This standard was approved as a recommended standard on May 26, 2020.
Table of contents
- Composition, nature and purpose of the CRDC
- Structure of the CRDC
- Use of the CRDC
- Guidelines for classifying with the CRDC
- Definition of R&D
- Scope of R&D
- R&D unit or object to be classified
- Relationship with other national statistical classifications
- Relationship with relevant international standard classifications
- Updates or revisions to the CRDC
- CRDC Products
- Further information
The Canadian Research and Development Classification (CRDC) was jointly developed by the federal research granting agencies, including the Canadian Foundation for Innovation (CFI), the Canadian Institutes of Health Research (CIHR), the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada (NSERC), the Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council (SSHRC), and Statistic Canada (STC).
The CRDC is the collective name for a set of three related classifications developed for use in the measurement and analysis of research and experimental development (R&D) undertaken in Canada. The three constituent classifications included in the CRDC are: Type of Activity (TOA), Fields of Research (FOR), and Socio-economic Objective (SEO).
Although research and development as an economic activity can be measured using classifications such as the North American Industry Classification (NAICS) and the North American Product Classification (NAPCS), the CRDC 2020 represents the first in its kind and introduces a new dedicated framework for measuring research and development activities in Canada. This first version is officially called CRDC 2020 Version 1.0.
The use of the three constituent classifications in the CRDC ensures that R&D statistics collected are useful to governments, educational institutions, international organisations, scientific, professional or business organisations and enterprises, community groups and private individuals in Canada.
The development of the CRDC by the agencies was undertaken in co-operation or consultation with major academic and research organisations, experts of specific fields and users of research information in Canada, in particular during seminars, direct exchanges and other consultative methods such as a public consultation. This comprehensive consultative process aimed to ensure that the CRDC is widely accepted and used as the national standard classification in Canada, not only in the compilation of R&D statistics, but also in the study of research and development in Canada in general.
In this introduction, we provide a summarized background to the development of the classification; an explanation of the conceptual basis of the CRDC, including the composition, nature, purpose and structure of the CRDC; the use of the CRDC and guidelines for classifying with the CRDC; the definition and scope of R&D; an outline of what constitutes a unit of R&D for data and reporting purposes.
The CRDC largely follows the guidelines prescribed in the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), "Frascati Manual 2015", Guidelines for collecting and reporting data on research and experimental development.
The CRDC is also very close to the Australian and New Zealand Standard Research Classification (ANZSRC) in terms of their underlying concepts and their usage, although some groupings might be different, therefore, large content of this introduction will be similar to that of the ANZSRC.
Canada's research funding agencies were using a number of different research classifications across their programs. In most cases, these classifications only covered the mandate of a specific agency rather than all sectors of research, had not been updated in many years, were not aligned with international standards, no longer accurately represent today's research landscape, and only partially met the needs of different end-users. In addition, a growing emphasis on interdisciplinary research, increased international collaboration, the rapid evolution of some research fields, and the increased desire for consistent inter-agency reporting are important additional drivers behind the development of the CRDC.
In 2017, the federal research granting agencies jointly started the development of the CRDC, with Statistics Canada serving as the custodian of the new standard and providing its expertise on statistical standards development and maintenance. To learn more about the development process, we refer the users to two document: 'what we learned' (from the consultation process) and a working paper on the CRDC (in English only) published in June 2019.
The CRDC provides a number of benefits such as the ability to produce an up-to-date, relevant and conceptually sound classification, a common approach to classifying research (including multi- or interdisciplinary research) across research organizations and governments, and will assist in communication, consistent reporting, identification of gaps and opportunities, stronger collaborations, and optimized support for new and innovative research.
In addition, the CRDC provides a framework which enables comparisons with other classifications used nationally and internationally.
To support international comparisons and rely on a sound conceptual base, the definition, scope and classification of R&D activities contained in CRDC largely follow the guidelines prescribed in the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), "Frascati Manual 2015", Guidelines for collecting and reporting data on research and experimental development. For users with the intention of using this classification thoroughly, it is recommended to read that manual as well.
