2018 Biannual Livestock Survey Reporting Guide

Integrated Business Statistics Program (IBSP)

This guide is designed to assist you as you complete the 2018 Biannual Livestock Survey. If you need more information, please call the Statistics Canada Help Line at the number below.

Your answers are confidential.

Statistics Canada is prohibited by law from releasing any information it collects which could identify any person, business, or organization, unless consent has been given by the respondent or as permitted by the Statistics Act.

Statistics Canada will use information from this survey for statistical purposes.

Help Line: 1-800-565-1685

Table of contents

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Reporting instructions
Livestock: inclusions and exclusions
Cattle and calves
Pigs - Farrowings
Sheep and lambs

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Reporting instructions

When answering the questions, please include as of the reference day:

  • All livestock (cattle or calves, pigs, and/or sheep or lambs) on your operation regardless of ownership, including livestock custom fed, fed under contract for others, and livestock pastured.
  • All livestock owned by the operator and held on Crown land, community pastures, and grazing projects.
  • Please do not report livestock (cattle or calves, pigs, and/or sheep or lambs) which are owned by you but kept on a farm, ranch or feedlot operated by someone else.


Legal Name
The legal name is one recognized by law, thus it is the name liable for pursuit or for debts incurred by the business or organization. In the case of a corporation, it is the legal name as fixed by its charter or the statute by which the corporation was created.

Modifications to the legal name should only be done to correct a spelling error or typo.

To indicate a legal name of another legal entity you should instead indicate it in question 3 by selecting 'Not currently operational' and then choosing the applicable reason and providing the legal name of this other entity along with any other requested information.

Operating Name
The operating name is a name the business or organization is commonly known as if different from its legal name. The operating name is synonymous with trade name.

Current main activity of the business or organization
The North American Industry Classification System (NAICS) is an industry classification system developed by the statistical agencies of Canada, Mexico and the United States. Created against the background of the North American Free Trade Agreement, it is designed to provide common definitions of the industrial structure of the three countries and a common statistical framework to facilitate the analysis of the three economies. NAICS is based on supply-side or production-oriented principles, to ensure that industrial data, classified to NAICS, are suitable for the analysis of production-related issues such as industrial performance.

The target entity for which NAICS is designed are businesses and other organizations engaged in the production of goods and services. They include farms, incorporated and unincorporated businesses and government business enterprises. They also include government institutions and agencies engaged in the production of marketed and non-marketed services, as well as organizations such as professional associations and unions and charitable or non-profit organizations and the employees of households.

The associated NAICS should reflect those activities conducted by the business or organizational unit(s) targeted by this questionnaire only, and which can be identified by the specified legal and operating name. The main activity is the activity which most defines the targeted business or organization's main purpose or reason for existence. For a business or organization that is for-profit, it is normally the activity that generates the majority of the revenue for the entity.

The NAICS classification contains a limited number of activity classifications; the associated classification might be applicable for this business or organization even if it is not exactly how you would describe this business or organization's main activity.

Please note that any modifications to the main activity through your response to this question might not necessarily be reflected prior to the transmitting of subsequent questionnaires and as a result they may not contain this updated information.

Livestock: inclusions and exclusions

Include all livestock on your operation as of the reference day, regardless of ownership, including livestock pastured, custom fed or fed under contract for others.

Include all livestock owned by the operator and held on Crown land, community pastures and grazing projects.

Exclude livestock which are owned by you but kept on a farm, ranch, or feedlot operated by someone else.

Community pastures, grazing associations, Crown land: a community pasture or grazing reserve can be a federal, provincial or municipal land operated by a manager and rented to livestock producers for pasturing animals at a fixed fee per head. A co-operative grazing association is a group of people who usually incorporate and rent or lease land for a common grazing area.

Note: forest reserves fall under the category of grazing reserve. Crown land is land owned by the government (municipal, provincial or federal) and generally managed by the government. Crown land does not necessarily have to be used for the purpose of grazing livestock, although grazing does take place on Crown land, particularly in British Columbia.

Fed under contract / custom feeding: livestock are fed under a pre-arranged agreement with a company (for example feed mill) or another producer to feed the cattle or hogs to market weight. Usually the "feed" operator owns the buildings and supplies the labour but does not own the livestock.

