Life Tables, Canada, Provinces and Territories
2009 to 2011

This document includes life tables for Canada, provinces and territories for the period 2009 to 2011. In addition to producing life expectancy, life tables also provide other indicators describing the mortality within a population during a given period of time: death probabilities, survival probabilities, survivors at specific ages and years of life lived.

Complete life tables, by single years of age and sex, are available for Canada as a whole and for nine provinces: Newfoundland and Labrador, Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, Quebec, Ontario, Manitoba, Saskatchewan, Alberta and British Columbia.

For Prince Edward Island, Yukon, the Northwest Territories and Nunavut, abridged life tables were computed, that is by 5-year age groups and sex. The population size of this province and the three territories were too small to allow the calculation of complete life tables with accuracy. 

Methods

The methods used for the life tables are described in the document Methods for Constructing Life Tables for Canada, Provinces and Territories, catalogue no. 84-538. All of the Statistics Canada life tables computed from the period 2009 to 2011 and after are based on this revised methodology which takes into account recent progress in the field of mortality studies. 

Definitions of the elements included in the life tables

The following elements are available in all life tables included in this document.

Age (age interval):

The major visual difference between the complete and abridged life tables lies in the age groupings for which the estimates have been produced.

In complete life tables, there is only one age value per row, which indicates the exact age for the number of survivors, the cumulative number of life years lived and the life expectancy. For the number of deaths, death and survival probabilities, as well as the number of life years lived, the interval in the life table represent the interval between two exact ages. For example, death at age 30 means that the death occurred on or after the 30th birthday but before reaching its 31st birthday.

The presentation is the same in abridged life tables, but the age intervals are of the form (x, x+(n-1)); that is, both ages x and x+(n-1) are included in the interval. For example, the age interval 40 to 44 comprises deaths occurring among 40 to 44 year-olds. Most age intervals in abridged life tables span five years. The exceptions occur in the first two rows of these tables and for the last row: the first row (age 0) represents a one-year interval and the second row, a four-year interval (ages 1 to 4). The last row is an open age interval, 90 years and over.

lx (number of survivors at age x):

Number of persons in an initial cohort of 100,000 live births who are still alive at the beginning of each subsequent age interval. The number of survivors decreases as age increases, under the effect of mortality.

It is possible to compute, from the number of survivors, probabilities of survival between two ages. For example, if the number of survivors is 99,297 at age 10 and 98,935 at age 20, the probability of surviving from age 10 to age 20 is 98,935 / 99,297, that is, 0.99635.

dx (number of deaths between age x and x+n):

Number of deaths which occur in each age interval among the initial cohort of 100,000 live births at age 0.

qx (death probability between age x and x+n):

Probability that a person of age x dies before reaching age x+n.

m.e. (qx) (margin of error associated with the death probability):

Margin of error associated with the death probability. For example, a margin of error of 0.00020 for a death probability at age 0 of 0.00556 enables the construction of a 95% confidence interval with lower and upper limits of 0.00536 and 0.00576. In other words, the death probability is precise within a range of 0.00020, 19 times out of 20.

px (probability of survival between age x and x+n):

Probability that a person of age x survives up to year x+n.

Lx (number of life years lived between age x and x+n):

Number of life years lived by persons between age x and x+n. Life years lived are also considered as the "stationary population� of the life table. Except for ages from 0 to 4 where a separation factor is computed (see the document Methods for Constructing Life Tables for Canada, Provinces and Territories, catalogue no. 84-538), the assumption made is that the deaths are distributed evenly over time within the age interval.

Tx (cumulative number of life years lived beyond age x):

Total number of life years lived by persons of age x and all those included in subsequent age intervals.

ex (life expectancy at age x):

Average number of years remaining to be lived by persons surviving to age x if these persons would experience, during their life, the mortality observed over the reference period.

m.e. (ex) (margin of error associated with the life expectancy):

Margin of error associated with the life expectancy at age x. For example, a margin of error of 0.04 on a life expectancy at birth of 78.17 years enables the construction of a 95% confidence interval with lower and upper limits of 78.13 years and 78.21 years.

Summary table

Life expectancy at birth and at age 65, Canada, provinces and territories, 2009 to 2011
Table summary
This table displays the results of life expectancy at birth and at age 65. The information is grouped by region (appearing as row headers), at birth, at age 65, males and females, calculated using in years units of measure (appearing as column headers).
Region At birth At age 65
Males Females Males Females
in years
Canada 79.33 83.60 18.82 21.73
Newfoundland and Labrador 77.09 82.00 17.28 20.39
Prince Edward Island 78.15 82.90 17.95 20.96
Nova Scotia 78.05 82.64 17.92 20.83
New Brunswick 78.36 83.14 18.36 21.24
Quebec 79.43 83.55 18.60 21.56
Ontario 79.77 83.92 19.00 21.89
Manitoba 77.72 82.19 18.12 21.25
Saskatchewan 77.20 82.20 18.28 21.42
Alberta 79.06 83.45 18.81 21.83
British Columbia 80.25 84.40 19.65 22.32
Yukon 75.19 79.61 16.24 18.87
Northwest Territories 76.28 80.07 17.76 20.23
Nunavut 68.75 73.91 14.55 15.39

Client services

For custom products requests regarding life tables, please contact Statistics Canada's National Contact Centre (613-951-8116; toll-free 1-800-263-1136) or infostats@statcan.gc.ca.

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