Composition, nature and purpose of the CRDC
The three classifications in the Canadian Research and Development Classification (CRDC) are:
- Type of Activity (TOA);
- Fields of Research (FOR); and
- Socio-economic Objective (SEO).
They can be used in official statistics to analyse the nature of R&D and in conjunction with industrial and institutional sector classifications to produce a set of official statistics that support a variety of user interests.
Type of Activity (TOA) Classification
This classification allows R&D activity to be categorized according to the type of research effort, namely basic or fundamental research (which groups pure basic research and strategic basic research other split in the Frascati Manual 2015), applied research and experimental development.
The types of activity are defined as follows:
Basic research: refers to experimental and theoretical work undertaken primarily to acquire new knowledge of the underlying foundation of phenomena and observable facts, without any particular application or use in view. It includes pure basic research (i.e., experimental and theoretical work undertaken to acquire new knowledge without looking for long term benefits other than the advancement of knowledge) and strategic basic research (experimental and theoretical work undertaken to acquire new knowledge directed into specified broad areas in the expectation of practical discoveries). It provides the broad base of knowledge necessary for the solution of recognized practical problems.
Applied research: refers to original investigation undertaken in order to acquire new knowledge. It is, however, directed primarily towards a specific, practical aim or objective. It is undertaken either to determine possible uses for the findings of basic research or to determine new ways of achieving some specific and predetermined objectives.
Experimental development: refers to systematic work, drawing on knowledge gained from research and practical experience and producing additional knowledge, which is directed to producing new products, materials, policies, behaviours or outlooks, or new processes, systems and services or to improving substantially those already produced or processed/installed.
Field of research (FOR) Classification
This piece of the CRDC allows R&D activity to be categorized or classified according to the field of research (FOR); it is the methodology used in the R&D that is being considered.
The categories within this classification include major fields of research based on the knowledge sources, the objects of interest, and the methods and techniques being used.
Socioeconomic objective (SEO) Classification
This classification allows the categorization of R&D according to the purpose or outcome of the R&D as perceived by the data provider (researcher). It consists of discrete economic, social, technological or scientific domains for identifying the principal purposes of the R&D. The attributes applied to the design of the SEO classification comprise a combination of industries, processes, products, health, education, culture, ethics and other social and environmental aspects of particular interest.
Structure of the CRDC
As noted in section 2, the TOA has 3 main categories with no hierarchy between them, although they can be considered a continuum in the R&D process; for basic research to experimental development.
|Level||Level name||Number of digits (truncated – Full codes are alphanumerical and start with RDT)||Count|
The FOR and SEO classifications follow a hierarchical structure.
The FOR has four hierarchical levels, namely Divisions (at the broadest level), Groups, Classes and Subclasses or Fields (at the lowest level). The Division represents a broad subject area or research discipline and is closely aligned with the 'broad classification' levels (6 in total) as identified in the Frascati Manual 2015, with some adjustments made based on comments and feedback from consultations with experts and general public (See: Comparison between Frascati Manual 2015 – Broad Classification (FOR) and CRDC 2020 Version 1.0 – Division levels (FOR)). Groups are closely aligned with the 'Second-level classification' (42 in total) as also identified in the Frascati Manual 2015, also with few adjustments (See: Comparison between Frascati Manual 2015 – Second level classification (FOR) and CRDC 2020 Version 1.0 – Group levels (FOR)). While classes and fields were added in the CRDC to represent the increasingly detailed dissections of R&D activities in Canada. Divisions, Groups, Classes and Fields are assigned unique 2-digit truncated codes (full codes for all FOR are alphanumerical starting with RDF); 3-digit truncated codes; 5-digit truncated codes and 7-digit truncated codes respectively. The FOR classification in CRDC 2020 version 1.0 has 6 Divisions, 43 Groups, 168 Classes and 1663 Subclasses or Fields.
