2020 Annual Survey of Service Industries: Software Development and Computer Services

Why are we conducting this survey?

This survey is conducted by Statistics Canada in order to collect the necessary information to support the Integrated Business Statistics Program (IBSP). This program combines various survey and administrative data to develop comprehensive measures of the Canadian economy.

The statistical information from the IBSP serves many purposes, including:

  • calculating each province and territory's fair share of federal-provincial transfer payments for health, education and social programs
  • establishing government programs to assist businesses
  • assisting the business community in negotiating contracts and collective agreements
  • supporting the government in making informed decisions about fiscal, monetary and foreign exchange policies
  • indexing social benefit programs and determining tax brackets
  • enabling academics and economists to analyze the economic performance of Canadian industries and to better understand rapidly evolving business environments.

Your information may also be used by Statistics Canada for other statistical and research purposes.

Your participation in this survey is required under the authority of the Statistics Act.

Other important information

Authorization to collect this information

Data are collected under the authority of the Statistics Act, Revised Statutes of Canada, 1985, Chapter S-19.

Confidentiality

By law, Statistics Canada is prohibited from releasing any information it collects that could identify any person, business, or organization, unless consent has been given by the respondent, or as permitted by the Statistics Act. Statistics Canada will use the information from this survey for statistical purposes only.

Record linkages

To enhance the data from this survey and to reduce the reporting burden, Statistics Canada may combine the acquired data with information from other surveys or from administrative sources.

Data-sharing agreements

To reduce respondent burden, Statistics Canada has entered into data-sharing agreements with provincial and territorial statistical agencies and other government organizations, which have agreed to keep the data confidential and use them only for statistical purposes. Statistics Canada will only share data from this survey with those organizations that have demonstrated a requirement to use the data.

Section 11 of the Statistics Act provides for the sharing of information with provincial and territorial statistical agencies that meet certain conditions. These agencies must have the legislative authority to collect the same information, on a mandatory basis, and the legislation must provide substantially the same provisions for confidentiality and penalties for disclosure of confidential information as the Statistics Act. Because these agencies have the legal authority to compel businesses to provide the same information, consent is not requested and businesses may not object to the sharing of the data.

For this survey, there are Section 11 agreements with the provincial and territorial statistical agencies of Newfoundland and Labrador, Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, Québec, Ontario, Manitoba, Saskatchewan, Alberta, British Columbia and the Yukon. The shared data will be limited to information pertaining to business establishments located within the jurisdiction of the respective province or territory.

Section 12 of the Statistics Act provides for the sharing of information with federal, provincial or territorial government organizations.

Under Section 12, you may refuse to share your information with any of these organizations by writing a letter of objection to the Chief Statistician, specifying the organizations with which you do not want Statistics Canada to share your data and mailing it to the following address:

Chief Statistician of Canada
Statistics Canada
Attention of Director, Enterprise Statistics Division
150 Tunney's Pasture Driveway
Ottawa, Ontario
K1A 0T6

You may also contact us by email at statcan.esdhelpdesk-dsebureaudedepannage.statcan@statcan.gc.ca or by fax at 613-951-6583.

For this survey, there are Section 12 agreements with the statistical agencies of Prince Edward Island, the Northwest Territories and Nunavut.

For agreements with provincial and territorial government organizations, the shared data will be limited to information pertaining to business establishments located within the jurisdiction of the respective province or territory.

1. Verify or provide the business or organization's legal and operating name and correct where needed.

Note: Legal name modifications should only be done to correct a spelling error or typo.

Note: Press the help button (?) for additional information.

Legal Name
The legal name is one recognized by law, thus it is the name liable for pursuit or for debts incurred by the business or organization. In the case of a corporation, it is the legal name as fixed by its charter or the statute by which the corporation was created.

Modifications to the legal name should only be done to correct a spelling error or typo.

To indicate a legal name of another legal entity you should instead indicate it in question 3 by selecting 'Not currently operational' and then choosing the applicable reason and providing the legal name of this other entity along with any other requested information.

Operating Name
The operating name is a name the business or organization is commonly known as if different from its legal name. The operating name is synonymous with trade name.

Legal name

Operating name (if applicable)

2. Verify or provide the contact information of the designated business or organization contact person for this questionnaire and correct where needed.

Note: The designated contact person is the person who should receive this questionnaire. The designated contact person may not always be the one who actually completes the questionnaire.

First name

Last name

Title

Preferred language of communication

  • English
  • French

Mailing address (number and street)

City

Province, territory or state

Postal code or ZIP code

Country

  • Canada
  • United States

Email address

Telephone number (including area code)

Extension number (if applicable)
The maximum number of characters is 10.

Fax number (including area code)

3. Verify or provide the current operational status of the business or organization identified by the legal and operating name above.

  • Operational
  • Not currently operational

Why is this business or organization not currently operational?

  • Seasonal operations
    • When did this business or organization close for the season?
      • Date
    • When does this business or organization expect to resume operations?
      • Date
  • Ceased operations
    • When did this business or organization cease operations?
      • Date
    • Why did this business or organization cease operations?
      • Bankruptcy
      • Liquidation
      • Dissolution
      • Other - specify the other reasons for ceased operations
  • Sold operations
    • When was this business or organization sold?
      • Date
    • What is the legal name of the buyer?
  • Amalgamated with other businesses or organizations
    • When did this business or organization amalgamate?
      • Date
    • What is the legal name of the resulting or continuing business or organization?
    • What are the legal names of the other amalgamated businesses or organizations?
  • Temporarily inactive but will re-open
    • When did this business or organization become temporarily inactive?
      • Date
    • When does this business or organization expect to resume operations?
      • Date
    • Why is this business or organization temporarily inactive?
  • No longer operating due to other reasons
    • When did this business or organization cease operations?
      • Date
    • Why did this business or organization cease operations?

4. Verify or provide the current main activity of the business or organization identified by the legal and operating name above.

Note: The described activity was assigned using the North American Industry Classification System (NAICS).

Note: Press the help button (?) for additional information, including a detailed description of this activity complete with example activities and any applicable exclusions.

This question verifies the business or organization's current main activity as classified by the North American Industry Classification System (NAICS). The North American Industry Classification System (NAICS) is an industry classification system developed by the statistical agencies of Canada, Mexico and the United States. Created against the background of the North American Free Trade Agreement, it is designed to provide common definitions of the industrial structure of the three countries and a common statistical framework to facilitate the analysis of the three economies. NAICS is based on supply-side or production-oriented principles, to ensure that industrial data, classified to NAICS, are suitable for the analysis of production-related issues such as industrial performance.

