Table V178-190
Number and sales of vending machines, by province, 1958 to 1975

Source: number of machines: for 1973, 1974 and 1975, Vending Machine Operators, annual, (Catalogue 63-213), 1973, 1974 and 1975 respectively; for 1960 to 1972, Vending Machine Operators, 1974, annual, (Catalogue 63-213); for 1958 and 1959, Vending Machine Operators, 1959, annual, (Catalogue 63-213). Sales: for 1958 and 1959, 1960, 1961 to 1969, 1970 to 1974 and 1975, Vending Machine Operators, annual, (Catalogue 63-213), 1959, 1961, 1972, 1974 and 1975 respectively.

Up to and including 1971 the statistics cover those vending machine operators who operated one or more vending machines on premises other than their own. From 1972 only vending machine operators operating a minimum of 10 fullsize vending machines or 200 bulk confectionery machines or reporting total sales of at least $20,000 were included in the survey. At the same time the clause concerning the necessity of operating on other than their own (operators) premises was eliminated.

For the purposes of this table a vending machine is defined as a device which automatically dispenses merchandise after a requisite amount of money is inserted into the device. The merchandise vended includes tobacco products, beverages and food products as well as non-food products such as pens, hosiery, batteries, toiletry goods, books, etc. Excluded are gasoline and newspapers as well as services such as music, amusements, laundry and dry cleaning, photographs and photocopies, shoeshines. etc.

Table V191-214 Sales through vending machines, by commodity, 1958 to 1975. Opens a new browser window.

Table V191-214
Sales through vending machines, by commodity, 1958 to 1975

Source: for all years, Vending Machine Operators, annual, (Catalogue 63-213), 1959, 1961, 1972, 1973, 1974 and 1975 respectively.

Beginning in 1973, sales through vending machines were reported by type of machine; prior to 1973 sales through vending machines were reported by product. Table V191-214 was completed making the best possible matching of the two sets of data (1958 to 1972 and 1973 to 1975). The user is advised to utilize the table with extreme caution as the two sets of data are not strictly comparable.

Table V215-218 Retail sales, by type of store, 1930 to 1975. Opens a new browser window.

Table V215-218
Retail sales, by type of store, 1930 to 1975

Source: same as V1-24. Also, Retail Chain Stores, annual, (Catalogue 63-210), various issues.

For 1931 to 1960 (excluding census years), the data were derived as follows: Total all stores (series V1-24) minus chain stores (series V35-52) minus department stores equals independent stores. For department stores, see Retail Trade, 1930-1961, Revisions to 1951-61 Intercensal Estimates, (Catalogue 63-510), occasional.

Table V219-229 Retail sales, by type of store, by province, selected years, 1930 to 1971. Opens a new browser window.

Table V219-229
Retail sales, by type of store, by province, selected years, 1930 to 1971

Source: for 1971, Retail Trade, January 1972, (Catalogue 63-005); for 1966, Retail Trade, Revisions to 1966-1970 Postcensal Estimates, (Catalogue 63-519); for 1961, Retail Trade, Revisions to 1961-1966 Intercensal Estimates, (Catalogue 63-517); for 1951, Census of Canada, 1951, vol. VII, Distribution, Retail Trade; for 1941, Census of Canada, 1941, vol. X, Merchandising and Services, part 1; for 1930, Census of Canada, 1931, vol. X, (Merchandising and Services, Part l.)

In the case of chain stores for 1966, the provincial data will not add to the Canada total because the sales of department stores are included with chain store sales for three provinces.

In the case of independent stores for 1930 and 1941, the sales of department stores must be added to the appropriate sales of independent stores for each of Quebec, Ontario and British Columbia, before the provincial data will add to the Canada total.

Table V230-248 Sales of retail chain stores, by kind of business, selected years, 1930 to 1971. Opens a new browser window.

Table V230-248
Sales of retail chain stores, by kind of business, selected years, 1930 to 1971

Source: same as series V219-229.

For a description of the kind of business categories shown in this table please refer to the source publications. Changes in the composition of various kinds of business have occurred from one census year to the next.

Table V249-267 Sales of independent retail stores, by kind of business, selected years, 1930 to 1971. Opens a new browser window.

Table V249-267
Sales of independent retail stores, by kind of business, selected years, 1930 to 1971

Source: same as series V219-229.

For a description of the kind of business categories shown in this table please refer to the source publications. Changes in the composition of various kinds of business have occurred from one census year to the next.

Table V268-290 Direct selling, by commodity, 1969 to 1975. Opens a new browser window.