Each Division is based on a broad discipline. Groups within each Division are those which share the same broad methodology, knowledge domain and/or perspective as others in the Division. Each Group is a collection of classes. Groups, Classes and Subclasses (Fields) of research are categorized to the Divisions sharing the same methodology rather than the Division they support.
|Level||Level name||Number of digits (truncated - Full codes are alphanumerical andstart RDF)||Count|
Example of the hierarchical structure of the FOR
|Division||RDF20-21||Engineering and technology|
|Group||RDF203||Electrical engineering, computer engineering, and information engineering|
|Class||RDF20303||Data analytics and signal processing|
|Subclass (Field)||RDF2030302||Artificial intelligence engineering|
The SEO is a two level hierarchical classification with Division at the broadest level and Group at the bottom. SEO categories allow the categorization of R&D based on the purpose or outcome of the R&D as perceived by the researchers. The Division in the SEO classification is identified by a 2-digit truncated code and all full codes start with RDS. This level of the SEO classification of the CRDC is closely aligned with the 'Chapters' found in the Nomenclature for the Analysis and Comparison of Scientific Programmes and Budgets (NABS) 2007 (See: Comparison between NABS 2007 Chapters (SEO) and CRDC 2020 Version 1.0 – Division levels (SEO)) developed by Eurostat and it can also be linked to the Frascati Manual 2015 which specifically refers to the NABS when exposing on the socioeconomic objectives for R&D.
Groups form the lowest level of the SEO for CRDC 2020 version 1.0. They were put together by the funding agencies following up the scope of the NABS 2007 and other considerations such as the experience and uses from funding agencies and Statistics Canada collecting that type of information or data. It is already anticipated that more levels might be added in future revisions of the CRDC's SEO, after more consultations and analysis. Groups are assigned a unique 5-digit truncated code and all full codes start with RDS.
The SEO classification has 12 Divisions and 85 Groups. The Groups are more specific in terms of SEO and they are supplemented with illustrative examples which can represent more specific types of objective within the group. These examples can later be used to create additional levels of SEO.
Each Division is based on a broad research objective. Groups within each Division are those which are aligned towards the same objective as the Division. Each Group is a collection of related research objectives. Groups are categorized to the Divisions with which they are most closely aligned.
|Level||Level name||Number of digits (truncated - Full codes are alphanumerical and start with RDS)||Count|
Example of the hierarchical structure of the FOR:
|Division||RDS111||Political and social systems, structures and processes|
Use of the CRDC
The CRDC provides a three way matrix of classification. Each R&D activity can be classified by Type of Activity (TOA), Fields of Research (FOR) and Socio-economic Objective (SEO).
The CRDC provides a significant degree of flexibility in meeting the needs of a wide variety of users. The hierarchical structure of both the FOR and SEO classifications enables them to be applied to particular purposes at various levels. The CRDC also helps classify multi-disciplinary research, where several disparate areas of the FOR are usually brought together to address one area, or closely related areas of the SEO.
The complexity of issues addressed by R&D is such that questions of public policy often arise in a manner which cannot be readily seen in advance. The detail available in both the FOR and SEO classifications would be sufficient to facilitate the provision of statistics that can be used in a variety of contexts. For example, areas of key technological significance could generally be assessed using an aggregate of appropriate FOR classes and subclasses (fields). The use of the CRDC for R&D surveys minimises the need for separate one-off R&D surveys aimed at narrow areas.
Guidelines for classifying with the CRDC
Classifying by type of activity (TOA)
Where possible, a research project or research program should be allocated to a single type of activity (basic research, applied research or experimental development). If the project or program is large and involves multiple types of activity, then each relevant activity category should be attributed a proportion of resources relative to the project's or research program's total R&D expenditure.