The target entity for which NAICS is designed are businesses and other organizations engaged in the production of goods and services. They include farms, incorporated and unincorporated businesses and government business enterprises. They also include government institutions and agencies engaged in the production of marketed and non-marketed services, as well as organizations such as professional associations and unions and charitable or non-profit organizations and the employees of households.

The associated NAICS should reflect those activities conducted by the business or organizational units targeted by this questionnaire only, as identified in the 'Answering this questionnaire' section and which can be identified by the specified legal and operating name. The main activity is the activity which most defines the targeted business or organization's main purpose or reason for existence. For a business or organization that is for-profit, it is normally the activity that generates the majority of the revenue for the entity.

The NAICS classification contains a limited number of activity classifications; the associated classification might be applicable for this business or organization even if it is not exactly how you would describe this business or organization's main activity.

Please note that any modifications to the main activity through your response to this question might not necessarily be reflected prior to the transmitting of subsequent questionnaires and as a result they may not contain this updated information.

The following is the detailed description including any applicable examples or exclusions for the classification currently associated with this business or organization.

Description and examples

  • This is the current main activity
  • This is not the current main activity

Provide a brief but precise description of this business or organization's main activity

e.g., breakfast cereal manufacturing, shoe store, software development

Main activity

5. You indicated that is not the current main activity.

Was this business or organization's main activity ever classified as: ?

  • Yes
    When did the main activity change?
    Date
  • No

6. Search and select the industry classification code that best corresponds to this business or organization's main activity.

How to search:

  • if desired, you can filter the search results by first selecting this business or organization's activity sector
  • enter keywords or a brief description that best describes this business or organization main activity
  • press the Search button to search the database for an activity that best matches the keywords or description you provided
  • then select an activity from the list.

Select this business or organization's activity sector (optional)

  • Farming or logging operation
  • Construction company or general contractor
  • Manufacturer
  • Wholesaler
  • Retailer
  • Provider of passenger or freight transportation
  • Provider of investment, savings or insurance products
  • Real estate agency, real estate brokerage or leasing company
  • Provider of professional, scientific or technical services
  • Provider of health care or social services
  • Restaurant, bar, hotel, motel or other lodging establishment
  • Other sector

Enter keywords or a brief description, then press the Search button

7. You have indicated that the current main activity of this business or organization is:

Main activity

Are there any other activities that contribute significantly (at least 10%) to this business or organization's revenue?

  • Yes, there are other activities
  • No, that is the only significant activity

Provide a brief but precise description of this business or organization's secondary activity

e.g., breakfast cereal manufacturing, shoe store, software development

8. Approximately what percentage of this business or organization's revenue is generated by each of the following activities?

When precise figures are not available, provide your best estimates.

This table contains no data. It is an example of an empty data table used by respondents to provide data to Statistics Canada.
  Percentage of revenue
Main activity  
Secondary activity  
All other activities  
Total percentage  

Reporting period information

1. What are the start and end dates of this business's or organization's most recently completed fiscal year?

For this survey, the end date should fall between April 1, 2020 and March 31, 2021.

Note: Press the help button (?) for additional information, including examples of reporting periods.

Here are twelve common fiscal periods that fall within the targeted dates:

  • May 1, 2019 to April 30, 2020
  • June 1, 2019 to May 31, 2020
  • July 1, 2019 to June 30, 2020
  • August 1, 2019 to July 31, 2020
  • September 1, 2019 to August 31, 2020
  • October 1, 2019 to September 30, 2020
  • November 1, 2019 to October 31, 2020
  • December 1, 2019 to November 30, 2020
  • January 1, 2020 to December 31, 2020
  • February 1, 2020 to January 31, 2021
  • March 1, 2020 to February 28, 2021
  • April 1, 2020 to March 31, 2021.

Here are other examples of fiscal periods that fall within the required dates:

  • September 18, 2019 to September 15, 2020 (e.g., floating year-end)
  • June 1, 2020 to December 31, 2020 (e.g., a newly opened business).

Fiscal year start date

Fiscal year-end date

2. What is the reason the reporting period does not cover a full year?

Select all that apply.

  • Seasonal operations
  • New business
  • Change of ownership
  • Temporarily inactive
  • Change of fiscal year
  • Ceased operations
  • Other - Specify reason the reporting period does not cover a full year

Additional reporting instructions

1. Throughout this questionnaire, please report financial information in thousands of Canadian dollars.

For example, an amount of $763,880.25 should be reported as:

CAN$ '000$: 764,000

I will report in the format above

Revenue

1. For the reporting period of YYYY-MM-DD to YYYY-MM-DD, what was this business's revenue from each of the following sources?

Notes:

  • a detailed breakdown may be requested in other sections
  • these questions are asked of many different industries. Some questions may not apply to this business

Report dollar amounts in thousands of Canadian dollars.

Revenue

a. Sales of goods and services (e.g., fees, commissions, services revenue)

Report net of returns and allowances.

Sales of goods and services are defined as amounts derived from the sale of goods and services (cash or credit), falling within a business's ordinary activities. Sales should be reported net of trade discount, value added tax and other taxes based on sales.

Include:

  • sales from Canadian locations (domestic and export sales)
  • transfers to other business units or a head office of your firm.

Exclude:

  • transfers into inventory and consignment sales
  • federal, provincial and territorial sales taxes and excise duties and taxes
  • intercompany sales in consolidated financial statements.

b. Rental and leasing

Include rental or leasing of apartments, commercial buildings, land, office space, residential housing, investments in co-tenancies and co-ownerships, hotel or motel rooms, long and short term vehicle leasing, machinery or equipment, storage lockers, etc.

c. Commissions

Include commissions earned on the sale of products or services by businesses such as advertising agencies, brokers, insurance agents, lottery ticket sales, sales representatives and travel agencies - compensation could also be reported under this item (for example, compensation for collecting sales tax).

d. Subsidies (including grants, donations, fundraising and sponsorships)

Include:

  • non-repayable grants, contributions and subsidies from all levels of government
  • revenue from private sector (corporate and individual) sponsorships, donations and fundraising.

e. Royalties, rights, licensing and franchise fees

A royalty is defined as a payment received by the holder of a copyright, trademark or patent.