Table V268-290
Direct selling, by commodity, 1969 to 1975

Source: for 1975, Direct Selling in Canada, 1975, annual, (Catalogue 63-218); for 1969 to 1974, Direct Selling in Canada, 1974, annual, (Catalogue 63-218).

Direct selling refers to the substantial volume of consumer goods sold to the household consumer for his personal use by other than the regular retail store outlet: department store, chain store or independent retail dealer. This occurs at all levels in the movement of goods from the primary producer or importer to the consumer: at the agricultural level by greenhouse and nursery operators and some market gardeners; at the manufacturing stage through sales exclusively to employees at company-operated on-premises stores, or through integrated sales divisions using mail-order or door-to-door canvassers; by some wholesalers and importers, by specialized direct sellers and through vending machine operators.

Statistics on these non-store retail sales supplement the regular retail trade statistics which are also compiled and published in the monthly retail trade report to form the principal basis of the 'personal expenditure on consumer goods and services' component of the National Accounts of Canada.

This table, however, covers only the direct sales made by some primary producers (greenhouses and nurseries, etc.), manufacturers and specialized direct sellers. It does not include foreign mail-order sales to Canadians, direct sales made by Canadian department stores' mail-order divisions, or direct sales made by wholesalers, vending machine operators and service establishments. Estimates of the value of some of these latter categories appear in the special table on the value of 'total known retail trade' published as part of the 1971 Census of Merchandising and Services, vol. VII, (Catalogue 97-702).

Table V291-313 Direct selling, by commodity, by province, 1971. Opens a new browser window.

Table V291-313
Direct selling, by commodity, by province, 1971

Source: Direct Selling in Canada, 1971, (Catalogue 63-218).

Table V314-319 Retail trade, by legal form of organization, selected years, 1930 to 1966. Opens a new browser window.

Table V314-319
Retail trade, by legal form of organization, selected years, 1930 to 1966

Source: for 1966, Census of Canada, 1966, vol. VI, Retail Trade, Locations, (Catalogue 97-606); for 1961, Census of Canada, 1961, vol. VI, Part 1, (Catalogue 97-504); for 1951, Census of Canada, 1951, vol. VII, Distribution, Retail Trade; for 1941, Census of Canada, 1941, vol. X, Merchandising and Services, Part 1; for 1930, Census of Canada, 1931, vol. X, Merchandising and Services, Part 1.

Table V320-331 Summary statistics, census of retail trade, by province, selected years, 1930 to 1971. Opens a new browser window.

Table V320-331
Summary statistics, census of retail trade, by province, selected years, 1930 to 1971

Source: for 1971, Census of Canada, 1971, Retail Trade, (Catalogue 97-702); for 1966, Census of Canada, 1966, vol. VI, Retail Trade, Locations, (Catalogue 97-602); for 1961, Census of Canada, 1961, vol. VI, Part 1, (Catalogue 97-501); for 1951, Census of Canada, 1951, vol. VII, Distribution Retail Trade; for 1930 and 1941, Census of Canada, 1941, vol. X, Merchandising and Services, Part 1.

Wholesale Trade (Series V332-409)

Table V332-350 Estimated annual sales of wholesalers proper, by kind of business, 1951 to 1975. Opens a new browser window.

Table V332-350
Estimated annual sales of wholesalers proper, by kind of business, 1951 to 1975

Source: for 1972, 1973, 1974 and 1975, Wholesale Trade, monthly, December 1973, 1974 and 1975 respectively (Catalogue 63-008); for 1961 to 1971, Wholesale Trade, 1961-1971, (Catalogue 63-521); for 1951 to 1960, Wholesale Trade, 1951-1968, (Catalogue 63-515).

The surveys cover wholesalers proper who are described as middlemen between the producer and retailer or producer and business, industrial or institutional user. They hold inventories and buy and sell on their own account. Not included are agents and brokers, manufacturers' sales branches, assemblers of primary products, petroleum bulk stations and certain other types of operations not included in the survey but usually considered to perform wholesale functions.

It is important to note that in 1960 a major revision took place in the Standard Industrial Classification which affected wholesale trade in 1961. The composition of the wholesale merchant universe was affected by the addition of lumber and building material dealers, other building material dealers, farm implement dealers, feed and seed stores, farm supply stores and harness shops. These trades were formerly included in the retail trade sector of merchandising.

For example, as a result of the change, approximately $651,000,000 was added to the trade group 'Other construction materials and supplies, including lumber'. Similar adjustments were made to the other trade groups affected.

In addition to the S.I.C. revisions of 1960, a number of changes in coding and concepts were implemented in the 1961 Census. For example, a 'value added' approach was used for the first time in determining the correct classification of retail and wholesale businesses. The 'location' and 'establishment' concepts also appeared at that time.