Classifying by field of research (FOR)
The research should first be considered in its broadest sense and in terms of the discipline that the research relates. The research is to be allocated to a FOR in a hierarchical manner. This is achieved by:
- first determining the most relevant division in which the largest component of the R&D is being performed; then
- determining the most relevant group within that division; then
- determining the most relevant class within that group; and then
- determining the most relevant subclass or field within that class.
Many R&D projects will be a homogenous body of work in a specific field. These are more straightforward to categorize. However, the emergence of new interdisciplinary and multidisciplinary fields of research is a feature of the modern R&D environment. The categorization of such fields within a hierarchical and exclusive classification system can pose difficulties for users of the FOR. The use of multiple fields to classify a research project ensures that this research is accommodated within the classification structure.
For example, to classify multidisciplinary research, granting agencies in Canada will each identify how they will classify them during their implementation of the CRDC. One could for instance collect 3 to 5 fields of research (FOR) to describe a particular research project.
If the research is sufficiently large or complex then multiple fields should be selected and attributed with a proportion of resources relative to the total expenditure of the R&D. If the disaggregation is difficult, consideration of relative importance may indicate a primary objective only.
Where a defined field cannot be identified within a class, the 'not elsewhere classified (n.e.c.)' category at the field level is to be used.
Classifying by socioeconomic objective (SEO)
The research should first be considered in its broadest sense and in terms of the dominant beneficiary of the research output. The research is to be allocated to an SEO in a hierarchical manner. This is achieved by:
- first determining the most relevant division corresponding to the largest component of the R&D being performed and the socioeconomic objective which covers that research and experimental development (R&D) activity; then
- determining the most relevant group or objective within that division;
- illustrative examples can be used to determine the most relevant objective within the group.
The appropriate SEO should reflect the industry, process, product, health, education or other social and environmental aspect that R&D activity aims to impact, improve or measure. The appropriate SEO may reflect the aspirations of the researchers and it may help to understand the goals of the research.
Many R&D projects will be a homogenous body of work directed towards a specific objective. These are more straightforward to categorize. However, if the R&D is sufficiently large or complex then multiple fields should be selected and attributed with a proportion of resources relative to the total expenditure of the R&D. If the disaggregation is difficult, consideration of relative importance may indicate a primary objective only.
Where a defined objective cannot be identified within a group, the 'not elsewhere classified (n.e.c.)' or residual category at the objective level is to be used.
In terms of objectives leading towards 'expanding knowledge', for this first version of the CRDC, it was decided to include them in residual categories (n.e.c.). 'Expanding Knowledge' is for the categorization of R&D which does not have an identifiable socio-economic objective. This is usually the case for basic research (as defined in the Type of Activity classification). Applied research and experimental development, by definition, have an identified socio-economic objective and therefore should not be categorized as 'expanding knowledge'.
Definition of R&D
Research and Development (R&D) is defined according to the OECD standard (Frascati Manual 2015) as comprising creative work undertaken on a systematic basis in order to increase the stock of knowledge, including knowledge of human, culture, society and environment, and the use of this stock of knowledge to devise new applications.
An R&D activity is characterized by originality. It has investigation as a primary objective, the outcome of which is new knowledge, with or without a specific practical application, or new or improved materials, products, devices, processes or services. R&D ends when work is no longer primarily investigative.
Scope of R&D
As indicated in the Frascati Manual and as experience has shown, there are difficulties in delineating the point which clearly separates the culmination of R&D investigative work and the beginning of the implementation phase of the innovations or recommendations resulting from R&D. Errors at this point are particularly significant because, although R&D programmes require large outlays of resources, the costs of implementing innovations or recommendations resulting from R&D may also be as high, or higher, in many instances.
There is also a wide range of scientific and related activities that are not R&D, but that are closely linked to R&D in terms of organisation, resource allocation, institutional affiliation and the use or flow of information. However, activities conducted solely or primarily for the purposes of R&D support are included in R&D.
The activities which do not have clear boundaries with R&D are listed below.