Include revenue received from the sale or use of all intellectual property rights of copyrighted materials such as musical, literary, artistic or dramatic works, sound recordings or the broadcasting of communication signals.

f. Dividends

Include:

  • dividend income
  • dividends from Canadian sources
  • dividends from foreign sources
  • patronage dividends.

Exclude equity income from investments in subsidiaries or affiliates.

g. Interest

Include:

  • investment revenue
  • interest from foreign sources
  • interest from Canadian bonds and debentures
  • interest from Canadian mortgage loans
  • interest from other Canadian sources.

Exclude equity income from investments in subsidiaries or affiliates.

h. All other revenue (Include intracompany transfers)

Include amounts not included in questions a. to g.

Total revenue

The sum of sub-questions a. to h.

This table contains no data. It is an example of an empty data table used by respondents to provide data to Statistics Canada.
  CAN$ '000
a. Sales of goods and services  
b. Rental and leasing  
c. Commissions  
d. Subsidies  
e. Royalties, rights, licensing and franchise fees  
f. Dividends  
g. Interest  
h. Other  
Total revenue  

E-commerce

The following questions are about e-commerce activities.

E-commerce revenue: Sales of goods and services conducted over the Internet with or without online payment.

Include all revenue for which an order is received and commitment to purchase is made via the Internet, although payment can be made by other means, such as orders made on web pages, an extranet, mobile devices or Electronic Data Interchange (EDI).

Exclude orders made by telephone, facsimile or email.

Sales from automated kiosks located within the business's establishments are excluded from E-commerce sales.

1. For the reporting period of YYYY-MM-DD to YYYY-MM-DD, what was this business's total revenue?

Include:

  • sales of goods and services
  • rental, leasing and property management
  • commissions
  • subsidies, grants, donations, fundraising and sponsorships
  • royalties
  • rights
  • licensing and franchise fees
  • dividends, interest and other revenue.

Report dollar amounts in thousands of Canadian dollars.

Total revenue in CAN$ '000

2. For the reporting period of YYYY-MM-DD to YYYY-MM-DD, did this business have any e-commerce revenue?

E-commerce revenue: Sales of goods and services conducted over the Internet with or without online payment.

Include all revenue for which an order is received and commitment to purchase is made via the Internet, although payment can be made by other means, such as orders made on web pages, an extranet, mobile devices or Electronic Data Interchange (EDI).

Exclude orders made by telephone, facsimile or email.

  • Yes
  • No

3. Of the amount reported in total revenue, what was the total e-commerce revenue?

When precise figures are not available, provide your best estimates.

Report dollar amounts in thousands of Canadian dollars.

Total e-commerce revenue in CAN$ '000

4. For the reporting period of YYYY-MM-DD to YYYY-MM-DD, did this business make sales over the Internet through any of the following methods?

Select all that apply.

  • Mobile app
    Include sales through any app, or application, that is downloaded and designed to run on a handheld device such as a smartphone or tablet (for example, places where a user may download these apps, including Apple's App Store, Google Play or Blackberry App World).
  • Company website
    Include sales through a browser-based website where your organization maintains control of the content.
  • Third-party website
    Include sales through a browser-based website where a third-party maintains the structure of the website and control of the look and feel while your company only provides the product to be sold (for example, Amazon, Expedia or Etsy).
  • Electronic Data Interchange (EDI)
    A standard format for exchanging business data. EDI is based on the use of message standards, ensuring that all participants use a common language.
  • Via a mobile app
  • Via your company website
  • Via a third-party website
  • Via Electronic Data Interchange (EDI)
  • Other - Specify the other methods

5. Does this business have any full-time staff dedicated solely to activities related to e-commerce?

  • Yes
  • No

6. Why did this business not make sales over the Internet?

Select all that apply.

  • Goods and services do not lend themselves to online sales
  • Prefer to maintain current business model
  • Lack of skilled workers to implement and maintain e-commerce infrastructure
  • Cost of development is too high
  • Security concerns
  • Other -Specify the other reasons

Expenses

1. For the reporting period of YYYY-MM-DD to YYYY-MM-DD, what were this business's expenses for the following items?

Notes:

  • a detailed breakdown may be requested in other sections
  • these questions are asked of many different industries. Some questions may not apply to this business

Report dollar amounts in thousands of Canadian dollars.

Expenses

-a. Cost of goods sold

Many business units distinguish their costs of materials from their other business expenses (selling, general and administrative). This item is included to allow you to easily record your costs/expenses according to your normal accounting practices.

Include:

  • cost of raw materials and/or goods purchased for resale - net of discounts earned on purchases
  • freight in and duty.

Exclude all costs associated with salaries, wages, benefits, commissions and subcontracts (report at Employment costs and expenses, and Subcontracts).

-b. -Employment costs and expenses

-b1. Salaries, wages and commissions

Please report all salaries and wages (including taxable allowances and employment commissions as defined on the T4 - Statement of Remuneration Paid) before deductions for this reporting period.

Include:

  • vacation pay
  • bonuses (including profit sharing)
  • employee commissions
  • taxable allowances (e.g., room and board, vehicle allowances, gifts such as airline tickets for holidays)
  • severance pay.

Exclude all payments and expenses associated with casual labour and outside contract workers (report at Subcontracts).

-b2. Employee benefits

Include contributions to:

  • health plans
  • insurance plans
  • employment insurance
  • pension plans
  • workers' compensation
  • association dues
  • contributions to any other employee benefits such as child care and supplementary unemployment benefit (SUB) plans
  • contributions to provincial and territorial health and education payroll taxes.

c. Subcontracts

Subcontract expense refers to the purchasing of services from outside of the company rather than providing them in-house.

Include:

  • hired casual labour and outside contract workers
  • custom work and contract work
  • subcontract and outside labour
  • hired labour.

d. Research and development fees

Expenses from activities conducted with the intention of making a discovery that could either lead to the development of new products or procedures, or to the improvement of existing products or procedures.

e. Professional and business fees

Include:

  • legal services
  • accounting and auditing fees
  • consulting fees
  • education and training fees
  • appraisal fees
  • management and administration fees
  • property management fees
  • information technology (IT) consulting and service fees (purchased)
  • architectural fees
  • engineering fees
  • scientific and technical service fees
  • other consulting fees (management, technical and scientific)
  • veterinary fees
  • fees for human health services
  • payroll preparation fees
  • all other professional and business service fees.

