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1. Commission on Social Determinants of Health. Closing the Gap in a Generation: Health Equity through Action on the Social Determinants of Health. Final Report of the Commission on Social Determinants of Health. Geneva: World Health Organization, 2008.

2. HB, Bovaird S, Mueller MP. The impact of poverty on educational outcomes for children. Paediatrics and Child Health 2007; 1, 2(8): 701–6.

3. Phipps S, Lethbridge L. Income and the Outcomes of Children. Analytical Studies Branch Research Paper Series (Catalogue 11F0019MIE, No. 28) Ottawa: Statistics Canada, 2006.

4. Brooks-Gunn J, Duncan GJ, Britto PR. Are socioeconomic gradients for children similar to those for adults? In: Keating DP, Hertzman C, eds. Developmental Health and the Wealth of Nations. New York: The Guildford Press, 1999: 94-124.

5. Hoddinott J, Lethbridge L, Phipps S. Is History Destiny? Resources, Transitions and Child Education Attainments in Canada (Catalogue RH63-1/555-12-02E) Hull, Quebec: Human Resources Development Canada, 2002.

6. BG, Phelan J. Social conditions as fundamental causes of disease. Journal of Health and Social Behavior 1995; 35(extra issue): 80-94.

7. Lantz PM, House JS, Lepkowski JM, et al. Socioeconomic factors, health behaviors, and mortality: results from a nationally representative prospective study of US adults. Journal of the American Medical Association 1998; 279(21): 1703-8.

8. Lantz PM, Golberstein E, House JS, Morenoff J. Socioeconomic and behavioral risk factors for mortality in a national 19-year prospective study of U.S. adults. Social Science and Medicine 2010; 70(10): 1558-66.

9. Rogers RG, Everett BG, Zajacova A, Hummer RA. Educational degrees and adult mortality risk in the United States. Biodemography and Social Biology 2010; 56(1): 80-99.

10. Canadian Council on Learning. Health Literacy in Canada: Initial Results from the International Adult Literacy and Skills Survey 2007. Ottawa: Canadian Council on Learning, 2007.

11. Menvielle G, Leclerc A, Chastang JF, Luce D. Socioeconomic inequalities in cause specific mortality among older people in France. BMC Public Health 2010; 10: 260.

12. Adler NE, Newman K. Socioeconomic disparities in health: pathways and policies. Health Affairs 2002; 21(2): 60-76.

13. Canadian Population Health Initiative. Reducing Gaps in Health: A Focus on Socio-Economic Status in Urban Canada. Ottawa: Canadian Institute for Health Information, 2008.

14. Chief Public Health Officer's Report on the State of Public Health in Canada 2008 (Catalogue HP2-10/2008) Ottawa: Minister of Health, 2008.

15. McIntosh CN, Finès P, Wilkins R, Wolfson MC. Income disparities in health-adjusted life expectancy for Canadian adults, 1991 to 2001. Health Reports 2009; 20(4): 55-64.

16. Mackenbach JP, Stirbu I, Roskam AJ, et al. Socioeconomic inequalities in health in 22 European countries. New England Journal of Medicine 2008; 358(23): 2468-81.

17. Skalická V, van Lenthe F, Bambra C, et al. Material, psychosocial, behavioural and biomedical factors in the explanation of relative socio-economic inequalities in mortality: evidence from the HUNT study. International Journal of Epidemiology 2009; 38(5): 1272-84.

18. Roos LL, Magoon J, Gupta S, et al.  Socioeconomic determinants of mortality in two Canadian provinces: multilevel modelling and neighborhood context. Social Science and Medicine 2004; 59(7): 1435-47.

19. Aronson K, Howe G, Fair M, Carpenter M. Occupational Surveillance in Canada: Cause-specific Mortality among Workers, 1965 to 1991 (Catalogue 84-546-XCB) Ottawa: Statistics Canada, 2000.

20. Martel L, Bélanger A. An analysis of the change in dependence-free life expectancy in Canada between 1986 and 1996. In: Bélanger A, Gilbert S, eds. Report on the Demographic Situation in Canada 1998-1999 (Current Demographic Analysis, Statistics Canada Catalogue 91-209-XPE) Ottawa: Minister of Industry, 1999:164-186 (and Erratum).