(i) Education and training of personnel and students
Postgraduate research, including supervision of the research, is considered to be R&D. The development of new teaching methods is also regarded as R&D. However, teaching and training students, using established methods and subject knowledge, is excluded.
(ii) Specialised scientific and technical information services
Specialised scientific and technical information services which are undertaken solely in support of R&D are regarded as R&D. Examples of these are scientific data collection, coding, recording, classification, dissemination, translation, analysis and bibliographic services.
These specialised services are excluded if they are undertaken independently and not solely in support of R&D.
(iii) General purpose or routine data collection
Collecting data in support of R&D work is included in R&D.
However, data collection of a general nature is excluded. This is normally carried out by government agencies to record natural, biological, economic or social phenomena of general public or government interest. Examples are national population censuses, surveys of unemployment, topographical mapping and routine geographical or environmental surveys.
(iv) Maintenance of national and international standards
Routine testing and analysis of materials, components, products, processes, soils, atmospheres, etc. for standard compliance is excluded from R&D.
(v) Feasibility studies
Feasibility studies undertaken in support of R&D are included. However, a feasibility study that involves gathering information about existing conditions, for use in deciding whether or not to implement a project, is excluded, e.g. a study to determine the viability of a petrochemical complex in a particular location.
(vi) Specialized medical care
R&D includes the development of new treatments and procedures, including such developments in conjunction with advanced medical care and examinations usually carried out by university hospitals.
However, routine investigations or normal application of specialized medical knowledge, techniques or equipment are excluded from R&D. Examples of these are pathology, forensic and post-mortem procedures.
(vii) Clinical trials
Phase 1, 2 and 3 clinical trials are included in R&D. Phase 4 clinical trials are excluded from R&D, unless they bring about further scientific or technological advance.
(viii) Patent and licence work
Patent work connected directly with R&D projects is included in R&D. However, commercial, administrative and legal work associated with patenting, copywriting and licensing, is excluded.
(ix) Policy or program related studies
The boundary between certain policy related studies as described in the Frascati Manual and R&D is complex. In the Frascati Manual, policy related studies cover activities such as the 'analysis and assessment of existing programmes, continued analysis and monitoring of external phenomena (e.g. defence and security analysis), legislative inquiry concerned with general government departmental policy or operations'. Rigour is required to separate policy related studies that are not R&D from true R&D policy work.
Studies to determine the effects of a specific national policy or program to a particular economic or social condition or social group may have elements of R&D. Routine management studies or efficiency studies are excluded.
(x) Routine software development
Software development is an integral part of many projects which in themselves may have no element of R&D. The software development component of such projects, however, may be classified as R&D if it leads to an advance in the area of computer software.
For a software development to be considered as R&D, its completion must be dependent on a scientific or technological advance, and the aim of the project must be the systematic resolution of a scientific and/or technological uncertainty.
The following are examples of software development which are considered to be R&D:
- Development of internet technology
- Research into methods of designing, developing, deploying or maintaining software
- R&D on software tools or technologies in specialized areas of computing (e.g. image processing, artificial intelligence, character recognition)
- R&D producing new theorems and algorithms in the field of theoretical computer science
The following are examples of software development which are not considered to be R&D:
- Routine computer and software maintenance
- Business application software and information system development using known methods and existing software
- Adding user functionality to application languages
- Adaptation of or support for existing software
(xi) Marketing and market studies
Market research and opinion polls are excluded from R&D.
(xii) Mineral exploration
The development of new or vastly improved methods of data acquisition, processing and interpretation of data is included as R&D. Surveying undertaken as an integral part of an R&D project to observe geological phenomena is also regarded as R&D. However, the search for minerals using existing methods is excluded from R&D.
(xiii) Prototypes and pilot plants
The design, construction and testing of prototypes generally falls within the scope of R&D. However, trial production and copying of prototypes are excluded from R&D.