The implementation of the establishment concept is noticeable in comparing the 1961 figures with the amounts for the same trades in 1960. This concept has a tendency to increase the sales totals in some trades and decrease the sales totals in others. The establishment is the smallest accounting entity which can provide a full range of statistics.

The implementation of the 'value added concept' in classifying businesses between wholesale and retail accounts for a loss of an unknown amount of wholesale sales. For example, a hardware business with 51 per cent sales at wholesale would be included in prior censuses as wholesale. For 1961, the value added in retailing being larger than in wholesaling, this same business would be classed as retail.

For further details on these points, the user of these statistics is referred to the Standard Industrial Classification Manual, Revised 1960, (Catalogue 12-501), pp. 7-9.

The statistics in this table measure the net sales (gross sales less returns and allowances), including sales taxes collected and other trading revenues of all wholesaler merchants operating in Canada, whether Canadian or foreign and whether sales are domestic or abroad. Some duplication may exist where wholesalers sell to other wholesalers. Excluded from the table are statistics on manufacturers' sales branches, assemblers of primary products, agents and brokers, and petroleum bulk tank plants and truck distributors.

For a detailed description of the kind of business categories shown in the table please refer to Wholesale Trade, December 1975, (Catalogue 63-008).

Beginning in 1961, heating and plumbing equipment dealers, previously in the retail trade sector, are included in series V347 in this table.

Table V351-360 Index numbers of sales of wholesalers proper, by selected kind of business, 1930 to 1975. Opens a new browser window.

Table V351-360
Index numbers of sales of wholesalers proper, by selected kind of business, 1930 to 1975

Source: for 1954 to 1975, same as V332-350; for 1950 to 1953, the index was calculated as the arithmetic average of the monthly indexes given in Wholesale Trade, (Catalogue 63-008), monthly issues to the end of 1954; for 1941 to 1949, Wholesale Trade, 1949 Revised Indexes, table 2, p. B-9, (Catalogue 63-D-32); for 1935 to 1940, Summary Monthly Indexes of Wholesale Sales in Canada, 1935-1943, (Catalogue 63-D-32); for 1930 to 1937 (basis 1930 = 100), Wholesale Trade in Canada and the Provinces, 1939, tables 1 and 2, pp. 5-7, (Catalogue 63-D-33). The method noted above of obtaining the indexes for 1950 to 1953 was that used by the bureau from 1935 to 1949.

The indexes for 1935 to 1953 were obtained as averages of monthly indexes based on the monthly surveys of a sample of wholesalers. The sample size was 200 from 1935 to 1939, became 300 in 1940, and 400 from 1944 to the end of the period covered. These indexes are for wholesalers proper (see the note to series V332-350 and the general note to Section V). Only nine trades are covered and the index of total sales is based on these nine trades only. The index of trade for each month was obtained by linking with the same month a year earlier on the basis of reported sales for each of the two months.

These estimates provide the only data on annual sales available for 1940 to 1950. They have been revised on the basis of information in the decennial censuses of 1941 and 1951.

The indexes for 1930 to 1937 (basis 1930 = 100) are from the annual survey of wholesale trade, which was conducted from 1933 to 1939, and from the decennial census of 1930. The annual survey was based on a larger sample than the monthly survey. It covered all branches of wholesale trade proper and in addition petroleum bulk tank stations and meat packing plant wholesale outlets. A classification similar to that of the 1930 Census but somewhat different from that of the monthly survey was used. For this table, items were selected to correspond as closely as possible to the categories of the monthly survey. The index for all kinds of business, series V351, has a considerably wider coverage than that obtained from the monthly survey.

The types of business covered in the monthly survey are best described by reference to the classification of wholesale trade by kinds of business, given in the 1930 Census of Wholesale Trade Census of Canada, 1931, vol. XI, Merchandising and Services, part 2, p. 483. A statement of what is included in the monthly indexes is given in Current Trends in Wholesale Trade, mimeographed, 1936 and in the indexes based on annual surveys in Wholesale Trade in Canada and the Provinces, 1933.

Because comparable annual data for sales of wholesalers proper are no longer available for the entire period 1930 to 1975, it has been necessary to establish new base years in 1935 and 1954.

Table V361-373 Wholesale sales, by kind of business and type of operation, selected years, 1930 to 1966. Opens a new browser window.

