Health Reports

A Canadian peer-reviewed journal of population health and health services research

March 2011

Potential years of life lost at ages 25 to 74 among Status Indians, 1991 to 2001

Potential years of life lost at ages 25 to 74 among Status Indians, 1991 to 2001

Michael Tjepkema, Russell Wilkins, Jennifer Pennock and Neil Goedhuis

Compared with other Canadians, First Nations peoples experience a disproportionate burden of illness and disease, which is reflected in shorter life expectancy.  For Status Indians, life expectancy at birth is 8 years less for men and 7 years less for women.  Life expectancy, however, tends to be dominated by deaths at older ages.  A complementary way of examining mortality is to focus on premature mortality, specifically, potential years of life lost (PYLL) before age 75.  PYLL sums the additional years people would have lived if they had had a full lifespan.

Potential years of life lost at ages 25 to 74 among Métis and non-Status Indians, 1991 to 2001

Potential years of life lost at ages 25 to 74 among Métis and non-Status Indians, 1991 to 2001

Michael Tjepkema, Russell Wilkins, Sacha Senécal, Éric Guimond and Christopher Penney

As a result of a complex set of social, economic and environmental circumstances, Aboriginal peoples experience a disproportionate burden of disease, compared with other Canadians. Life expectancy, the most basic of health indicators, is considerably shorter for Status Indians (First Nations registered under the Indian Act of Canada) and for people living in the Inuit-inhabited areas of Canada (80% of whom are Inuit). But methodological challenges limit the amount of mortality information available about Métis and non-Status Indians. In fact, relative to their population size, these two Aboriginal groups have been under-represented in health research in general.

February 2011

Evaluation of the factor structure of the child-reported parenting questionnaire in the National Longitudinal Survey of Children and Youth

Evaluation of the factor structure of the child-reported parenting questionnaire in the National Longitudinal Survey of Children and Youth

by Rübab G. Arim, Jennifer D. Shapka, V. Susan Dahinten and Brent F. Olson

Research has demonstrated significant relationships between parenting behaviours and child health and development. For example, low parental nurturance and high parental rejection have been associated with anxiety, property offence and hyperactivity-inattention problems in adolescence. But despite the considerable number of studies, relatively little is known about the quality of measures based on child-reported parenting behaviours. In the absence of empirically validated measures, it is possible that some findings reflect spurious associations. This analysis addresses that gap by evaluating the factor structure of the child-reported parenting scales in Statistics Canada's National Longitudinal Survey of Children and Youth (NLSCY).

Physical activity among First Nations people off reserve, Métis and Inuit

Physical activity among First Nations people off reserve, Métis and Inuit

by Leanne C. Findlay

Previous research has suggested that Aboriginal people off reserve may be more active than their non-Aboriginal counterparts. As well, according to results of a 2002/2003 survey, one-fifth of First Nations people living on reserves engaged in at least 30 minutes of moderate-to-vigorous activity four or more days per week. Whether they are Aboriginal or non-Aboriginal, physically active people are more likely than those who are less active to report excellent or very good health.

January 2011

Physical activity of Canadian adults: Accelerometer results from the 2007 to 2009 Canadian Health Measures Survey

Physical activity of Canadian adults: Accelerometer results from the 2007 to 2009 Canadian Health Measures Survey

by Rachel C. Colley, Didier Garriguet, Ian Janssen, Cora L. Craig, Janine Clarke and Mark S. Tremblay

Regular physical activity is associated with a reduced risk of cardiovascular disease, some types of cancer, osteoporosis, diabetes, obesity, high blood pressure, depression, stress and anxiety. As well, strong evidence suggests that higher levels of physical activity are associated with health benefits; in fact, the more activity, the greater the health benefit. To determine whether Canadians are sufficiently active to obtain health benefits, the 2007 to 2009 Canadian Health Measures Survey (CHMS) used accelerometers to collect the first time-sequenced objective measures of physical activity for a nationally representative sample of 6- to 79-year-olds.

Physical activity of Canadian children and youth: Accelerometer results from the 2007 to 2009 Canadian Health Measures Survey

Physical activity of Canadian children and youth: Accelerometer results from the 2007 to 2009 Canadian Health Measures Survey

by Rachel C. Colley, Didier Garriguet, Ian Janssen, Cora L. Craig, Janine Clarke and Mark S. Tremblay

Growing evidence indicates that the health of Canadian children has deteriorated in the past few decades. Childhood obesity has risen sharply—a quarter of children and youth are now overweight or obese—and physical fitness has declined. Yet paradoxically, according to self-reported data, the majority of Canadian youth are sufficiently active. The contrast between current obesity and fitness trends and high levels of self-reported physical activity suggests a need for more objective monitoring of activity levels. The Canadian Health Measures Survey (CHMS) used accelerometers to collect time-sequenced data on physical activity and sedentary behaviour for a nationally representative sample that included children and adolescents aged 6 to 19 years.