Exclude service fees paid to Head Office (report at All other costs and expenses).

f. Utilities

Utility expenses related to operating your business unit such as water, electricity, gas and heating.

Include:

  • diesel, fuel wood, natural gas, oil and propane
  • sewage.

Exclude:

  • energy expenses covered in your rental and leasing contracts
  • telephone, Internet and other telecommunications
  • vehicle fuel (report at All other costs and expenses).

g. Office and computer related expenses

Include:

  • office stationery and supplies, paper and other supplies for photocopiers, printers and fax machines
  • postage and courier (used in the day to day office business activity)
  • computer and peripherals upgrade expenses
  • data processing.

Exclude telephone, Internet and other telecommunication expenses (report at Telephone, Internet and other telecommunication).

h. Telephone, Internet and other telecommunication

Include:

  • internet
  • telephone and telecommunications
  • cellular telephone
  • fax machine
  • pager.

i. Business taxes, licenses and permits

Include:

  • property taxes paid directly and property transfer taxes
  • vehicle license fees
  • beverage taxes and business taxes
  • trade license fees
  • membership fees and professional license fees
  • provincial capital tax.

j. Royalties, franchise fees and memberships

Include:

  • amounts paid to holders of patents, copyrights, performing rights and trademarks
  • gross overriding royalty expenses and direct royalty costs
  • resident and non-resident royalty expenses
  • franchise fees.

Exclude Crown royalties

k. Crown charges

Federal or Provincial royalty, tax, lease or rental payments made in relation to the acquisition, development or ownership of Canadian resource properties.

Include:

  • Crown royalties
  • Crown leases and rentals
  • oil sand leases
  • stumpage fees.

l. Rental and leasing

Include:

  • lease rental expenses, real estate rental expenses, condominium fees and equipment rental expenses
  • motor vehicle rental and leasing expenses
  • studio lighting and scaffolding
  • machinery and equipment rental expenses
  • storage expenses
  • road and construction equipment rental
  • fuel and other utility costs covered in your rental and leasing contracts.

m. Repair and maintenance

Include:

  • buildings and structures
  • machinery and equipment
  • security equipment
  • vehicles
  • costs related to materials, parts and external labour associated with these expenses
  • janitorial and cleaning services and garbage removal.

n. Amortization and depreciation

Include:

  • direct cost depreciation of tangible assets and amortization of leasehold improvements
  • amortization of intangible assets (e.g., amortization of goodwill, patents, franchises, copyrights, trademarks, deferred charges, organizational costs).

o. Insurance

Insurance recovery income should be deducted from insurance expenses.

Include:

  • professional and other liability insurance
  • motor vehicle and property insurance
  • executive life insurance
  • bonding, business interruption insurance and fire insurance.

p. Advertising, marketing, promotion, meals and entertainment

Include:

  • newspaper advertising and media expenses
  • catalogues, presentations and displays
  • tickets for theatre, concerts and sporting events for business promotion
  • fundraising expenses
  • meals, entertainment and hospitality purchases for clients.

q. Travel, meetings and conventions

Include:

  • travel expenses
  • meeting and convention expenses, seminars
  • passenger transportation (e.g., airfare, bus, train)
  • accommodations
  • travel allowance and meals while travelling
  • other travel expenses.

r. Financial services

Include:

  • explicit service charges for financial services
  • credit and debit card commissions and charges
  • collection expenses and transfer fees
  • registrar and transfer agent fees
  • security and exchange commission fees
  • other financial service fees.

Exclude interest expenses (report at Interest expense).

s. Interest expense

Report the cost of servicing your company's debt.

Include:

  • interest
  • bank charges
  • finance charges
  • interest payments on capital leases
  • amortization of bond discounts
  • interest on short-term and long-term debt, mortgages, bonds and debentures.

t. Other non-production-related costs and expenses

Include:

  • charitable donations and political contributions
  • bad debt expense
  • loan losses
  • provisions for loan losses (minus bad debt recoveries)
  • inventory adjustments.

u. All other costs and expenses (including intracompany expenses)

Include:

  • production costs
  • pipeline operations, drilling, site restoration
  • gross overriding royalty
  • other producing property rentals
  • well operating, fuel and equipment
  • other lease rentals
  • other direct costs
  • equipment hire and operation
  • log yard expense, forestry costs, logging road costs
  • freight in and duty
  • overhead expenses allocated to cost of sales
  • other expenses
  • cash over/short (negative expense)
  • reimbursement of parent company expense
  • warranty expense
  • recruiting expenses
  • general and administrative expenses
  • interdivisional expenses
  • interfund transfer (minus expense recoveries)
  • exploration and development (including prospect/geological, well abandonment and dry holes, exploration expenses, development expenses)
  • amounts not included in sub-questions a. to t. above.

 

Total expenses

 

The sum of sub-questions a. to u.

This table contains no data. It is an example of an empty data table used by respondents to provide data to Statistics Canada.
  CAN$ '000
a Cost of goods sold  
a1. Opening inventories  
a2. Purchases  
a3. Closing inventories  
a4. Cost of goods sold  
b. Employment costs and expenses  
b1. Salaries, wages and commissions  
b2. Employee benefits  
c. Subcontracts  
d. Research and development fees  
e. Professional and business fees  
f. Utilities  
g. Office and computer related expenses  
h. Telephone, Internet and other telecommunication  
i. Business taxes, licenses and permits  
j. Royalties, franchise fees and memberships  
k. Crown charges  
l. Rental and leasing  
m. Repair and maintenance  
n. Amortization and depreciation  
o. Insurance  
p. Advertising, marketing, promotion, meals and entertainment  
q. Travel, meetings and conventions  
r. Financial services  
s. Interest expense  
t. Other non-production-related costs and expenses  
u. All other costs and expenses  
Total expenses   

Industry characteristics

1. What were this business's sales for each of the following goods and services?

Report dollar amounts in thousands of Canadian dollars.

a. Information technology (IT) technical consulting services

The provision of advice or expert opinion on technical matters related to the use of information technology. Include advice on matters such as hardware and software requirements and procurement, systems integration and systems security. The provision of expert testimony on IT-related issues are also included here.

b. Custom software design and development services

b1. Website design and development services

This service consists of designing the structure and content of a web page and/or writing the computer code necessary to create and implement a web page.