Table V361-373
Wholesale sales, by kind of business and type of operation, selected years, 1930 to 1966

Source: for 1966, Census of Canada, 1966, Wholesale Trade: Establishments, (Catalogue 97-627); for 1961, Census of Canada, 1961, Bulletin 6.2-1, vol. VI, Part 2, (Catalogue 97-511) and Bulletin 6.2-4, vol. VI, Part 2, (Catalogue 97-514); for 1951, Census of Canada, 1951, vol. VIII, Distribution, Wholesale Trade and Services; for 1930 and 1941, Census of Canada, 1941, vol. XI, Merchandising and Services, Part 2.

Sales of wholesalers proper, within kinds of business, will differ from sales in V332-350 because of different kind of business composition. The reader should refer to source publications for the kind of business composition in each census year.

The data in this table include only the categories in which the largest values of sales were found. There were smaller amounts in a number of other categories. For total sales by the various categories of outlets and for sales of petroleum bulk tank stations see series V374-387.

The content of the various kinds of business and the nature of type of operation in the 1951 Census may be found in Census of Canada, 1951, vol. VIII, Distribution, Wholesale Trade, Services, appendix B and appendix A respectively. See also table 3 in the same volume.

Beginning in 1961, lumber and building material dealers, previously in the retail sector, are included in series V369 of this table.

A number of manufacturers' sales branches which reported sales, or for which sales were estimated, were included in wholesale trade in 1951 but were excluded in 1961 if they were not accounting entities able to report a full range of statistics. It is estimated that the sales through these 3,478 locations in 1961 exceeded $4 billion.

The figures for 1930 include certain sales offices situated at the same location as the manufacturing plant which are omitted from the results for 1941.

Series V370 in 1961 reflects a lack of accounting entities able to report a full range of statistics.

Due to differences in scope and coverage, direct comparisons between the results for 1941 and 1930 in series V370 should be made with caution.

Table V374-387 Wholesale trade, by major type of operation, by province, selected years, 1930 to 1966. Opens a new browser window.

Table V374-387
Wholesale trade, by major type of operation, by province, selected years, 1930 to 1966

Source: for 1966, Census of Canada, 1966, Wholesale Trade: Establishments, (Catalogue 97-627); for 1961, Census of Canada, 1961, Bulletin 6.2-1, vol. VI, Part 2, (Catalogue 97-511); for 1941 and 1951, Census of Canada, 1951, vol. VII, Distribution, Wholesale Trade and Services; for 1930 Census of Canada, 1941, vol. XI, Merchandising and Services, Part 2.

According to certain common characteristics, each wholesale establishment is assigned to one of the following types of operations:

1. Primary Product Dealers. Establishments mainly engaged in purchasing primary products, such as grain, livestock, raw furs, fish, leaf tobacco, pulpwood, etc., directly from Canadian farmers, loggers, fishermen and trappers or acting as agents in such transactions. Co-operative marketing associations marketing primary products of their members are considered as primary product dealers.

2. Wholesale Merchants. Establishments primarily engaged in buying and selling goods on own account. Such a business may be described as export and/or import merchant, cash-and-carry wholesaler, drop shipper or desk jobber, mail-order wholesaler, truck distributor, rack jobber, etc.

3. Agents and Brokers. Establishments primarily engaged in buying and/or selling products for others on a commission basis. They may be known as auction companies, commission merchants, export and/or import agents or brokers, manufacturer's agents, purchasing agents or resident buyers, selling agents, etc. Not every agent or broker is classified to this type of operation. An agent dealing in primary products by buying directly from Canadian farmers is classified as a primary product dealer (type 1); agency-type wholesale operations by manufacturers as a manufacturers' sales branch (type 4); and agents dealing primarily in petroleum products as a petroleum bulk tank plant and truck distributors (type 5).

4. Manufacturers' Sales Branches. Businesses owned by manufacturing firms for marketing their own products. These may or may not be separately incorporated, and goods produced by others may also be sold. There are two exceptions to this rule: (a) manufacturers' sales branches which are owned by a firm that has a manufacturing plant(s) outside Canada only and (b) manufacturers' sales branches which are incorporated and sell less than 50 per cent of their parent manufacturers' products. These are classified not as manufacturers' sales branches but as wholesale merchants. It should be noted that exception (a) was not applied in the 1961 Wholesale Trade Census. Those manufacturers' sales branches which are not separate accounting entities but mere extensions of the manufacturing plant(s) and thus do not mark up their goods received from the parent plant nor are remunerated on a commission basis by the parent company are part of the manufacturing establishments and as such were considered to be out of scope for the census of wholesale trade.

5. Petroleum Bulk Tank Plants and Truck Distributors. Businesses primarily engaged in the wholesale distribution of petroleum products, such as salaried, independent or agency operated bulk tank plants and independent or agency-type truck distributors.