The construction and operation of pilot plants is part of R&D provided that these are used to obtain experience or new data for evaluating hypotheses.
Pilot plants are excluded from R&D as soon as the experimental phase is over or as soon as they are used as normal commercial production units, even if they continue to be described as 'pilot plants'.
If a pilot plant is used for combined operations, the component used for R&D is to be estimated.
(xiv) Other activities
All other activities that are ancillary or consequential to R&D are excluded. Examples of these are interpretative commentary using existing data, forecasting, operations research as contributing to decision making and the use of standard techniques in applied psychology to classify or diagnose human characteristics.
R&D unit or object to be classified
There are some inherent difficulties in formulating a definition of what constitutes a unit of R&D, due to the lack of uniformity in organizational structures and considerable variation in the way organizations allocate resources to R&D activities. From a statistical viewpoint it is desirable that R&D expenditure be reported in the smallest cluster that can be classified to a single TOA and FOR, which for the purposes of this classification is defined to be an R&D unit. The extent to which it is not practicable to provide this detail will reduce the validity and usefulness of the classification, and the resulting R&D statistics.
The most common real world references to R&D activities are Research Program and Research Project. These focal units seldom approximate the idealized R&D unit as outlined above, although they could be regarded as an aggregation of these units.
We refer to the Frascati Manual 2015 for more details about the best way to identify R&D units.
Relationship with other national statistical classifications
The CRDC is the first Canadian research classification designed to be dedicated to R&D and inclusive of all current sectors of research in Canada. While contributing to a greater alignment with international standards, it is comprehensive enough to support a wide range of needs within the Canadian research and development ecosystem.
It might be possible to combine the CRDC and the North American Industry Classification (NAICS) Canada when collecting, analyzing and disseminating R&D data. There are also some approximations to be made with the Classification of instructional programs (CIP) Canada and the North American Product Classification (NAPCS) Canada, although direct comparison should be made with care. In the case of NAPCS for example, it is a transaction and output-based classification which may not be suited to all situations where R&D information needs to be collected and disseminated, for example 'intra-muros R&D'.
Relationship with relevant international standard classifications
The CRDC aligns with international standards to collect and report on research and development, namely with the recommendations from the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development's (OECD) Frascati Manual 2015, the Nomenclature for the Analysis and Comparison of Scientific Programmes and Budgets (NABS) 2007 and was modeled on the Australian and New Zealand Standard Research Classification (ANZSRC) 2008.
See the comparison tables for fields of research (FOR):
Comparison between Frascati Manual 2015 – Broad Classification (FOR) and CRDC 2020 Version 1.0 – Division levels (FOR)
|Frascati Manual 2015 -Broad Classification (FOR) - Code||Frascati Manual 2015 -Broad Classification (FOR) - Title||CRDC 2020 Version 1.0 – Division levels (FOR) - Code||CRDC 2020 Version 1.0 – Division levels (FOR) - Title||Explanatory notes|
|1||Natural sciences||RDF10||Natural sciences|
|2||Engineering and technology||RDF20-21||Engineering and technology|
|3||Medical and health sciences||RDF30||Medical, health and life sciences||Difference in the title with addition of 'and life sciences' in the CRDC|
|4||Agricultural and veterinary sciences||RDF40||Agricultural and veterinary sciences|
|5||Social sciences||RDF50||Social sciences|
|6||Humanities and the arts||RDF60||Humanities and the arts|
Comparison between Frascati Manual 2015 – Second level classification (FOR) and CRDC 2020 Version 1.0 – Group levels (FOR)
|Frascati Manual 2015 – Second level classification (FOR) Code||Frascati Manual 2015 – Second level classification (FOR)Title||CRDC 2020 Version 1.0 – Group levels (FOR) - Code||CRDC 2020 Version 1.0 – Group levels (FOR)- Title||Explanatory notes|