b2. Database design and development services

This service consists of designing the structure and content of a database and/or of writing the computer code necessary to create and implement a database (data warehouse). Exclude contracts where the design and development of a database is bundled with the on-going management of the data holdings and are classified in the data management services sub category.

b3. Customization and integration of packaged software

This service consists of adapting (modifying, configuring, etc.) and installing an existing application so that it is functional within the clients' information system environment.

b4. Video game design and development services

b5. Other custom software development services

This service consists of adapting (modifying, configuring, etc.) and installing an existing application so that it is functional within the client's information system environment or creating software to meet the specific needs of the clients.

c. Computer systems and network design and development services

c1. Network design and development services (include network security design)

This service consists of designing, developing and implementing customer networks such as Intranets, Extranets and Virtual Private Networks.

c2. Computer systems design, development and integration services

This service consists of assessing an organization's computer requirements, advising on hardware and software acquisitions, developing system specifications and either putting the new system in place or providing the client with the necessary specifications to put the new system in place.

d. Hosting and information technology (IT) infrastructure provisioning services (e.g., Website hosting, application service provisioning, business process management services, collocation, data storage and management)

Website hosting services

The service of providing the infrastructure to host a customer's website and related files in a location that provides fast, reliable connection to the Internet.

Application service provisioning (ASP)

The provision of leased software applications from a centralized, hosted, and managed computing environment.

Business process management services

A bundled service package that combines information-technology-intensive services with labour (manual or professional depending on the solution), machinery and facilities to support, host and manage a business process for a client.

Collocation

The provision of rack space within a secured facility for the placement of servers and enterprise platforms. The service includes the space for the client's hardware and software, connection to the Internet or other communication networks and routine monitoring of servers. Clients are responsible for the management of the operating system, hardware and software.

Data storage

The service of administering storage and back-up management of data such as remote back-up services, storage or hierarchical storage management (migration).

Data management

The ongoing management and administration of data as an organizational resource. Services may include performing data modelling, data mobilization, data mapping/rationalization, data mining and system architecture.

e. IT infrastructure and network management services

e1. Network management services

The service of managing and monitoring communication networks and connected hardware to diagnose networking problems and gather capacity and usage statistics for the administration and fine-tuning of network traffic. These services also remotely manage security systems or provide security-related services.

e2. Computer systems management services

Providing day-to-day management and operation of a client's computer system.

f. Information and document transformation services (e.g., imaging, data conversion and migration)

The service of converting paper documents into digital or other machine-readable formats. The service generally involves the following components: 1) document preparation; 2) scanning, optical character recognition and other data capture activities; 3) delivery or output of the information captured into a database or a physical medium.

g. IT technical support services (for hardware or software; include disaster recovery services)

The provision of technical expertise to solve problems for the client in using software, hardware or entire computer system.

The provision of customer support in using or troubleshooting software and include upgrade services and the provision of patches and updates.

The provision of customer support in using or troubleshooting the computer hardware and software. It includes testing and cleaning on a routine basis and repair of IT equipment. Includes technical assistance in moving a client's computer system to a new location.

The provision of technical expertise to solve specialized problems for the client using a computer system. These specialized services include computer auditing and assessment, data recovery and disaster recovery.

Services of auditing or assessing computer operations without providing advice or other follow-up action. Includes auditing, assessing and documenting a server, network or process for components, capabilities, performance or security.

Retrieving a client's data from a damaged or unstable hard drive or other storage medium.

Providing standby computer equipment and duplicate software in a separate location to enable a client to relocate regular staff to resume and maintain routine computerized operations in the event of a disaster such as a fire or flood.

h. Software publishing

h1. System software (include programming languages)

Publication of low-level software required to manage computer resources and support the production or execution of application programs but which is not specific to any particular application.

Operating system software

Software that controls a computer and its peripherals. Modern operating systems such as Linux, Macintosh OSX and Windows 7, 8, 8.1 and 10 handle many of a computer's basic functions.

Network software

Software that monitors an active communications network in order to diagnose problems and gather statistics for administration and fine-tuning.

Database management software

A program that manages all facets of a database. Primary services of database management software include storage, modification and extraction of data. Database management software also regulates user access and protects data against damage.

Development tools and programming languages software

Software used to assist in the development and/or authoring of computer programs. Software products that support the professional developer in the design, development and implementation of a variety of software systems and solutions (includes all program development tools and programming languages software).

h2. Application software

Any self-contained program that performs a specific function directly for the end user.

General business productivity and home use applications

Software used for general business purposes to improve productivity, or in the home for entertainment, reference or educational purposes (include office suite applications such as word processors, spreadsheets, simple databases, graphics applications, project management software, computer-based training software, games, references, home education, etc.).

Cross-industry applications

Software that is designed to perform and/or manage a specific business function or process that is not unique to a particular industry (include professional accounting software, human resource management, customer relations management software, geographic information system software, web page/site design software, etc.).

Vertical market applications

Software that performs a wide range of business functions for a specific industry such as manufacturing, retail, healthcare, engineering, restaurants, etc.

Utilities software

A small computer program that performs a very specific task. Utilities differ from other software applications in terms of size, cost and complexity (examples Include: compression programs, anti-virus, search engines, font, file viewers and voice recognition software. Software that monitors an active communications network in order to diagnose problems and gather statistics for administration and fine-tuning).

This table contains no data. It is an example of an empty data table used by respondents to provide data to Statistics Canada.
  CAN$ '000
Information technology (IT) technical consulting services  
Custom software design and development services  
Website design and development services  
Database design and development services  
Customization and integration of packaged software  
Video game design and development services  
Other custom software development services  
Computer systems and network design and development services  
Network design and development services  
Computer systems design, development and integration services  
Hosting and IT infrastructure provisioning services  
IT infrastructure and network management services  
Network management services  
Computer systems management services  
Information and document transformation services  
IT technical support services for hardware or software  
Software publishing  
System software  
Application software  
Video gaming software  
Re-sale of computer hardware and software (retail and wholesale)  
Computer hardware  
Software  
IT related training services  
Other  
Total sales of goods and services  

2. Approximately what percentage (%) of this business's total revenue was generated by new or substantially improved products or services introduced by this business during the three-year period 2017-2020?

Percentage

3. Approximately what percentage of this business's total expenses was related to product research and development?

Percentage

4. Approximately what percentage of this business's total revenue was from developing or publishing gaming software products?