Where a wholesale establishment is engaged in more than one type of operation, it is classified to the primary type accounting for the largest part of its gross margin. In case of an agency or brokerage operation, the total amount of commission received represents the gross margin. For example, if a certain establishment is partly a wholesale merchant and partly an agent and earns $20,000 gross margin on own account business and receives a revenue of $30,000 from commissions, then as the commission income exceeds the margin earned on own account transactions, the establishment is classified to the Agents and Brokers type.

The 'establishment' concept is based primarily on the system of accounting used in business. The establishment is defined as the smallest unit which is a separate operating entity capable of reporting those elements of input and output necessary to the calculation of gross margin, as well as employment, wages and salaries. The only proviso imposed on this definition is that wholesale trade establishments were not to cross the boundaries of the five Canadian regions. (The Atlantic region comprises Newfoundland, Prince Edward Island, Nova Scotia and New Brunswick. Quebec and Ontario are independent regions. Manitoba, Saskatchewan and Alberta make up the Prairie region; British Columbia, the Yukon Territory and the Northwest Territories belong to the British Columbia region.) For multi-unit wholesale firms with business locations in more than one region, artificial establishments were created. The establishments for such firms were based on regional boundaries, regardless of their accounting entities.

The 'location' is defined as the physical outlet in which business activity takes place. The location is not necessarily dependent upon the availability of accounting-based data but has to be capable of providing a limited range of statistics even though these may have to be estimated. Where the accounting records are designed to measure the detailed business activity of a single location, the establishment and location coincide; otherwise two or more locations belong to a certain establishment.

Beginning in 1961, country grain elevators under contract to the Canadian Wheat Board are excluded from wholesale trade and from column V384 and are included in the storage industry.

The procedure followed in dealing with line elevator companies differed between 1930 and 1941. In the 1930 Census the selling function of these companies was stressed. Each company was considered as one unit and one report covering the activities of the head office and sales organization alone was filed. In the 1941 Census the assembling rather than the selling function of these elevators has been reflected in the table. The head office was omitted altogether but each local elevator was considered as a unit. The volume of business shown for line elevators represents payments to farmers at the local elevator points. This difference in procedure results in the showing of a greatly increased number of establishments for this classification in 1941 compared with 1930.

Table V388-397 Wholesale trade, gross profit margins by kind of business biennially, 1947 to 1957. Opens a new browser window.

Table V388-397
Wholesale trade, gross profit margins by kind of business biennially, 1947 to 1957

Source: Operating Results of Food Wholesalers, biennial, 1947 to 1957, each issue, table on summary of results, (Catalogue 63-419); Operating Results of Automotive Parts and Accessories Wholesalers, issues for 1953, 1955 and 1957, table 1, (Catalogue 63-416); Operating Results of Hardware Wholesalers, issues for 1953, 1955 and 1957, table 1, (Catalogue 63-421); Operating Results of Plumbing and Heating Supplies Wholesalers, issues for 1953, 1955 and 1957, table 1, (Catalogue 63-423); Operating Results of Drug Wholesalers, issues for 1953, 1955 and 1957, table 1, (Catalogue 63-417); Operating Results of Miscellaneous Wholesalers, issues for 1947, table 1, p. 9, issue for 1949, p. E-7 and issue for 1951, p. 7, (Catalogue 63-D-42). The last-named publication contained data for wholesalers in automotive parts and accessories, hardware, plumbing and heating supplies and drugs, which became separate publications in 1953.

See the general note to Section V concerning the collection of data on operating results of retail and wholesale firms and the note to series V100-129 for a definition of gross profit margins.

The surveys were made of all wholesalers proper in 10 trades which, in 1941, accounted for 35 per cent of sales of all wholesalers proper. The 10 trades covered were selected for their importance in the distribution of consumer goods to retailers and in most cases a very high proportion of sales was made to retailers. The piece goods trade was a notable exception, with the dominant sales being to other wholesalers and large users, and plumbing and heating supplies were sold predominantly to contractors. The companies covered for each trade included only those with a high proportion of their trade in the designated kind of business.

The operating ratios given in this table are for all wholesalers for whom tabulations were made. In addition, in each report, profit margins were given for identical firms in the year being covered and in the previous survey two years earlier. However, the number of identical firms changed between each pair of years for which comparisons were given, and for this reason their profit margins are not given here.

Descriptions of the detailed content of the various trades are not given in the sources. The descriptions of the trades covered in series V351-360 given in the notes to those series probably indicate the nature of the trades covered.

A good deal of additional information is given in the source. In general it is similar to that provided in kindred reports for retail trades (see the note to series V100-129). Some separate data are provided for incorporated companies only.