Feedlot (cattle): feedlots are operations where livestock are fattened for market. A feedlot operation may own the animals, or may feed them for other operators for a fee, or both.
Note: feedlots are more applicable to cattle.

Feeding and finishing operations (pigs): feeding and finishing operations are applicable to pigs. Hog feeding and finishing operations are operations in which hogs are fed to market weight. Usually there are no breeding sows or boars in these operations other than those culled from a breeding herd, being fattened for slaughter.

Slaughtered for own consumption: if there are any livestock (cattle, hogs, or sheep) which will be slaughtered for personal consumption, include that livestock in inventory counts. For example if a dairy operator has one pig which will be slaughtered for personal consumption, include this pig in inventory counts.

Cattle and calves

Bulls: male cattle which have not been castrated, 1 year and over, which are or will be kept for breeding purposes or for slaughter.

Calves: cattle of either sex, under 1 year old.

Calving: a term used when referring to cattle, meaning to give birth.

Cow: female cattle which have calved at least once, being used for the production of dairy or for the reproduction of beef calves. Include "first calf heifers".

Heifers: female cattle over 1 year old which have never calved, used (or to be used) for breeding or fed for slaughter.

Steers: castrated male cattle, 1 year and over, being fed for slaughter.


Boars: non-castrated male pigs, 6 months and older, used or to be used (or sold) for breeding purposes.

Bred gilts: female pigs which have never farrowed but which have been bred; they are intended for breeding purposes.

Farrowing: term used when referring to pigs, meaning "to give birth".

Feeders: market pigs that are 50 to 119 lb (23 to 53 kg) or 120 to 179 lb (54 to 81 kg).
Note: sometimes referred to as grower pigs.

Finishers: market pigs over 179 lb (81 kg) which are being fed for slaughter.

Gilts: female pigs which have never farrowed and are intended for breeding. Gilts intended for breeding may or may not be bred.
Note: gilts are younger than bred gilts.

Hog: a general term used to describe any type of pig.

Market pigs: consists of 'feeders (growers)' and 'finishers' which are over 50 lb (23 kg). The general term 'market pigs' is to differentiate from pigs for breeding.

Piglet: a general term used to describe a new born pig.

Slaughter hogs: pigs which are approximately 220 to 240 lb (100 to 110 kg) and are ready to be sold or slaughtered.

Sows: female pigs which have farrowed at least once.

Stillborn: born dead.

Suckling pigs: young pigs under 15 lb (7 kg), which have not been weaned.

Weaners, Weanling, Nursery or Starter: pigs of either sex, 15 to 49 lb (7 to 22 kg), which have recently been weaned.

Weaning: switching a young animal from mother's milk to another source of food.

Pigs - Farrowings

Total number of farrowings: this question is asking to report the total number of farrowings in the last 6 months. If a sow farrowed two times in the last 6 months this would be reported as two farrowings.

Average number of piglets born per litter: this question is asking to report the average number of piglets born per litter during the last 6 months. Some respondents interpret this to mean how many total piglets were born during the last six months. The data we are looking for is the average number of piglets born per sow. For example: If a respondent has 100 sows and each sow has 10 piglets born per litter. The correct response would be on average 10 piglets born per litter. Include piglets born alive and stillborn.

Total piglets born: this question is asking to report the total number of piglets born in the last 6 months. Total number of farrowings in the last 6 months multiplied by average number of piglets born per litter equals the total piglets born in the last 6 months. If the respondent is not able to report the total number of farrowings or average number of piglets born, the respondent should report the total number of piglets born in the last 6 months. Include piglets born alive and stillborn.

Sheep and lambs

Rams: non-castrated male sheep kept for breeding.

Ewes: female sheep kept for breeding.

Replacement lambs: replacement lambs are lambs that are being kept for breeding purposes. Include lambs born on the operation and lambs purchased from other sources. Also include lambs born and still located on the operation that will eventually be sold to other farms for breeding purposes.

Market lambs: market lambs are male or female lambs that are raised with the intent for slaughter.

Thank you for your participation.

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