21. Chen J, Beavon D, Wilkins R. Mortality of retired public servants in Canada. Proceedings of the Social Statistics Section, Annual Meeting of the American Statistical Association.  Chicago, 1996: 86-91.

22. Wolfson M, Rowe G, Gentleman JF, Tomiak M. Career earnings and death: a longitudinal analysis of older Canadian men. Journal of Gerontology 1993; 48(4): S167-79.

23. Wigle DT, Semenciw RM, Wilkins K, et al. Mortality study of Canadian male farm operators: non-Hodgkin's lymphoma mortality and agricultural practices in Saskatchewan. Journal of the National Cancer Institute 1990; 82(7): 575-82.

24. Wilkins R, Tjepkema M, Mustard C, Choinière R. The Canadian census mortality follow-up study, 1991 through 2001. Health Reports 2008; 19(3): 25-43.

25. Peters PA, Tjepkema M. 1991-2011 Canadian census mortality and cancer follow-up study. Proceedings of Statistics Canada Symposium 2010. Social Statistics: The Interplay among Censuses, Surveys and Administrative Data (Catalogue 11-522-XCB) Ottawa: Statistics Canada, 2011: 150-6.

26. Tjepkema M, Wilkins R. Remaining life expectancy at age 25 and probability of survival to age 75, by socio-economic status and Aboriginal ancestry. Health Reports 2011; 22(4): 31-6.

27. Fair M. Generalized Record Linkage System – Statistics Canada's Record Linkage Software. Austrian Journal of Statistics 2004; 33(1 and 2): 37-53.

28. World Health Organization. Manual of the International Statistical Classification of Diseases, Injuries and Causes of Death. Ninth Revision. Geneva: World Health Organization, 1977.

29. World Health Organization. International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems, Tenth Revision. Geneva: World Health Organization, 1992.

30. World Health Organization. Global Burden of Disease: 2004 Update. Geneva: World Health Organization, 2008.

31. Office of National Statistics. Report: deaths related to drug poisoning: England and Wales, 1999-2003. Health Statistics Quarterly 2005; Spring(25):52-9.

32. Stirbu I, Kunst AE, Bopp M, et al. Educational inequalities in avoidable mortality in Europe. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health 2010; 64(10): 913-20.

33. Spiegelman M. Introduction to Demography. Revised Edition. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press, 1968.

34. Elo IT, Preston SH. Educational differentials in mortality: United States, 1979-85. Social Science and Medicine 1996; 42(1): 47-57.

35. Canadian Heart Health Strategy and Action Plan. Building a Heart Healthy Canada. Ottawa: Canadian Heart Health Strategy and Action Plan, 2009. Available at:

36. Health Canada. Economic Burden of Illness in Canada, 1998 (Catalogue H21-136/1998E) Ottawa: Health Canada, 2002.

37. Phelan JC, Link BG, Diez-Roux A, et al.  "Fundamental causes" of social inequalities in mortality: a test of the theory. Journal of Health and Social Behavior 2004; 45(3): 265-85.

38. Phelan JC, Link BG, Tehranifar P. Social conditions as fundamental causes of health inequalities: theory, evidence, and policy implications. Journal of Health and Social Behavior 2010; 51(Suppl.): S28-40.

39. Syme SL. Reducing racial and social-class inequalities in health: the need for a new approach. Health Affairs 2008; 27(2): 456-9.

40. Lewington S, Clarke R. Qizilbash N, et al. Age-specific relevance of usual blood pressure to vascular mortality: a meta-analysis of individual data for one million adults in 61 prospective studies. Lancet 2002; 360(9349): 1903-13.

41. McGrail KM, van Doorslaer E, Ross NA, Sanmartin C. Income-related health inequalities in Canada and the United States: a decomposition analysis. American Journal of Public Health 2009; 99(1). doi:10.2105/AJPH.2007.129361

42. Kim HJ, Ruger JP. Socioeconomic disparities in behavioral risk factors and health outcomes by gender in the Republic of Korea.  BMC Public Health 2010; 10(1): 195.