In 1953, 1955 and 1957, an additional trade Household Appliance and Electrical Supply, (Catalogue 63-422) was added. The gross profit margins were 19.67 per cent in 1953, 18.67 per cent in 1955 and 18.93 per cent in 1957.

Table V398-409 Summary statistics, census of wholesale trade, by province, selected years, 1930 to 1966. Opens a new browser window.

Table V398-409
Summary statistics, census of wholesale trade, by province, selected years, 1930 to 1966

Source: for 1966, Census of Canada, 1966, Wholesale Trade: Establishments, (Catalogue 97-627); for 1961, Census of Canada, 1961, vol. VI, Part 2, (Catalogue 97-511); for 1951, Census of Canada, 1951, vol. VIII, Distribution, Wholesale Trade and Services; for 1941, Census of Canada, 1941, vol. XI, Merchandising and Services, Part 2.

Service Establishments (Series V410-448)

Table V410-413 Power laundries, cleaning and dyeing plants, selected operating statistics, 1917 to 1974. Opens a new browser window.

Table V410-413
Power laundries, cleaning and dyeing plants, selected operating statistics, 1917 to 1974

Source: for 1973 and 1974, Power Laundries, Dry Cleaning and Dyeing Plants, 1974, annual, (Catalogue 63-205); for 1961 to 1972, Power Laundries, Dry Cleaning and Dyeing Plants, 1972, annual, (Catalogue 63-205); for 1930 to 1960, Laundries, Cleaners and Dyers, 1960, tables 5 and 13, (Catalogue 63-205); for 1917 to 1929, Power Laundries and Cleaning and Dyeing Establishments in Canada, 1939, table 7, p. 12 and table 20, p. 32, (Catalogue 63-205); for 1917 to 1926, Report on the Dyeing, Cleaning and Laundry Industry in Canada, 1928, p. 3, (Catalogue 63-205).

This table deals with the business activities of power operated laundries and dry cleaning and dyeing plants. Plants are classified as power laundries if the greater part of their revenue is derived from laundry work or if the greater part of their revenue is derived from rental services, where it is evidenced that the plant does its own laundry of the items rented. Plants are classified as dry cleaners and dyers if the greater part of their revenue is derived from cleaning and dyeing. This table does not include dyeing plants doing work on a commercial or industrial scale for textile plants, etc. There are inconsistent variations from year to year for power laundries and dry cleaning and dyeing plants due to the method of classification; however, the combined data for the two classifications do show consistent annual changes.

These data were collected as a part of the annual census of manufacturers from 1917 to 1936; thereafter they were collected annually by the Internal Trade Branch of the Industry and Merchandising Division later the Merchandising and Services Division of Statistics Canada.

The data for 1917 to 1926 are not strictly comparable with those for later years. They were not given separately for laundries and dyeing and cleaning establishments. Dyeing and finishing of textile goods was included in those years but excluded in the data for 1927 to 1960: in 1927 the value of work done on dyeing and finishing textiles was $2,871,000; in 1928 it was $3,074,000. Finally in 1921 to 1924 considerable numbers of hand laundries were included, affecting mainly the number of establishments.

Historically, the annual report covering this industry has been based upon a 100 per cent survey of all firms. In 1969, however, it was decided to attempt a sample survey, thus the number of plants data were not published. A full-coverage survey was reinstated for the 1970 survey and all data are completely comparable with previous years. The source provides other data not reported here.

Table V414-416 Selected statistics of hotels, 1930, 1941 and 1949 to 1973. Opens a new browser window.

Table V414-416
Selected statistics of hotels, 1930, 1941 and 1949 to 1973

Source: for 1969 to 1973, Traveller Accommodation Statistics, annual, 1969 to 1973, (Catalogue 63-204); for 1961 to 1968, Hotels, annual, 1961 to 1968, (Catalogue 63-204); for 1949 to 1960, series V200 and V201 from Hotels, 1960, p. 7, for series V202 from each individual issue of Hotels for the year concerned, various tables, (Catalogue 63-204); for 1941, all data from Hotel Statistics, 1941, table 1, p. 4, (Catalogue 63-D-63); for 1930, all data from Census of Canada, 1931, vol. XI, pp. 1237-9.

The statistics in this table refer to all hotels in Canada: (1) full-year licensed, (2) full-year non-licensed, (3) seasonal licensed, (4) and seasonal non-licensed.

A hotel-type room is defined as a room contained in a main lodge or hotel, having access from a main lobby but with no direct access from the exterior of the building. A hotel-motel-type room is defined as a main lodge or hotel, having access from a main lobby as well as direct access from the exterior of the building. This type of room is equated to a hotel-type room for the purpose of our establishment classification.