Percentage

Sales by type of client

1. What was this business's breakdown of sales by the following types of client?

Sales by type of client

This section is designed to measure which sector of the economy purchases your services.

Please provide a percentage breakdown of your sales by type of client.

Please ensure that the sum of percentages reported in this section equals 100%.

a. to c. Clients in Canada

a. Individuals and households

Please report the percentage of sales to individuals and households who do not represent the business or government sector.

b. Businesses

Percentage of sales sold to the business sector should be reported here.

Include sales to Crown corporations.

c. Governments, not-for-profit organizations and public institutions (e.g., hospitals, schools)

Percentage of sales to federal, provincial, territorial and municipal governments should be reported here.

Include: sales to hospitals, schools, universities and public utilities.

d. Clients outside Canada

Please report the percentage of total sales to customers or clients located outside Canada including foreign businesses, foreign individuals, foreign institutions and/or governments.

Include sales to foreign subsidiaries and affiliates.

This table contains no data. It is an example of an empty data table used by respondents to provide data to Statistics Canada.
  Percentage
Clients in Canada — individuals and households  
Clients in Canada — businesses  
Clients in Canada — governments, not-for-profit organizations and public institutions  
Clients outside Canada  
Total percentage  

Sales by consumer location

1. What was the percentage breakdown of this business's sales by consumer location?

Consumer location is the location where the goods or services will ultimately be used.

If ultimate consumer location is not known, the following are acceptable substitutes:

  • shipping destination
  • client's billing address
  • location of this business's retail customers
  • location of this business's warehouse/distribution centres.
This table contains no data. It is an example of an empty data table used by respondents to provide data to Statistics Canada.
  Percentage
Newfoundland and Labrador  
Prince Edward Island  
Nova Scotia  
New Brunswick  
Quebec  
Ontario  
Manitoba  
Saskatchewan  
Alberta  
British Columbia  
Yukon  
Northwest Territories  
Nunavut  
United States  
All other countries  
Total percentage  

International transactions - revenue received from exports

1. During the reporting period of YYYY-MM-DD to YYYY-MM-DD, did this business receive revenue from clients outside Canada for the sale of products, services, royalties, rights, licensing or franchise fees?

This section is intended to measure the value of international transactions on goods, services, royalties and licensing fees. It covers imported services and goods purchased outside Canada as well as the value of exported services and goods to clients/customers outside Canada. Please report also royalties, rights, licensing and franchise fees paid to and/or received from outside Canada. Services cover a variety of industrial, professional, trade and business services.

  • Yes
  • No

2. What was the revenue received from clients outside Canada?

This section is intended to measure the value of international transactions on goods, services, royalties and licensing fees. It covers imported services and goods purchased outside Canada as well as the value of exported services and goods to clients/customers outside Canada. Please report also royalties, rights, licensing and franchise fees paid to and/or received from outside Canada. Services cover a variety of industrial, professional, trade and business services.

Revenue received (CAN$ '000)

3. What was the percentage breakdown of revenue received from clients outside Canada by goods, services and royalties?

This section is intended to measure the value of international transactions on goods, services, royalties and licensing fees. It covers imported services and goods purchased outside Canada as well as the value of exported services and goods to clients/customers outside Canada. Please report also royalties, rights, licensing and franchise fees paid to and/or received from outside Canada. Services cover a variety of industrial, professional, trade and business services.

This table contains no data. It is an example of an empty data table used by respondents to provide data to Statistics Canada.
  Percentage
Goods  
Services  
Royalties, rights, licensing and franchise fees  
Total percentage  

4. What was the percentage breakdown of revenue received from clients outside Canada by country?

This section is intended to measure the value of international transactions on goods, services, royalties and licensing fees. It covers imported services and goods purchased outside Canada as well as the value of exported services and goods to clients/customers outside Canada. Please report also royalties, rights, licensing and franchise fees paid to and/or received from outside Canada. Services cover a variety of industrial, professional, trade and business services.

What was the percentage breakdown of revenue received from clients outside Canada by country?
  Percentage
a. United States  
b. Mexico  
c. Provide the percentage of revenue received from any other countries - top 4 clients only  
c1. Other country 1
Begin entering the name of the other country by typing the first few letters to narrow down
the choices or enter your own answer
Specify other country 1:
 
c2. Other country 2
Begin entering the name of the other country by typing the first few letters to narrow down
the choices or enter your own answer
Specify other country 2:
 
c3. Other country 3
Begin entering the name of the other country by typing the first few letters to narrow down
the choices or enter your own answer
Specify other country 3:
 
c4. Other country 4
Begin entering the name of the other country by typing the first few letters to narrow down
the choices or enter your own answer
Specify other country 4:
 