|Mathematics||RDF101||Mathematics and statistics||Difference in the title with addition of 'statistics' in the CRDC|
|Computer and information sciences||RDF102||Computer and information sciences|
|Physical sciences||RDF103||Physical sciences|
|Chemical sciences||RDF104||Chemical sciences|
|Earth and related environmental sciences||RDF105||Earth and related environmental sciences|
|Biological sciences||RDF106||Biological sciences|
|Other natural sciences||RDF107||Other natural sciences|
|Civil engineering||RDF201||Civil engineering, maritime engineering, transport engineering, and mining engineering||Difference in the title with addition of 'maritime engineering, transport engineering, and mining engineering' in the CRDC|
|Electrical engineering, electronic engineering, information engineering||RDF203||Electrical engineering, computer engineering, and information engineering|
|Mechanical engineering||RDF202||Industrial, systems and processes engineering||CRDC identifies this category as important for Canada and necessity to elevate at the Frascati second level classification. Though, the category is part of Mechanical engineering in the Frascati Manual 2015|
|Mechanical engineering||RDF204||Mechanical engineering|
|Chemical engineering||RDF205||Chemical engineering|
|Materials engineering||RDF206||Materials engineering and resources engineering||Difference in the title with addition of 'resources engineering' in the CRDC|
|Medical engineering||RDF207||Medical and biomedical engineering||Difference in the title with addition of 'biomedical' in the CRDC|
|Environmental engineering||RDF208||Environmental engineering and related engineering||Difference in the title with addition of 'and related engineering' in the CRDC|
|Environmental biotechnology||RDF209||Environmental biotechnology|
|Industrial biotechnology||RDF210||Industrial biotechnology|
|Other engineering and technologies||RDF212||Other engineering and technologies|
|Basic medicine||RDF301||Basic medicine and life sciences||Difference in the title with addition of 'and life sciences' in the CRDC|
|Clinical medicine||RDF302||Clinical medicine|
|Health sciences||RDF303||Health sciences|
|Medical biotechnology||RDF304||Medical biotechnology|
|Other medical science||RDF305||Other medical sciences|
|Agriculture, forestry, and fisheries||RDF401||Agriculture, forestry, and fisheries|
|Animal and dairy science||RDF402||Animal and dairy sciences|
|Veterinary science||RDF403||Veterinary sciences|
|Agricultural biotechnology||RDF404||Agricultural biotechnology and food sciences||Difference in the title with addition of 'and food sciences' in the CRDC|
|Other agricultural sciences||RDF405||Other agricultural sciences|
|Psychology and cognitive sciences||RDF501||Psychology and cognitive sciences|
|Economics and business||RDF502||Economics and business administration||Difference in the title with addition of 'administration' in the CRDC|
|Sociology||RDF504||Sociology and related studies||Difference in the title with addition of 'and related studies' in the CRDC|
|Law||RDF505||Law and legal practice|
|Political science||RDF506||Political science and policy administration||Difference in the title with addition of 'and policy administration' in the CRDC|
|Social and economic geography||RDF507||Social and economic geography|
|Media and communications||RDF508||Media and communications|
|Other social sciences||RDF509||Other social sciences|
|History and archaeology||RDF601||History, archaeology and related studies||Difference in the title with addition of 'and related studies' in the CRDC|
|Languages and literature||RDF602||Languages and literature|
|Philosophy, ethics and religion||RDF603||Philosophy||Difference in the title with the removal of 'ethics and religion' in the CRDC; these words were added in the definition of the category|
|Arts (arts, history of arts, performing arts, music)||RDF604||Arts (arts, history of arts, performing arts, music), architecture and design||Difference in the title with addition of 'architecture and design' in the CRDC|
|Other humanities||RDF605||Other humanities|
See the comparison table for socioeconomic objectives (SEO):
Comparison between NABS 2007 Chapters (SEO) and CRDC 2020 Version 1.0 – Division levels (SEO)
|NABS 2007 Chapters (SEO) - Code||NABS 2007 Chapters (SEO) - Title||CRDC 2020 Version 1.0 – Division levels (SEO) - Code||CRDC 2020 Version 1.0 – Division levels (SEO) - Title||Explanatory notes|