The definition of 'full-year licensed' hotels includes establishments: (1) operating six or more hotel or hotel-motel-type rooms; (2) operating for at least 10 or more months during the year; (3) licensed to serve alcoholic beverages provided that receipts from room rentals are equal to or greater than 1 per cent of alcohol sales; (4) reporting that the sum of rooms, meals and alcohol receipts are equal to or greater than 2/3 of merchandise sales; (5) reporting that room receipts are primarily derived from catering to transient guests.

'Full-year, non-licensed'. Same as 'full-year licensed' above, except for criterion (3) which should read: not licensed to serve alcoholic beverages.

'Seasonal, licensed'. Same as 'full-year licensed' above, except for criterion (2) which should read: operating for less than 10 months during the year.

'Seasonal, non-licensed'. Same as 'full-year licensed' above, except for criteria (2) and (3) which should read: (2) operating for less than 10 months during the year; (3) not licensed to serve alcoholic beverages.

Above definitions as of 1973; consult source publications for possible changes in concepts or definitions.

Data on hotels have been collected in the decennial census, 1931 and 1941, and annually since 1949. All hotels are covered in each year. For the way in which lists of such establishments are obtained in decennial census years see the general note to Section V. The lists collected in the decennial census are supplemented by lists of licensed hotels provided by provincial governments.

The source provides other data not reported here.

Table V417-419 Selected statistics of advertising agencies in Canada, 1941 and 1946 to 1974. Opens a new browser window.

Table V417-419
Selected statistics of advertising agencies in Canada, 1941 and 1946 to 1974

Source: for 1965 to 1974, Advertising Agencies, 1974, annual, (Catalogue 63-201); for 1961 to 1964, Advertising Agencies, 1967, annual, (Catalogue 63-201); for 1941 and 1946 to 1963, Advertising Agencies, 1960, table 1, p. 2, (Catalogue 63-201).

The decennial census survey of advertising agencies in 1941 and the annual surveys since 1944 cover all businesses in this particular field.

The data are collected on the basis of business units and not by establishments.

These data pertain to businesses whose main activity is placing advertising in various media, principally publications, television or radio, on a commission or fee basis. Some market surveys and research and production work may be done. Business concerns whose activities are confined to preparing advertising copy, commercial art, printing or other production work are not included.

Due to a change in the questionnaire design commencing with the 1968 survey year, the gross revenue data for the years 1968 to 1974 are not comparable to those shown for the years prior to 1968.

The source provides other data not reported here.

Other data on advertising may be found in Advertising Expenditures in Canada, 1954, Reference Paper No. 67, 1956, in which data collected largely from various advertising media are given. It contains considerable detail on revenue of different advertising media, internal cost of advertisers, advertising costs in various industries and the like.

Table V420-423 Selected statistics of motion picture and drive-in theatres, 1930 to 1974. Opens a new browser window.

Table V420-423
Selected statistics of motion picture and drive-in theatres, 1930 to 1974

Source: for 1965 to 1974, Motion Picture Theatres and Film Distributors, 1974, annual, (Catalogue 63-207); for 1961 to 1964, Motion Picture Theatres and Film Distributors, 1966, annual, (Catalogue 63-207); for 1940 to 1960, Motion Picture Theatres and Film Distributors, 1960, table 1, p. 7 and table 9, p. 12, (Catalogue 63-207); for 1930 to 1939, Motion Picture Theatres, Exhibitors and Distributors, 1955, table 1, p. R-7, (Catalogue 63-207).

V420 and V421. Series deal only with regular motion picture theatres and includes those using 16 mm. as well as theatres using 35 mm. projection equipment. For purposes of this table, establishments having more than one auditorium at one location were shown as single establishments.

V422 and V423. Series refer to drive-in theatres only.

A census of all motion picture theatres was first taken with the decennial census of 1931 for the year 1930. An annual census covering all such theatres has been taken regularly since 1933. The original list of motion picture theatres was obtained by the population census enumerators in 1931 (see the general note to Section V). Since then lists of licensed operators have been obtained each year from the various provincial licensing authorities.

The data for 1948 to 1960 are for regular motion picture theatres and drive-in theatres. They do not cover itinerant operators who show pictures in halls or community enterprises, such as churches, lodges, boards of trade and the like which show pictures in community halls on a non-profit basis. Prior to 1948, data for community enterprises are included. Information for itinerant operators and community enterprises has not been collected since 1957.

The data are collected on an establishment basis.