Total percentage  
List of countries
  • Aruba
  • Afghanistan
  • Angola
  • Anguilla
  • Åland Islands
  • Albania
  • Andorra
  • United Arab Emirates
  • Argentina
  • Armenia
  • American Samoa
  • Antarctica
  • French Southern Territories
  • Antigua and Barbuda
  • Australia
  • Austria
  • Azerbaijan
  • Burundi
  • Belgium
  • Benin
  • Bonaire, Saint Eustatius and Saba
  • Burkina Faso
  • Bangladesh
  • Bulgaria
  • Bahrain
  • Bahamas
  • Bosnia and Herzegovina
  • Saint Barthélemy
  • Belarus
  • Belize
  • Bermuda
  • Bolivia
  • Brazil
  • Barbados
  • Brunei Darussalam
  • Bhutan
  • Bouvet Island
  • Botswana
  • Central African Republic
  • Cocos (Keeling) Islands
  • Switzerland
  • Chile
  • China
  • Côte d'Ivoire
  • Cameroon
  • Congo, The Democratic Republic of the
  • Congo, Republic of the
  • Cook Islands
  • Colombia
  • Comoros
  • Cape Verde
  • Costa Rica
  • Cuba
  • Curaçao
  • Christmas Island
  • Cayman Islands
  • Cyprus
  • Czech Republic
  • Germany
  • Djibouti
  • Dominica
  • Denmark
  • Dominican Republic
  • Algeria
  • Ecuador
  • Egypt
  • Eritrea
  • Western Sahara
  • Spain
  • Estonia
  • Ethiopia
  • Finland
  • Fiji
  • Falkland Islands (Malvinas)
  • France
  • Faroe Islands
  • Micronesia, Federated States of
  • Gabon
  • United Kingdom
  • Georgia
  • Guernsey
  • Ghana
  • Gibraltar
  • Guinea
  • Guadeloupe
  • Gambia
  • Guinea-Bissau
  • Equatorial Guinea
  • Greece
  • Grenada
  • Greenland
  • Guatemala
  • French Guiana
  • Guam
  • Guyana
  • Hong Kong Special Administrative Region
  • Heard Island and McDonald Islands
  • Honduras
  • Croatia
  • Haiti
  • Hungary
  • Indonesia
  • Isle of Man
  • India
  • British Indian Ocean Territory
  • Ireland, Republic of
  • Iran
  • Iraq
  • Iceland
  • Israel
  • Italy
  • Jamaica
  • Jersey
  • Jordan
  • Japan
  • Kazakhstan
  • Kenya
  • Kyrgyzstan
  • Cambodia
  • Kiribati
  • Saint Kitts and Nevis
  • Korea, South
  • Kuwait
  • Laos
  • Lebanon
  • Liberia
  • Libya
  • Saint Lucia
  • Liechtenstein
  • Sri Lanka
  • Lesotho
  • Lithuania
  • Luxembourg
  • Latvia
  • Macao Special Administrative Region
  • Saint Martin (French part)
  • Morocco
  • Monaco
  • Moldova
  • Madagascar
  • Maldives
  • Marshall Islands
  • Macedonia, Republic of
  • Mali
  • Malta
  • Burma (Myanmar)
  • Montenegro
  • Mongolia
  • Northern Mariana Islands
  • Mozambique
  • Mauritania
  • Montserrat
  • Martinique
  • Mauritius
  • Malawi
  • Malaysia
  • Mayotte
  • Namibia
  • New Caledonia
  • Niger
  • Norfolk Island
  • Nigeria
  • Nicaragua
  • Niue
  • Netherlands
  • Norway
  • Nepal
  • Nauru
  • New Zealand
  • Oman
  • Pakistan
  • Panama
  • Pitcairn
  • Peru
  • Philippines
  • Palau
  • Papua New Guinea
  • Poland
  • Puerto Rico
  • Korea, North
  • Portugal
  • Paraguay
  • West Bank and Gaza Strip (Palestine)
  • French Polynesia
  • Qatar
  • Réunion
  • Romania
  • Russian Federation
  • Rwanda
  • Saudi Arabia
  • Sudan
  • Senegal
  • Singapore
  • South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands
  • Saint Helena
  • Svalbard and Jan Mayen
  • Solomon Islands
  • Sierra Leone
  • El Salvador
  • San Marino
  • Somalia
  • Saint Pierre and Miquelon
  • Serbia
  • Sao Tome and Principe
  • Suriname
  • Slovakia
  • Slovenia
  • Sweden
  • Swaziland
  • Sint Maarten (Dutch part)
  • Seychelles
  • Syria
  • Turks and Caicos Islands
  • Chad
  • Togo
  • Thailand
  • Tajikistan
  • Tokelau
  • Turkmenistan
  • Timor-Leste
  • Tonga
  • Trinidad and Tobago
  • Tunisia
  • Turkey
  • Tuvalu
  • Taiwan
  • Tanzania
  • Uganda
  • Ukraine
  • United States Minor Outlying Islands
  • Uruguay
  • Uzbekistan
  • Holy See (Vatican City State)
  • Saint Vincent and the Grenadines
  • Venezuela
  • Virgin Islands, British
  • Virgin Islands, United States
  • Viet Nam
  • Vanuatu
  • Wallis and Futuna
  • Samoa
  • Kosovo
  • Yemen
  • South Africa, Republic of
  • Zambia
  • Zimbabwe

International transactions - purchases from outside Canada (imports)

5. During the reporting period of YYYY-MM-DD to YYYY-MM-DD, did this business make payments to suppliers outside Canada for the purchase of products, services, royalties, rights, licensing or franchise fees?

This section is intended to measure the value of international transactions on goods, services, royalties and licensing fees. It covers imported services and goods purchased outside Canada as well as the value of exported services and goods to clients/customers outside Canada. Please report also royalties, rights, licensing and franchise fees paid to and/or received from outside Canada. Services cover a variety of industrial, professional, trade and business services.

  • Yes
  • No

6. What were the payments made to suppliers outside Canada?

This section is intended to measure the value of international transactions on goods, services, royalties and licensing fees. It covers imported services and goods purchased outside Canada as well as the value of exported services and goods to clients/customers outside Canada. Please report also royalties, rights, licensing and franchise fees paid to and/or received from outside Canada. Services cover a variety of industrial, professional, trade and business services.

Payments made (CAN$ '000)

7. What was the percentage breakdown of payments made to suppliers outside Canada by goods, services and royalties?

This section is intended to measure the value of international transactions on goods, services, royalties and licensing fees. It covers imported services and goods purchased outside Canada as well as the value of exported services and goods to clients/customers outside Canada. Please report also royalties, rights, licensing and franchise fees paid to and/or received from outside Canada. Services cover a variety of industrial, professional, trade and business services.

This table contains no data. It is an example of an empty data table used by respondents to provide data to Statistics Canada.
  Percentage
Goods  
Services  
Royalties, rights, licensing and franchise fees  
Total percentage  

8. What was the percentage breakdown of payments made to suppliers outside Canada by country?

This section is intended to measure the value of international transactions on goods, services, royalties and licensing fees. It covers imported services and goods purchased outside Canada as well as the value of exported services and goods to clients/customers outside Canada. Please report also royalties, rights, licensing and franchise fees paid to and/or received from outside Canada. Services cover a variety of industrial, professional, trade and business services.