|1||Exploration and exploitation of the Earth||RDS101||Exploration and exploitation of the earth|
|2||Environment||RDS102||Environmental protection||Difference in the title with addition of 'protection' in the CRDC|
|3||Exploration and exploitation of space||RDS103||Exploration and exploitation of space|
|4||Transport, telecommunication and other infrastructures||RDS104||Transport, telecommunication and other infrastructures (including buildings)||Difference in the title with addition of 'including buildings' in the CRDC|
|5||Energy||RDS105||Energy (except prospecting)||Difference in the title with addition of 'except prospection' in the CRDC|
|6||Industrial production and technology||RDS106||Industrial production and technology|
|8||Agriculture||RDS108||Agriculture (including fisheries and forestry)|
|10||Culture, recreation, religion and mass media||RDS110||Culture, recreation, religion and media||Difference in the title with the removal of 'mass' for media in the CRDC|
|11||Political and social systems, structures and processes||RDS111||Political and social systems, structures and processes|
|12||General advancement of knowledge: R&D financed from General University Funds (GUF)||No direct equivalent. This category is spread across different residual categories in the CRDC|
|13||General advancement of knowledge: R&D financed from other sources than GUF||This category is spread across different residual categories in the CRDC|
Updates or revisions to the CRDC
An important consideration when developing a statistical classification is the need to build in sufficient robustness to allow for long-term usage. This robustness facilitates meaningful time series analysis of data assigned to that classification. However, there is also a need for the classification to remain contemporary to capture changes happening in the R&D sector and to provide data relevant to users' needs.
In order to achieve a balance between these two competing objectives, Statistics Canada as the custodian of the CRDC, and its close partner funding agencies, intend to undertake minor revisions every year or two, and major revision every five years. In fact, all parties already agreed that the first CRDC 2020 version 1.0 will be revised within 2 years of its first release date, and on a five-year cycle after that, with possibility of 'evergreening' for minor changes once a year to reflect the changes in the research fields.
Although the CRDC is official once published by Statistics Canada, the dates of its implementation depend entirely on the entities, organizations or individuals who decide to use it. Statistics Canada has its own internal policies on statistical standards and informing users that may influence implementation dates by the Agency's statistical programs.
Correspondences (or concordances) between newest versions and older versions of the CRDC will be provided along with the classification after it revised. This is the first official version of the CRDC, therefore no correspondence table will be released. Other correspondences will be considered for development in the future, including full correspondences between CRDC FOR and OECD's Fields of Science (See: Comparison between Frascati Manual 2015 – Broad Classification (FOR) and CRDC 2020 Version 1.0 – Division levels (FOR) and Comparison between Frascati Manual 2015 – Second level classification (FOR) and CRDC 2020 Version 1.0 – Group levels (FOR)), between CDRC's SEO and the Nomenclature for the Analysis and Comparison of Scientific Programmes and Budgets (NABS) 2007 (See: Comparison between NABS 2007 Chapters (SEO) and CRDC 2020 Version 1.0 – Division levels (SEO)), and potentially develop crosswalks between the CDRC's FOR and SEO, and the North American Industry Classification (NAICS), between the CRDC's FOR and SEO, and the North American Product Classification (NAPCS) Canada, and between the CRDC's FOR and SEO, and the Classification of Instructional Programs (CIP). But these crosswalks might take time to develop and will depend on available resources, as the focus will be the deployment of the CRDC and experiment of its usage across the country for some years after the first release.
For more information about the CRDC contact Statistics Canada:
150 Tunney's Pasture Driveway
Canada K1A 0T6
(toll free) 1-800-263-1136
Web site: Canadian Research and Development Classification (CRDC) 2020 Version 1.0
Catalog number: 89260004