V421 and V423. Receipts from admissions are what the theatres receive and do not include amusement taxes. Revenue from sales of candy, drinks, cigarettes and the like, from rental revenue of vending machines, from revenue for showing commercial films and from other sources, provide additional receipts. Such revenue amounted to $29,355,000 in 1974.

The source provides other data which are not reported here.

Material in other sections of this volume related to trade and service may be found in Section D on the labour force in distribution and services, in Section E on total wages and salaries by industry, in Section F on distribution of national product by industry, in Section G on external trade, in Section K on prices, in Section M on domestic disappearance of certain agricultural foodstuffs, in Section Q on sales of electricity and in Section T on expenditure for transportation.

Table V424-436 Receipts of selected kinds of service establishments, 1961 to 1975. Opens a new browser window.

Table V424-436
Receipts of selected kinds of service establishments, 1961 to 1975

Source: Restaurant receipts: for 1970 to 1975, Restaurant Statistics, (Catalogue 63-011), December 1970 to 1975, respectively; for 1961 to 1969, Restaurant Statistics, February 1970, (Catalogue 63-011). Motels: for 1969, 1970, 1972, 1973 and 1974, Traveller Accommodation Statistics, annual, (Catalogue 63-204), 1969, 1970, 1972, 1973 and 1974 respectively. Power laundries, dry cleaning and dyeing plants: for 1961 to 1974, Power Laundries, Dry Cleaning and Dyeing Plants, annual, (Catalogue 63-205). Funeral directors: for 1972, Funeral Directors, 1972, (Catalogue 63-523); for 1968, Funeral Directors, 1968, (Catalogue 63-520); for 1964, Funeral Directors, 1964, (Catalogue 65-511); for 1966, Census of Canada, 1966, vol. VIII, Services: Establishments, (Catalogue 97-647). Hotels: for 1969 to 1974, Traveller Accommodation Statistics, annual, (Catalogue 63-204), 1969 to 1974 respectively; for 1961 to 1969, Hotels, annual, (Catalogue 63-204); 1961 to 1968. See also sources for series V414-416. Motion picture theatres: for 1968 to 1974, Motion Picture Theatres and Film Distributors, 1974, annual, (Catalogue 63-207); for 1961 to 1967, Motion Picture Theatres and Film Distributors, 1967, annual, (Catalogue 63-207). Computer services: for 1974, Computer Service Industry, 1974, annual, (Catalogue 63-222).

Data on restaurants include receipts from: (1) regular restaurants, (2) restaurants with merchandise, and (3) restaurants with alcoholic beverages. Both independent and chain restaurant locations are included as well as restaurants that operate under a franchise.

The statistics on motels refer to all motels in Canada both full-year and seasonal. As of 1973, definitions were as follows: 'A motel-type room is a room in a building sharing a common roof which has direct access from the exterior of the building but no access from a central lobby and which has adjacent parking.'

'Full-year' includes establishments: (1) operating three or more motel-type rooms and less than six hotel and/or motel-type rooms; (2) operating for at least 10 or more months during the year; (3) licensed or not licensed to serve alcoholic beverages; however, room rentals for licensed motels must be equal to or greater than 1 per cent of alcohol sales; (4) reporting that the sum of rooms, meals and alcohol receipts are equal to or greater than 2/3 of merchandise sales; (5) reporting that room receipts are primarily derived from catering to transient guests.

Table V437-448 Summary statistics, census of service trades, by province, selected years, 1930 to 1971. Opens a new browser window.

Table V437-448
Summary statistics, census of service trades, by province, selected years, 1930 to 1971

Source: for 1971, Census of Canada, 1971, Services, unpublished worksheets, subject to revision; for 1966, Census of Canada, 1966, vol. VIII, Services: Locations, (Catalogue 97-643); for 1961, Census of Canada, 1961, vol. VI, Part 2, (Catalogue 97-517); for 1951, Census of Canada, 1951, vol. VIII, Distribution, Wholesale Trade and Services; for 1941, Census of Canada, 1941, vol. XI, Merchandising and Services, Part 2; for 1930, Census of Canada, 1931, vol. XI, Merchandising and Services, Part 2.

'Seasonal' is the same as 'full-year' above, except for criterion (2) which should read: (2) operating for less than 10 months during the year. Receipts of funeral directors include payments for funeral services, sale of vaults, and extra charges (cemetery and shipping charges, extra cars, newspaper notices, clothing, etc.).

Computer services refer to establishments in Canada primarily engaged in providing computer services as a major activity. 'Computer services' are defined to include processing services, input preparation, software and systems services, systems development and maintenance, other software and systems services, equipment maintenance services and other computer services (including computer-related education services, computer facility management, feasibility studies, etc.).


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