What was the percentage breakdown of payments made to suppliers outside Canada by country?
  Percentage
a. United States  
b. Mexico  
c. Provide the percentage of revenue received from any other countries - top 4 clients only  
c1. Other country 1
Begin entering the name of the other country by typing the first few letters to narrow down
the choices or enter your own answer
Specify other country 1:
 
c2. Other country 2
Begin entering the name of the other country by typing the first few letters to narrow down
the choices or enter your own answer
Specify other country 2:
 
c3. Other country 3
Begin entering the name of the other country by typing the first few letters to narrow down
the choices or enter your own answer
Specify other country 3:
 
c4. Other country 4
Begin entering the name of the other country by typing the first few letters to narrow down
the choices or enter your own answer
Specify other country 4:
 
Total percentage  
List of countries
  • Aruba
  • Afghanistan
  • Angola
  • Anguilla
  • Åland Islands
  • Albania
  • Andorra
  • United Arab Emirates
  • Argentina
  • Armenia
  • American Samoa
  • Antarctica
  • French Southern Territories
  • Antigua and Barbuda
  • Australia
  • Austria
  • Azerbaijan
  • Burundi
  • Belgium
  • Benin
  • Bonaire, Saint Eustatius and Saba
  • Burkina Faso
  • Bangladesh
  • Bulgaria
  • Bahrain
  • Bahamas
  • Bosnia and Herzegovina
  • Saint Barthélemy
  • Belarus
  • Belize
  • Bermuda
  • Bolivia
  • Brazil
  • Barbados
  • Brunei Darussalam
  • Bhutan
  • Bouvet Island
  • Botswana
  • Central African Republic
  • Cocos (Keeling) Islands
  • Switzerland
  • Chile
  • China
  • Côte d'Ivoire
  • Cameroon
  • Congo, The Democratic Republic of the
  • Congo, Republic of the
  • Cook Islands
  • Colombia
  • Comoros
  • Cape Verde
  • Costa Rica
  • Cuba
  • Curaçao
  • Christmas Island
  • Cayman Islands
  • Cyprus
  • Czech Republic
  • Germany
  • Djibouti
  • Dominica
  • Denmark
  • Dominican Republic
  • Algeria
  • Ecuador
  • Egypt
  • Eritrea
  • Western Sahara
  • Spain
  • Estonia
  • Ethiopia
  • Finland
  • Fiji
  • Falkland Islands (Malvinas)
  • France
  • Faroe Islands
  • Micronesia, Federated States of
  • Gabon
  • United Kingdom
  • Georgia
  • Guernsey
  • Ghana
  • Gibraltar
  • Guinea
  • Guadeloupe
  • Gambia
  • Guinea-Bissau
  • Equatorial Guinea
  • Greece
  • Grenada
  • Greenland
  • Guatemala
  • French Guiana
  • Guam
  • Guyana
  • Hong Kong Special Administrative Region
  • Heard Island and McDonald Islands
  • Honduras
  • Croatia
  • Haiti
  • Hungary
  • Indonesia
  • Isle of Man
  • India
  • British Indian Ocean Territory
  • Ireland, Republic of
  • Iran
  • Iraq
  • Iceland
  • Israel
  • Italy
  • Jamaica
  • Jersey
  • Jordan
  • Japan
  • Kazakhstan
  • Kenya
  • Kyrgyzstan
  • Cambodia
  • Kiribati
  • Saint Kitts and Nevis
  • Korea, South
  • Kuwait
  • Laos
  • Lebanon
  • Liberia
  • Libya
  • Saint Lucia
  • Liechtenstein
  • Sri Lanka
  • Lesotho
  • Lithuania
  • Luxembourg
  • Latvia
  • Macao Special Administrative Region
  • Saint Martin (French part)
  • Morocco
  • Monaco
  • Moldova
  • Madagascar
  • Maldives
  • Marshall Islands
  • Macedonia, Republic of
  • Mali
  • Malta
  • Burma (Myanmar)
  • Montenegro
  • Mongolia
  • Northern Mariana Islands
  • Mozambique
  • Mauritania
  • Montserrat
  • Martinique
  • Mauritius
  • Malawi
  • Malaysia
  • Mayotte
  • Namibia
  • New Caledonia
  • Niger
  • Norfolk Island
  • Nigeria
  • Nicaragua
  • Niue
  • Netherlands
  • Norway
  • Nepal
  • Nauru
  • New Zealand
  • Oman
  • Pakistan
  • Panama
  • Pitcairn
  • Peru
  • Philippines
  • Palau
  • Papua New Guinea
  • Poland
  • Puerto Rico
  • Korea, North
  • Portugal
  • Paraguay
  • West Bank and Gaza Strip (Palestine)
  • French Polynesia
  • Qatar
  • Réunion
  • Romania
  • Russian Federation
  • Rwanda
  • Saudi Arabia
  • Sudan
  • Senegal
  • Singapore
  • South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands
  • Saint Helena
  • Svalbard and Jan Mayen
  • Solomon Islands
  • Sierra Leone
  • El Salvador
  • San Marino
  • Somalia
  • Saint Pierre and Miquelon
  • Serbia
  • Sao Tome and Principe
  • Suriname
  • Slovakia
  • Slovenia
  • Sweden
  • Swaziland
  • Sint Maarten (Dutch part)
  • Seychelles
  • Syria
  • Turks and Caicos Islands
  • Chad
  • Togo
  • Thailand
  • Tajikistan
  • Tokelau
  • Turkmenistan
  • Timor-Leste
  • Tonga
  • Trinidad and Tobago
  • Tunisia
  • Turkey
  • Tuvalu
  • Taiwan
  • Tanzania
  • Uganda
  • Ukraine
  • United States Minor Outlying Islands
  • Uruguay
  • Uzbekistan
  • Holy See (Vatican City State)
  • Saint Vincent and the Grenadines
  • Venezuela
  • Virgin Islands, British
  • Virgin Islands, United States
  • Viet Nam
  • Vanuatu
  • Wallis and Futuna
  • Samoa
  • Kosovo
  • Yemen
  • South Africa, Republic of
  • Zambia
  • Zimbabwe

Changes or events

1. Indicate any changes or events that affected the reported values for this business or organization, compared with the last reporting period.

Select all that apply.

  • Strike or lock-out
  • Exchange rate impact
  • Price changes in goods or services sold
  • Contracting out
  • Organizational change
  • Price changes in labour or raw materials
  • Natural disaster
  • Recession
  • Change in product line
  • Sold business or business units
  • Expansion
  • New or lost contract
  • Plant closures
  • Acquisition of business or business units
  • Other - Specify the other changes or events:
  • No changes or events

Contact person

2. Statistics Canada may need to contact the person who completed this questionnaire for further information.

Is the provided given names and the provided family name the best person to contact?

  • Yes
  • No

Who is the best person to contact about this questionnaire?

First name:

Last name:

Title:

Email address:

Telephone number (including area code):

Extension number (if applicable):
The maximum number of characters is 5.

Fax number (including area code):

Feedback

3. How long did it take to complete this questionnaire?

Include the time spent gathering the necessary information.

Hours:

Minutes:

4. Do you have any comments about this questionnaire?

Date modified: